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# For decades Surgeon Generals have warned that smoking

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Joined: 19 Feb 2010
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22 May 2010, 09:18
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For decades Surgeon Generals have warned that smoking increases the risk of lung diseases, including lung cancer and emphysema, and can complicate pregnancy, and increases the risk of low birth weight.
(A) can complicate pregnancy, and increases the risk of low birth weight
(B) can complicate pregnancy, and increases low birth weight risks
(C) can complicate pregnancy, increasing the risks of low birth weight
(D) can complicate pregnancy by increasing the risks of low birth weight
(E) complicating pregnancy by increasing the risks of low birth weight

OA later.

Last edited by cano on 22 May 2010, 19:28, edited 1 time in total.
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22 May 2010, 10:20
cano wrote:
For decades Surgeon Generals have warned that smoking increases the risk of lung diseases, including lung cancer and emphysema, and can complicate pregnancy, and increases the risk of low birth weight.
(A) can complicate pregnancy, and increases the risk of low birth weight
(B) can complicate pregnancy, and increases low birth weight risks
(C) can complicate pregnancy, increasing the risks of low birth weight
(D) can complicate pregnancy by increasing the risks of low birth weight
(E) complicating pregnancy by increasing the risks of low birth weight

OA later.

Parallel form : Smoking can increase + can complicate
E: is out

A and B: These options treats "risk of low birth rates" as one MORE disease/effect.
A and B : Also not parallel, if these options treats "risk of low birth rates" as one MORE disease/effect.

C: "increasing" improperly modifies the complete clause "smoking increases the risk of lung diseases, including lung cancer and emphysema, and can complicate pregnancy"....increase in risk should only modify "pregnancy"

D: Correct.

OA plz.
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23 May 2010, 18:33
OA is D.

Last edited by cano on 24 May 2010, 08:14, edited 1 time in total.
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23 May 2010, 23:39
cano wrote:
OA is C.

Can you please post the Official explanation (OE) for C and D.
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24 May 2010, 00:04
C and D are close.

In C: increasing the risks of low birth weight - an explainatory clause modifies the noun, pregnancy.

In D: This seems to be a passive construction. I have doubt on part with BY. The construction by increasing the risks of low birth weight says that smoking by increasing the risks of low birth weight can increase...and can complicate...:

For decades Surgeon Generals have warned that smoking [increases the risk of lung diseases and can complicate pregnancy] by increasing the risks of low birth weight.
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24 May 2010, 00:17
nverma wrote:
cano wrote:
OA is C.

Can you please post the Official explanation (OE) for C and D.

Uhh, I just noticed that I did a big mistake. Sorry guys for that. I posted several questions from Kaplan the other day, and I must have confused it. I'll have to review the other questions as well. Sorry for the inconveniences.

The original sentence has an unnecessary and before can complicate, but its larger problem is that the final item, increases the risk of low birth weight, should be subordinated to the previous, can complicate pregnancy, since the two problems are related. Choices (C), (D), and (E) all subordinate the final section by using a participle (increasing). (C) loses out in comparison to (D) and (E) since increasing is less clear than by increasing. (D) is better than (E). (E) wrongly subordinates can complicate pregnancy by replacing it with complicating pregnancy. The change makes no sense because, by subordinating this phrase to the previous one, (E) suggests that pregnancy complications are a type of lung disease. (D) it is.

Last edited by cano on 24 May 2010, 00:20, edited 1 time in total.
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24 May 2010, 00:19
So, you mean to say D is the OA or C?
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26 May 2010, 08:16
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can someone explain what is gramatically wrong in option (C)????

For decades Surgeon Generals have warned that smoking increases the risk of lung diseases, including lung cancer and emphysema, and can complicate pregnancy, and increases the risk of low birth weight.

(C) can complicate pregnancy, increasing the risks of low birth weight
(D) can complicate pregnancy by increasing the risks of low birth weight

C: "increasing" improperly modifies the complete clause "smoking increases the risk of lung diseases, including lung cancer and emphysema, and can complicate pregnancy"....increase in risk should only modify "pregnancy"

>>> I thought "increasing the risks of low birth weight" correctly modifies only "can complicate pregnancy" because this clause (can complicate pregnancy) is separated by commas.....am I wrong in my analysis?
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26 May 2010, 08:22
seekmba wrote:
can someone explain what is gramatically wrong in option (C)????

For decades Surgeon Generals have warned that smoking increases the risk of lung diseases, including lung cancer and emphysema, and can complicate pregnancy, and increases the risk of low birth weight.

(C) can complicate pregnancy, increasing the risks of low birth weight
(D) can complicate pregnancy by increasing the risks of low birth weight

C: "increasing" improperly modifies the complete clause "smoking increases the risk of lung diseases, including lung cancer and emphysema, and can complicate pregnancy"....increase in risk should only modify "pregnancy"

>>> I thought "increasing the risks of low birth weight" correctly modifies only "can complicate pregnancy" because this clause (can complicate pregnancy) is separated by commas.....am I wrong in my analysis?

The OE only says that C loses out in comparison to D and E since increasing is less clear than by increasing. I hope this is helpful.
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26 May 2010, 08:30
Though I marked C, but I when I later ponder over it, D really makes sense.
You may find the attached explanation useful.

Attachment:

Surgeons.JPG [ 28.71 KiB | Viewed 1779 times ]

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26 Apr 2015, 07:26
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26 Apr 2015, 13:14
Parallel form : Smoking can increase + can complicate
E: is out
A and B : Also not parallel, if these options treats "risk of low birth rates" as one MORE disease/effect.
C is tricky but confusing
D: Correct
Re: For decades Surgeon Generals have warned that smoking   [#permalink] 26 Apr 2015, 13:14
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