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# Five hundred million different species of living creatures

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Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2015, 14:58
Well even I selected E at first, but after carefully scrutinizing the answer choices, chose B.
Reasons:
In option B, appeared is in simple past suggesting that the event of appearing happened earlier. (they no more appear). While the present perfect verb 'have vanished' suggests that the action of vanishing started somewhere in the near past and continues in the present. Hence proper verb sequencing.

However, in E, usage of present perfect tense in both the verbs illogically suggests that the action of appearing and vanishing continued simultaneously. I mean how can both happen together. They first appeared and then vanished.

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2015, 11:39
Between B and E i chose B for two points ,for one B is concise (Wouldn't reject it for the missing 'the' ) and the second is the presence of have in E suggests that vanishing and appearing happened at the same time which doesn't present the correct chronology of events.

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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06 May 2016, 05:37
ricokevin wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.
B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.
C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.
D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.
E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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06 May 2016, 05:58
ricokevin wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.
B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.
C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.
D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.
E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

The main FLAW is the tense that is used..
the new species are still appearing so we cannot limit them by usage of PAST tense..
it should have been 'that have appeared on earth'-- an ongoing process
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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06 May 2016, 08:33
chetan2u wrote:
ricokevin wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.
B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.
C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.
D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.
E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

The main FLAW is the tense that is used..
the new species are still appearing so we cannot limit them by usage of PAST tense..
it should have been 'that have appeared on earth'-- an ongoing process

Thanks chetan2u .

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2016, 09:57
[quote="Divyadisha"][quote="chetan2u"][quote="Divyadisha"][quote="ricokevin"]Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.
B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.
C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.
D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.
E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

hi,
experts, kindly explain the usage of THE in a sentence and a sentence without the usage of THE.
Can a answer be solely correct on use of THE?
say example D and E
thanks

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2016, 02:04
Celestial09 wrote:

hi,
experts, kindly explain the usage of THE in a sentence and a sentence without the usage of THE.
Can a answer be solely correct on use of THE?
say example D and E
thanks

Usage of "the" is not the reason that distinguishes E from D as the correct option. Option D is wrong because of redundant use of "of them". The sentence starts with "Of five hundred million different species ". Subsequent use of "of them" makes the sentence wrong.

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2016, 04:35
ricokevin wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.
B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.
C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.
D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.
E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

OA: E

Why can't B be the answer?

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.
Wrong:- Tense (Vanishing) is wrong

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.
Wrong :- Subtle Meaning change:- Seems like origin of species was a finite fixed event. As If 500 million species appeared on earth at one time and then started vanishing one by one. Remember appearance off species is a continuous process. Some vanish, while simultaneously other reappear due to mutation.

C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.
Wrong:- So perfect in grammar, but it is in PASSIVE VOICE. not preferred on GMAT

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.
Wrong :- Reduntant use of "of" makes the sentence awkward

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.
Correct:- Correct Meaning- Implies that species appeared at different time. "Have" implies a continuous seamless act.

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2016, 09:29
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Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2016, 03:06
nocilis wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.

C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

The OA provided is wrong. I checked from the source, it is a kaplan question.
OA is E.
also B cannot be right as "blah blah blah.. of creatures that appeared on earth" is wrong as that cannot be used with creatures.

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2016, 11:58
nocilis wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.

C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

VeritasPrepKarishma, mikemcgarry

According to me, the Issue with E is

Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

We use Present Perfect to denote an Action/Event that started in Past and is still there in Present or its Effect is still there in Present. So, wouldn't the Sentence fragment - species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth - mean that those species appeared on Earth in past and new ones are still appearing. Here, present perfect cannot mean the other thing because sentence further says that - Nearly 99% of those species have vanished.
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2016, 09:20
umg wrote:
nocilis wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.

C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

VeritasPrepKarishma, mikemcgarry

According to me, the Issue with E is

Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

We use Present Perfect to denote an Action/Event that started in Past and is still there in Present or its Effect is still there in Present. So, wouldn't the Sentence fragment - species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth - mean that those species appeared on Earth in past and new ones are still appearing. Here, present perfect cannot mean the other thing because sentence further says that - Nearly 99% of those species have vanished.

I do not see a problem with E; rather option E seems better than B:
The species appeared in the past and are still continuing to appear - till date five hundred million species have appeared. Hence past perfect is better than simple past.

A more detailed explanation can be found here:
five-hundred-million-different-species-of-living-creatures-16579-60.html#p773666

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2016, 05:11
sayantanc2k wrote:
umg wrote:
nocilis wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.

C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

VeritasPrepKarishma, mikemcgarry

According to me, the Issue with E is

Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

We use Present Perfect to denote an Action/Event that started in Past and is still there in Present or its Effect is still there in Present. So, wouldn't the Sentence fragment - species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth - mean that those species appeared on Earth in past and new ones are still appearing. Here, present perfect cannot mean the other thing because sentence further says that - Nearly 99% of those species have vanished.

