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# Five hundred million different species of living creatures

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Re: SC - living creatures [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2010, 11:47
noboru wrote:
According to my source (GMATPrep), OA is D.
The issue I have with E is that I dont really like "99 percent". 99 percent of what?? I have seen other OE ruling out this kind of construcions.

nobody is going to clarify this?
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01 Sep 2010, 11:53
noboru wrote:
According to my source (GMATPrep), OA is D.
The issue I have with E is that I dont really like "99 percent". 99 percent of what?? I have seen other OE ruling out this kind of construcions.

Nobody is going to clarify this?
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02 Sep 2010, 11:19
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Hey All,

I got asked to take this one on by Private Message. Apparently, it has appeared in three different threads, none of which have resolved. So I'm going to be adding this exact post to all three threads. Be aware if you see it repeated!

Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.
PROBLEM: First off "nearly 99 percent..." appears to be modifying "Earth," when we want it to modify "five hundred million different species." Secondly, "vanishing" is not correct on its own, as it is a present participle and we'd prefer some kind of perfect tense (because the vanishing started in the past and continues into the present).

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.
PROBLEM: It should be "THE five hundred million different species," otherwise it sounds like there have been more than five hundred million species, but we're just talking about a particular subset of them which happens to include five hundred million species. Also, the use of the simple past tense for "appeared" is wrong, because this should be present perfect (they have appeared starting in the past and CONTINUING into the present).

C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.
PROBLEM: As fun as it can be to speak like Yoda, inverting the sentence is highly awkward. Again, the simple past tense "appeared" is incorrect.

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.
PROBLEM: It should be "THE five hundred million different species," otherwise it sounds like there have been more than five hundred million species, but we're just talking about a particular subset of them which happens to include five hundred million species. Also, it's redundant, and thus wrong, to say "of five hundred..." AND "...of them". We don't need both.

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

Hope that helps!

-t
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Re: SC - living creatures [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2010, 11:19
Hey All,

I got asked to take this one on by Private Message. Apparently, it has appeared in three different threads, none of which have resolved. So I'm going to be adding this exact post to all three threads. Be aware if you see it repeated!

Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.
PROBLEM: First off "nearly 99 percent..." appears to be modifying "Earth," when we want it to modify "five hundred million different species." Secondly, "vanishing" is not correct on its own, as it is a present participle and we'd prefer some kind of perfect tense (because the vanishing started in the past and continues into the present).

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.
PROBLEM: It should be "THE five hundred million different species," otherwise it sounds like there have been more than five hundred million species, but we're just talking about a particular subset of them which happens to include five hundred million species. Also, the use of the simple past tense for "appeared" is wrong, because this should be present perfect (they have appeared starting in the past and CONTINUING into the present).

C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.
PROBLEM: As fun as it can be to speak like Yoda, inverting the sentence is highly awkward. Again, the simple past tense "appeared" is incorrect.

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.
PROBLEM: It should be "THE five hundred million different species," otherwise it sounds like there have been more than five hundred million species, but we're just talking about a particular subset of them which happens to include five hundred million species. Also, it's redundant, and thus wrong, to say "of five hundred..." AND "...of them". We don't need both.

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

Hope that helps!

-t
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Re: SC - living creatures [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2010, 04:11
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,

I got asked to take this one on by Private Message. Apparently, it has appeared in three different threads, none of which have resolved. So I'm going to be adding this exact post to all three threads. Be aware if you see it repeated!

Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.
PROBLEM: First off "nearly 99 percent..." appears to be modifying "Earth," when we want it to modify "five hundred million different species." Secondly, "vanishing" is not correct on its own, as it is a present participle and we'd prefer some kind of perfect tense (because the vanishing started in the past and continues into the present).
Hope that helps!

-t

Hi tommy ,
Plesae consider the following sentence
He ran into the building,determined to save his puppy.
What is "determined"modifying ?
Also in the second bolded part ,Please tell me can a present participle be only used 1)as an adverbial modifier when it follows the comma after a clause
I crossed the pool,swimming with all my might.
2)as a modifier modifying the noun before it
The car going down the street is red
3)as a gerund
4) with "was/is/are/am" to indicate the progressive tense.
I was running.
I am running.

What is the function of the present participle in the following sentence
The leader came in a car,with his bodyguards following suit.
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Re: SC - living creatures [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2010, 05:30
pb_india wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.

