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Following the Civil War and the emancipation of the slaves

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Following the Civil War and the emancipation of the slaves [#permalink]

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New post 21 Dec 2016, 21:29
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Following the Civil War and the emancipation of the slaves, agricultural labor in the southern United States was increasingly performed by formerly enslaved African American sharecroppers (tenant farmers); sharecropping appeared to promise them economic opportunity. Historians argue that emancipation gave these workers their first opportunity to reserve some of their time for themselves, causing the aggregate amount of labor performed in the South immediately after the war to drop below prewar levels. The resulting labor shortage forced landowners to offer workers better compensation in order to attract labor forces. Thus, the sharecroppers were in a position to contract with landowners to work for a half-share of the crop that they cultivated and harvested, and they did not have to accept the low wages and gang-labor conditions that were the primary alternative.

A major economic factor affecting sharecroppers, however, was a barter system by which merchants (often the landowners themselves) sold essential supplies to sharecroppers in exchange for first legal claim to the growing crop. Since sharecroppers' only collateral was their crops, they were obliged to plant whatever creditors wanted, almost always cotton. Because of this system, the South increasingly produced too little food and too much cotton. Cotton prices fell, and sharecroppers, overburdened with debt, were unable to make economic gains.
1) According to the passage, historian contend that the aggregate amount of labor performed in South immediately after the Civil War decreased because

(A) landowners were initially unwilling to offer the wages and working conditions that would attract a large labor force

(B) many of those who had previously performed essential labor migrate to escape adverse postwar economic and social condition

(C) workers who had previously been forced to devote all their time to working for a landowner became able to allocate their time differently

(D) cotton, which became the preferred crop among southern landowners,
less labor than previously predominant crops

(E) the economy of the South was less dependent on agricultural production than it had been before the war


OA:

2) It can be inferred from the passage that a primary obstacle to sharecroppers' economic progress was the

(A) need to use crops as collateral for purchasing supplies

(B) adverse labor conditions imposed by landowners

(C) inadequate supplies available under the barter system

(D) continued pressure on landowners to use gang labor

(E) inherent difficulties of cultivating cotton crops


OA:

3) Which of the following best expresses the central idea of the passage?

(A) Landowners' increasing dependence on the barter system with sharecroppers led to overproduction of prices cotton and falling cotton prices.

(B) Landowners implemented a barter system, with hopes of raising cotton prices, but the effect on cotton prices proved negligible

(C) The economic advancement of former slaves was hampered by their inability to use their shares of crops as collateral to buy essential supplies on credit.

(D) Certain economic pressures enabled former slaves to become sharecroppers following the Civil War, but the barter system for acquiring supplies curtailed their economic advancement.

E) Labor shortages in the South following the Civil War were primarily caused by landowners' initial resistance to the sharecropping system, but eventually they accepted this system.


OA:



Source: GMATPrep EP2

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Re: Following the Civil War and the emancipation of the slaves [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2016, 01:34
Following the Civil War and the emancipation of the slaves, agricultural labor in the southern United States was increasingly performed by formerly enslaved African American sharecroppers (tenant farmers); sharecropping appeared to promise them economic opportunity. Historians argue that emancipation gave these workers their first opportunity to reserve some of their time for themselves, causing the aggregate amount of labor performed in the South immediately after the war to drop below prewar levels. The resulting labor shortage forced landowners to offer workers better compensation in order to attract labor forces. Thus, the sharecroppers were in a position to contract with landowners to work for a half-share of the crop that they cultivated and harvested, and they did not have to accept the low wages and gang-labor conditions that were the primary alternative.

A major economic factor affecting sharecroppers, however, was a barter system by which merchants (often the landowners themselves) sold essential supplies to sharecroppers in exchange for first legal claim to the growing crop. Since sharecroppers' only collateral was their crops, they were obliged to plant whatever creditors wanted, almost always cotton. Because of this system, the South increasingly produced too little food and too much cotton. Cotton prices fell, and sharecroppers, overburdened with debt, were unable to make economic gains.

1)According to the passage, historian contend that the aggregate amount of labor performed in South immediately after the Civil War decreased because
A)landowners were initially unwilling to offer the wages and working conditions that would attract a large labor force
B)many of those who had previously performed essential labor migrate to escape adverse postwar economic and social condition
C)workers who had previously been forced to devote all their time to working for a landowner became able to allocate their time differently
D)cotton, which became the preferred crop among southern landowners, less labor than previously predominant crops
E)the economy of the South was less dependent on agricultural production than it had been before the war

2)It can be inferred from the passage that a primary obstacle to sharecroppers' economic progress was the
A)need to use crops as collateral for purchasing supplies
B)adverse labor conditions imposed by landowners
C)inadequate supplies available under the barter system
D)continued pressure on landowners to use gang labor
E)inherent difficulties of cultivating cotton crops