I do not see a problem with E; rather option E seems better than B:
The species appeared in the past and are still continuing to appear - till date five hundred million species have appeared. Hence past perfect is better than simple past.

A more detailed explanation can be found here:
five-hundred-million-different-species-of-living-creatures-16579-60.html#p773666

I did read Tommy Wallach's comment before but it couldn't resolve my doubt.

Anyways, what I have understood from your comment and all others' before you is that the number of species included in E is more than that in B. While B says that about 500 mil species appeared in past, E says that 500 mil species include even those species that appeared/were discovered today.

Did I get it right?
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Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2016, 08:07
umg wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:

I do not see a problem with E; rather option E seems better than B:
The species appeared in the past and are still continuing to appear - till date five hundred million species have appeared. Hence past perfect is better than simple past.

A more detailed explanation can be found here:
five-hundred-million-different-species-of-living-creatures-16579-60.html#p773666

I did read Tommy Wallach's comment before but it couldn't resolve my doubt.

Anyways, what I have understood from your comment and all others' before you is that the number of species included in E is more than that in B. While B says that about 500 mil species appeared in past, E says that 500 mil species include even those species that appeared/were discovered today.

Did I get it right?

Yes, that is what the posts convey. Here is an alternative take on this:

Case 1. A species X no longer lives:

1.1 A species X appeared and have vanished. (Here the appearance has no effect in the present since it has already vanished - the effect of vanishing is though still there.)

1.2 A species appeared and vanished. (Here the appearance has no effect in the present since it has already vanished - the effect of vanishing is also not there.)

Case 2. A species Y still lives:

2.1 A species Y has appeared. (Here the appearance has effect in the present since the species still lives.)

Now out of all the species, some appeared and have vanished (OR vanished), and the others have appeared and are still living - in this case since at least some effect of the appearance is there (because at least some species are still living), present perfect would be appropriate:

Out of all the species that HAVE appeared, some have vanished (or vanished). (The others are still living.)

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2016, 21:27
A is out because of an incorrectly placed modifier. Earth, nearly... - Earth is not vanishing.
D is out due to the redundant use of the pronoun them.
C is out due to two reasons; chose the one that suits you. 1. "Vanished have" would have been a better option compared to "Vanished are". 2.An unspoken bias towards active voice rather than passive voice.

Between B and E, I chose B. While E sounds grammatically correct to me, I chose B as it demonstrates the GMAT approach of retaining the diction of a statement with fewer words.

Hence, B
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2016, 19:07
Hi sayantanc2k,

Thanks
RzS

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2016, 20:29
1
KUDOS
Expert's post
TheRzS wrote:
Hi sayantanc2k,

Thanks
RzS

Two problems:

1. The passive construction X is vanished implies that the act of vanishing was performed on X by someone else - this usage is not correct. The creatures vanished, not that they are vanished (by someone else).

2. Starting a sentence with a verb is not a standard practice. Option C has a more standard construction: starting with a prepositional phrase modifier, then the subject and finally the verb.

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Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2017, 18:27
B changes the meaning of the sentence because "have appeared" is changed to "appeared".
I thought A is correct because "nearly..." is absolute phrase, but now I know that the clause must be included in the sentence because "nearly..." is not a modifier.
the article "the" will not be tested in real GMAT. D is wrong because "them" is unclear; it is hard to tell whether "them" refers to "species" or "living creatures".

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Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2017, 11:07
nocilis wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.

C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

A -> Wrong construction -> Out
B -> Looks interesting -> Keep it for now
C -> Weird construction -> Out
D -> Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished. -> Redundant use of "OF" -> Out
E -> Looks interesting -> Keep it for now

Compare B and E now:
B -> Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished. -> Appeared -> Past , Have vanished -> Present Perfect.
Implies 5M of the species once appeared in the past.
99% of them vanished in the past and is still vanishing now.
E -> Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.
Have appeared, have vanished -> Both present perfect.
Implies the process of appearing and vanishing started and is still continuing. Makes better sense.

N.B: On the first glimpse B seemed better choice to because of its simple construction. Giving it a 2nd thought E seems the right one.

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2017, 22:15
Here is my take.
a) Modifier issue. Ing modifier when following a clause imply that the action is happening at the same time. How can you have appearing and vanishing together. Also, the other usage of ing modifiers is to indicate a consequence- again something which is nonsensical in this case.
b) This can't be right. If 99% of the species that appeared have disappeared, then it means that some species still appear because not all of them have disappeared(not the best way to represent what I mean, but hope this will do :D). How can you then use Past tense "appeared". It should be have appeared as the species still continue to show up.
c) A blunder .
d) redundancy- of 500 million and of them again later in the sentence
e) No obvious errors
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures   [#permalink] 03 Sep 2017, 22:15

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