C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

B and C combine the past tense appeared and with the present perfect tense have vanished. The sequence of events is unclear. If the species appeared in the past, how can they still be vanishing in the present? Eliminate B and C.

In A and D, it's not clear whether them refers to species or to living creatures. Eliminate A and D.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E
.
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Re: SC - living creatures [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2010, 13:03
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Hey Munda,

He ran into the building,determined to save his puppy.

"Determined" is modifying "he", so this would not be a preferred way to write this. We'd prefer to see the participle touching the noun.

You seem confused about the difference between a participle and words with -ing. Words ending in -ing can be participles, gerunds, or participles that are part of progressive tenses.

PARTICIPLES

Present participles are generally adverbial when they follow the comma after a clause.

I crossed the pool,swimming with all my might.

In your example, "swimming" is iffy. You could argue it's modifying "crossed" (the way in which the crossing occurred), but it's really modifying "I". Just like the last one, it's not the cleanest way to write it.

The car going down the street is red

In this version, there's no comma. Participles with no commas always modify whatever they're touching. Very straightforward.

GERUNDS

Participles and gerunds are totally different words (adjectives versus nouns). They may look the same, but they're homonyms, with different meanings. Gerunds are nouns, not adjectives.

PROGRESSIVE TENSES

I was running. (this is really a participle with the past tense verb)
I am running. (this is really a participle with the present tense verb.

The leader came in a car,with his bodyguards following suit.

"following suit" is an idiom meaning "doing the same". This is just a participial phrase modifying a noun (no comma), "bodyguards."

Hope that helps!

-t
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Re: SC - living creatures [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2010, 13:27
To illustrate how the insertion of a comma can change what a modifier is modifying (and thus change the meaning of the sentence):

John kicked the puppy, upsetting Mary.

The purpose of the comma is to show that upsetting is modifying not the puppy but John. John is upsetting Mary (by kicking the poor, defenseless puppy).

Let's see what happens when the comma is removed:

John kicked the puppy upsetting Mary.

With the comma removed, upsetting is now modifying the puppy. The puppy is upsetting Mary. In this sentence, John might in fact be pleasing Mary by kicking the annoying puppy.

The big question I ask myself when I see a participle that ends in -ing:

Who or what is performing the action of the verb?

If I can't tell who or what is performing the action of the -ing participle -- or if the wrong thing is performing the action -- I eliminate the answer choice.
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Re: SC - living creatures [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2010, 14:12
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey Munda,

He ran into the building,determined to save his puppy.

"Determined" is modifying "he", so this would not be a preferred way to write this. We'd prefer to see the participle touching the noun.

You seem confused about the difference between a participle and words with -ing. Words ending in -ing can be participles, gerunds, or participles that are part of progressive tenses.

PARTICIPLES

Present participles are generally adverbial when they follow the comma after a clause.

I crossed the pool,swimming with all my might.

In your example, "swimming" is iffy. You could argue it's modifying "crossed" (the way in which the crossing occurred), but it's really modifying "I". Just like the last one, it's not the cleanest way to write it.

The car going down the street is red

In this version, there's no comma. Participles with no commas always modify whatever they're touching. Very straightforward.

GERUNDS

Participles and gerunds are totally different words (adjectives versus nouns). They may look the same, but they're homonyms, with different meanings. Gerunds are nouns, not adjectives.

PROGRESSIVE TENSES

I was running. (this is really a participle with the past tense verb)
I am running. (this is really a participle with the present tense verb.

The leader came in a car,with his bodyguards following suit.

"following suit" is an idiom meaning "doing the same". This is just a participial phrase modifying a noun (no comma), "bodyguards."

Hope that helps!

-t

Thanks tommy for this wonderful explanation.I am,indeed, confused about the numerous ways in which one can use the -ing participle and whenever i see an -ing ,i see myself trying to find out what it modifies
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Re: SC - living creatures [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2010, 14:20
GMATGuruNY wrote:
To illustrate how the insertion of a comma can change what a modifier is modifying (and thus change the meaning of the sentence):

John kicked the puppy, upsetting Mary.

The purpose of the comma is to show that upsetting is modifying not the puppy but John. John is upsetting Mary (by kicking the poor, defenseless puppy).

Let's see what happens when the comma is removed:

John kicked the puppy upsetting Mary.

With the comma removed, upsetting is now modifying the puppy. The puppy is upsetting Mary. In this sentence, John might in fact be pleasing Mary by kicking the annoying puppy.

