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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers

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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

(A) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere

(B) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated

(C) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated

(D) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated

(E) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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C and D are obviously out.
A - devastation and enslavement... has... decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.: It's Plural
B - Sounds like progress has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
E - Correct! devastation and enslavement... have... decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.:
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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Dmitriy wrote:
For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

a) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
b) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
c) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
d) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated
e) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere


This is a very good example of how GMAT tests meaning of a sentence.
By rule we know that, "that" points to the nearest noun (in this case "progress").
But progress can't decimate. It has to be "devastation and enslavement" which decimated the native peoples.

"devastation and enslavement" plural. So E is the correct answer.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2013, 11:52
I completely agree with you.

This was pretty tough

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

a) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
b) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
c) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
d) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated
e) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere

Now if someone is realy accostumed to SC suddenly figure out that THE is necessary for the economy of the same

Otherwise:

in A we have two things so HAS is not possible because lacks of agreement

in B and C: are ackward

D which is not preceded by comma

in E THE is correct and HAVE agree

Nice question
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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Which one of the following is correct?
the curry and rice is good for stomach.
the curry and the rice are good for stomach.

The devastation and enslavement have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
The devastation and the enslavement have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
I think both are correct.

Many people asked similar question regarding the cocktail noun in option E, whether article should come or not.

As per my understanding as in curry and rice that is a inseparable noun, which represent a dish, we must consider noun as singular, whereas devastation and enslavement do not represent any one particular thing; they are separable, and we should use plural verb to represent such compound noun action.

Experts kindly share your views as well.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2014, 06:25
CD are not gramatically correct, because they use the gerund forms of the verbs.
The use of "has" in A implies that "Progress" has decimated the native people.
B's use of "by which" also implies this.
E fixes A's main problem, because it uses "have" instead of "has".

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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

a) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
b) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
c) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
d) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated
e) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere

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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2015, 21:21
please explain why answer is E. A reads well than E.

IMO..,

What is HAVE referring to in the last sentence. Progress is a singular word. 'The devastation and enslavement' is also a singular word unless there is another THE before enslavement.

Please explain.


sunaimshadmani wrote:
For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

a) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
b) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
c) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
d) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated
e) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere

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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jan 2015, 03:49
OA is E. There is no OE.

NO. The "progress" did not do the decimating, the "devastion and enslavement
Here is my 2-cents for whatever it is worth.

A. Wrong specifically because of subject-verb agreement. Also, I don't like the omission of the article "the" when refering to the "devastation..". IMO, Columbus personifies a particular period of incidents of devastation, not devastation and enslavement in general.
HAS in A creates ambiguity whether devastation, enslavement or progress decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere. E resolves this issue and because of "have", THAT clearly refers to devastation and enslavement.
Hope it helps.

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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jan 2015, 03:52
This is a GMAT Prep Exam Pack 1 question.

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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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sunaimshadmani wrote:
For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

a) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
b) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
c) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
d) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated
e) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere




Kindly explain the plural verb have in E. Does this describe progress or devastation and enslavement?

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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2015, 01:27
sunaimshadmani wrote:
For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

a) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
b) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
c) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
d) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated
e) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere




Kindly explain the plural verb "have" in E. Does this describe progress or devastation and enslavement?

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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

a) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
b) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
c) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
d) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated
e) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere

Here as per the meaning "Progress cannot devastate the natives" so that should refer to "devastation and enslavement" and hence That should take plural.
Which/that can jump over the essential modifier "in the name of progress" to refer to "devastation and enslavement"


a) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
That should take plural verb as explained above

b) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
Again, by progress native people cannot be decimated so which should refer to "devastation and enslavement".
here, compared to active voice, option B) is not preferred as active voice is more concise and expresses the meaning effectively.


c) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
Three issues
1) Instead of gerund (verb+ing) which is a noun form, use the noun form "devastation and enslavement" which is already present. If we don't have a noun form for example eating, we don't have a noun form, we can use "eating".
2) What is those referring to? -> is not clear.
3) "that have" obviously, hemisphere cannot be decimated so that refers to "native peoples". But here, the meaning changes as who devastated is removed.


d) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated
1) Same issue as that of option C) point 1)
2) Same issue as that of option C) point 2)
3) which refers to ? not clear.

e) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
-> Correct
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2015, 11:43
The plural "have" is required because "that" refers to "devastation and enslavement".