3)Which of the following best expresses the central idea of the passage?
A)Landowners' increasing dependence on the barter system with sharecroppers led to overproduction of prices cotton and falling cotton prices.
B)Landowners implemented a barter system, with hopes of raising cotton prices, but the effect on cotton prices proved negligible
C)The economic advancement of former slaves was hampered by their inability to use their shares of crops as collateral to buy essential supplies on credit.
D)Certain economic pressures enabled former slaves to become sharecroppers following the Civil War, but the barter system for acquiring supplies curtailed their economic advancement. - Summarizes para 1 and 2
E)Labor shortages in the South following the Civil War were primarily caused by landowners' initial resistance to the sharecropping system, but eventually they accepted this system.

Source: GMATPrep EP2

NandishSS - Change the tag to this topic - you have placed it in EP1 - i wouldn't have attempted it if i knew it is from EP2 (or create one), i plan to use it to test my score.
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Senior Manager
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Re: Following the Civil War and the emancipation of the slaves [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2016, 04:30
Nightfury14 wrote:
Following the Civil War and the emancipation of the slaves, agricultural labor in the southern United States was increasingly performed by formerly enslaved African American sharecroppers (tenant farmers); sharecropping appeared to promise them economic opportunity. Historians argue that emancipation gave these workers their first opportunity to reserve some of their time for themselves, causing the aggregate amount of labor performed in the South immediately after the war to drop below prewar levels. The resulting labor shortage forced landowners to offer workers better compensation in order to attract labor forces. Thus, the sharecroppers were in a position to contract with landowners to work for a half-share of the crop that they cultivated and harvested, and they did not have to accept the low wages and gang-labor conditions that were the primary alternative.

A major economic factor affecting sharecroppers, however, was a barter system by which merchants (often the landowners themselves) sold essential supplies to sharecroppers in exchange for first legal claim to the growing crop. Since sharecroppers' only collateral was their crops, they were obliged to plant whatever creditors wanted, almost always cotton. Because of this system, the South increasingly produced too little food and too much cotton. Cotton prices fell, and sharecroppers, overburdened with debt, were unable to make economic gains.

1)According to the passage, historian contend that the aggregate amount of labor performed in South immediately after the Civil War decreased because
A)landowners were initially unwilling to offer the wages and working conditions that would attract a large labor force
B)many of those who had previously performed essential labor migrate to escape adverse postwar economic and social condition
C)workers who had previously been forced to devote all their time to working for a landowner became able to allocate their time differently
D)cotton, which became the preferred crop among southern landowners, less labor than previously predominant crops
E)the economy of the South was less dependent on agricultural production than it had been before the war

2)It can be inferred from the passage that a primary obstacle to sharecroppers' economic progress was the
A)need to use crops as collateral for purchasing supplies
B)adverse labor conditions imposed by landowners
C)inadequate supplies available under the barter system
D)continued pressure on landowners to use gang labor
E)inherent difficulties of cultivating cotton crops

3)Which of the following best expresses the central idea of the passage?
A)Landowners' increasing dependence on the barter system with sharecroppers led to overproduction of prices cotton and falling cotton prices.
B)Landowners implemented a barter system, with hopes of raising cotton prices, but the effect on cotton prices proved negligible
C)The economic advancement of former slaves was hampered by their inability to use their shares of crops as collateral to buy essential supplies on credit.
D)Certain economic pressures enabled former slaves to become sharecroppers following the Civil War, but the barter system for acquiring supplies curtailed their economic advancement. - Summarizes para 1 and 2
E)Labor shortages in the South following the Civil War were primarily caused by landowners' initial resistance to the sharecropping system, but eventually they accepted this system.

Source: GMATPrep EP2

NandishSS - Change the tag to this topic - you have placed it in EP1 - i wouldn't have attempted it if i knew it is from EP2 (or create one), i plan to use it to test my score.


HI Nightfury14

There was no tag of EP2 so couldn't tag EP2!!!

Happy Prepping :-D
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आत्मनॊ मोक्षार्थम् जगद्धिताय च

Resource: GMATPrep RCs With Solution

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
D
Joined: 06 Jan 2015
Posts: 386
Location: India
Concentration: Operations, Finance
GPA: 3.35
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Re: Following the Civil War and the emancipation of the slaves [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2018, 23:18
hazelnut Please format the Passage accordingly and also tag GMATPrep EP2
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आत्मनॊ मोक्षार्थम् जगद्धिताय च

Resource: GMATPrep RCs With Solution

Re: Following the Civil War and the emancipation of the slaves   [#permalink] 12 Jan 2018, 23:18
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Following the Civil War and the emancipation of the slaves

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