The big question I ask myself when I see a participle that ends in -ing:

Who or what is performing the action of the verb?

If I can't tell who or what is performing the action of the -ing participle -- or if the wrong thing is performing the action -- I eliminate the answer choice.

Thanks Mitch,ill remember this advice.I think what is mean is that there should be a definite agent who whould be performing the actin g and there should be any ambiguity regarding it.
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03 Sep 2010, 14:42
HongHu wrote:
I disagree. I believe both past tense and present perfect tense can be used for this case. "appeared" means "came into existence". The 5 mil species came into existence in the past. It doesn't matter it they are still here today or not.

I agree with you. Appearance can be seen as something that happened and vanishing is still continuing today.
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Re: SC - living creatures [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2010, 15:26
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey Munda,

He ran into the building,determined to save his puppy.

"Determined" is modifying "he", so this would not be a preferred way to write this. We'd prefer to see the participle touching the noun.

You seem confused about the difference between a participle and words with -ing. Words ending in -ing can be participles, gerunds, or participles that are part of progressive tenses.

PARTICIPLES

Present participles are generally adverbial when they follow the comma after a clause.

I crossed the pool,swimming with all my might.

In your example, "swimming" is iffy. You could argue it's modifying "crossed" (the way in which the crossing occurred), but it's really modifying "I". Just like the last one, it's not the cleanest way to write it.

The car going down the street is red

In this version, there's no comma. Participles with no commas always modify whatever they're touching. Very straightforward.

GERUNDS

Participles and gerunds are totally different words (adjectives versus nouns). They may look the same, but they're homonyms, with different meanings. Gerunds are nouns, not adjectives.

PROGRESSIVE TENSES

I was running. (this is really a participle with the past tense verb)
I am running. (this is really a participle with the present tense verb.

The leader came in a car,with his bodyguards following suit.

"following suit" is an idiom meaning "doing the same". This is just a participial phrase modifying a noun (no comma), "bodyguards."

Hope that helps!

-t

One question: I have read that the construction PREPOSITION + NOUN + PARTICIPLE is always incorrect in the GMAT.
Ex.- With child-care facilities included bla bla bla.

Could you corroborate that?

PS: the source of that tip is this: http://www.amazon.com/GMAT-Ultimate-Sen ... 944&sr=8-1
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Re: SC - living creatures [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2010, 16:33
one thing am confused about tommy explanation: In A, isn't A an absolute phrase that is modifying the main clause not a a specific word?
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Re: SC - living creatures [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2010, 12:49
kanhaiya, Werewolf.- please, provide your reasoning. If not, is better to say nothing.

Thanks.
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Re: SC - living creatures [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2010, 15:27
pb_india wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.

C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

Pretty sure that E is the answer because it does not repeat "Of" which is repeated in D.

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Re: SC - living creatures [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2010, 23:38
noboru wrote:
kanhaiya, Werewolf.- please, provide your reasoning. If not, is better to say nothing.

Thanks.

The concept and reasoning behind the correct answer were very well explained by Tommy Wallach, a Manhattan instructor. I feel that he has covered all aspects and there are other quality discussions as well that talk about several different aspects of the problem. So I felt that I didn't need to add anything from my side.

Since i am fast approaching my test date, I left a comment in this thread so that I will know in the future that I have already come across and solved this question. Is that a problem? I'm new to forums and I don't know all the rules. Am I not allowed to post only the answer?

thanks!

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31 May 2011, 00:14
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Between option (B) and option (E)

Tricky one - not able to figure out any other possible reasons other than one specified above about "the" - definite article.

If that's true, then option (E)

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31 May 2011, 05:06
mba4viplav wrote:
Between option (B) and option (E)

Tricky one - not able to figure out any other possible reasons other than one specified above about "the" - definite article.

If that's true, then option (E)

Good remark. It's the absence of "the" that changes the meaning of the sentence in B.

E: conforms to the original sentence that there were only 500M species initially.

Ans: "E"
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31 May 2011, 21:08
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I would have chosen E but I cannot seem to find a logical explanation to eliminate B other than the fact that it does not contain "have appeared". Can someone clarify if my reasoning is correct..

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31 May 2011, 21:09
Quick question.. is this an official problem just curious..

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Re: SC-- Different species   [#permalink] 31 May 2011, 21:09

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