Think of this alternative:

Indonesia is still affected by the [tsunami] and [ensuing earthquake] that have decimated the country.

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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2015, 05:21
Piyush
Hi.
With regard to rice and curry: Many South Indians do not take Rice and curry together. They like to eat rice along with curd, or something known as ‘rasam’. Many of the special Rice items such as Lemon rice or Tomato rice are rather eaten with some fried papads or chips. So rice and curry are not eternal companions as ‘bread and butter’ is.

You also said

Quote:
The devastation and enslavement have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
The devastation and the enslavement have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
I think both are correct.


More importantly, with the above example, it may be noted that the use of article before enslavement is not in question here. As you may see none of the five choices carry the article before enslavement. In addition, to work from behind, Since E is the OA, it is not supposed to have any errors. So we should accept 'enslavement' without the article as the correct version or at least as the preferred version

( I do not know whether Piyush will be seeing this after a year's gap.)
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2017, 17:07
Hi GMATNinja / egmat
I have a query that when is it acceptable to use THAT to modify slightly far away noun.
Other than prepositional phrases between far away noun or immediate noun not making sense with that/ which .
Are there any ways for identifying correct usage of that?
Let me know why this sentence is incorrect:
My favorite restaurant is in Brooklyn that serves delicious food.
Here in Brooklyn is a prepositional phrase and since that can not modify Brooklyn it make perfect
sense to jump over prepositional phrase and eventually modify restaurant which is logically and grammatically sound.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2017, 00:33
Imo E
there is a Subject -Verb agreement error in original sentence , option E corrects that error.We also need the because it is specific devastation and enslavement that the sentence is talking about .
The is used for specific things .
For example The dog that barked yesterday was Labrador.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2017, 01:04
For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

This is one of the few questions that encounters all the exceptions and intricate nuances of GMAT SC.This question prompts to make quicker choices between have and has and which and that

Meaning

For many historians, CC has been personified as an embodiment of devastation and enslavement. These characters have decimated the people of Western Hemisphere
Here the devastation and enslavement have decimated the people lives not progress

(A) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
SVA error devastation and enslavement are plurals must be followed by plural verb
(B) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
Meaning ambiguity: progress has nothing to do with people's lives.
(C) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
Too many errors SVA error Modifier error and tenses error
(D) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated
Modifier and meaning errors Western hemisphere ahs nothing to do with people's lives
(E) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
that modifies the devastation and enslavement Correct


Note:
I have some thoughts about this question. Please clarify me if I am wrong.
1. It's very typical to find a GMAT question in which "that " modifies the far away noun as in this case, though the meaning of the question has the highest precedence than grammar.
2. I the option E "the" is used before devastation and enslavement. if the subject is compound noun such as the bread and cheese or The bread and butter, will it not make much sense to use has instead of have.

Even my grammar tool "Grammarly" suggests has instead of have.
Please clarify my thought process
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2017, 14:31
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RaguramanS, here are my thoughts on your questions:

1. I think you're asking whether it's normal for a modifier such as "that" to jump over a few words and modify an earlier noun. Yes, this is fine, although we have to make sure that the intended meaning is clear. The GMAT writers are often much less eager to apply strict modifier rules than aspiring SC masters would like them to be!

2. The simple answer is that almost all compound subjects (including "bread and butter/cheese") are plural. The only exception would be when we're describing one thing or process with two elements:

Research and development for the new space station is taking longer than anticipated.
Gin and tonic is a popular drink.


However, unless it's 100% clear that the two things must be considered as one unit, we're not going to see this, so the default should be to make all compound subjects plural.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2017, 18:25
DmitryFarber wrote:
RaguramanS, here are my thoughts on your questions:

1. I think you're asking whether it's normal for a modifier such as "that" to jump over a few words and modify an earlier noun. Yes, this is fine, although we have to make sure that the intended meaning is clear. The GMAT writers are often much less eager to apply strict modifier rules than aspiring SC masters would like them to be!

2. The simple answer is that almost all compound subjects (including "bread and butter/cheese") are plural. The only exception would be when we're describing one thing or process with two elements:

Research and development for the new space station is taking longer than anticipated.
Gin and tonic is a popular drink.


However, unless it's 100% clear that the two things must be considered as one unit, we're not going to see this, so the default should be to make all compound subjects plural.


Thanks for your explanation DmitryFarber. However, please clarify whether the use of article " the" (devastation and enslavement ) in option e will not influence the verb
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