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# For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers

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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 11 Jul 2018, 06:25
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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

(A) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere

(B) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated

(C) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated

(D) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated

(E) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere

https://www.nytimes.com/1991/10/06/arts/columbus-landed-er-looted-uh-rewrite.html

Whether a more human hero or a greedy, violent kook will emerge from all this attention will depend less on a re-examination of Columbus's record than on contemporary judgments about what he wrought. In the furious debate that has anticipated the anniversary, Columbus fans have been almost drowned out by the rising voices of more native Americans and others for whom he has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress. The fight has been joined in the public sector, with accusations that Federal grants were denied to projects that cast Columbus in an unflattering light.

Originally posted by Dmitriy on 27 Sep 2013, 09:10.
Last edited by hazelnut on 11 Jul 2018, 06:25, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2017, 12:58
6
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This question is an irritating exception to the so-called “touch rule” for noun modifiers.

We also covered this example during our YouTube live chat, so if you prefer to get your SC via video, click here. And we also discussed “that” and the “touch rule” in our recent Topic of the Week on “that.”

Full disclosure: I fell asleep at the wheel and totally missed this question the first time I saw it a few years ago. So please be smarter than I was. :D

Quote:
A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere

This sounds great! “… progress that has decimated native peoples…” Yeah!

Oh, wait. That doesn’t actually make sense. It wasn’t the progress that decimated native peoples – the “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress” was the thing that decimated native peoples. Oops.

Notice that this is a plausible exception to the “touch rule”: the only things separating “that” from “devastation and enslavement” are a pair of prepositional phrases, and it would be awfully tough to separate them from “devastation and enslavement.” So sure, “that has decimated native peoples” could refer back to “devastation and enslavement.”

But there’s a new problem: “devastation and enslavement… has decimated.” Subject-verb error. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated

This one just doesn’t make any sense. The native peoples were decimated; the way (B) is written, it sounds like they decimated somebody else, but we don’t know who. And that doesn’t make sense. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated

Lots of messy issues here. It’s not ideal to use the gerunds “devastating and enslaving” when we could use the noun forms “devastation and enslavement.” That’s not necessarily an absolute rule, but it’s one strike against (C).

(Also, “in the name of progress” is repeated… but I think that’s a GMAT Club typo, and that error doesn’t appear in the actual question. Oops.)

“Which” is a problem here, too. If the phrase beginning with “which” modifies “Western Hemisphere,” then it’s illogical; if it reaches back to “native peoples of the Western Hemisphere”, then it’s still wrong, because “which” can’t modify people – only things. (C) is gone.

Quote:
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.

Basically, all of the errors in (C) are repeated in (D). So (D) is out, too.

Quote:
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Almost everything we said about (A) applies here too: this looks like a classic exception to the “touch rule.”

The only difference? “Has” in (A) has been changed to “have” in (E). “Devastation and enslavement… have decimated the native peoples.”

So (E) is the best answer, even if you think (A) might sound better.

And if anybody is still curious about the article "the" at the beginning of (E): I don't think it's a big deal, but adding "the" helps clarify that Columbus personifies the specific devastation and enslavement that decimated the native peoples, rather than devastation and enslavement in general. But again: that's not a major issue, and not something that should worry you too much.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2013, 09:29
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Dmitriy wrote:
For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

a) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
b) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
c) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
d) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated
e) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere

This is a very good example of how GMAT tests meaning of a sentence.
By rule we know that, "that" points to the nearest noun (in this case "progress").
But progress can't decimate. It has to be "devastation and enslavement" which decimated the native peoples.

"devastation and enslavement" plural. So E is the correct answer.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2013, 09:25
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3
C and D are obviously out.
A - devastation and enslavement... has... decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.: It's Plural
B - Sounds like progress has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
E - Correct! devastation and enslavement... have... decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.:
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2013, 11:52
1
I completely agree with you.

This was pretty tough

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

a) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
b) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
c) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
d) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated
e) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere

Now if someone is realy accostumed to SC suddenly figure out that THE is necessary for the economy of the same

Otherwise:

in A we have two things so HAS is not possible because lacks of agreement

in B and C: are ackward

D which is not preceded by comma

in E THE is correct and HAVE agree

Nice question
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2014, 01:45
1
Which one of the following is correct?
the curry and rice is good for stomach.
the curry and the rice are good for stomach.

The devastation and enslavement have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
The devastation and the enslavement have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
I think both are correct.

Many people asked similar question regarding the cocktail noun in option E, whether article should come or not.

As per my understanding as in curry and rice that is a inseparable noun, which represent a dish, we must consider noun as singular, whereas devastation and enslavement do not represent any one particular thing; they are separable, and we should use plural verb to represent such compound noun action.

Experts kindly share your views as well.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2015, 10:07
2
2
For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

a) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
b) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
c) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
d) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated
e) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere

Here as per the meaning "Progress cannot devastate the natives" so that should refer to "devastation and enslavement" and hence That should take plural.
Which/that can jump over the essential modifier "in the name of progress" to refer to "devastation and enslavement"

a) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
That should take plural verb as explained above

b) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
Again, by progress native people cannot be decimated so which should refer to "devastation and enslavement".
here, compared to active voice, option B) is not preferred as active voice is more concise and expresses the meaning effectively.

c) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
Three issues
1) Instead of gerund (verb+ing) which is a noun form, use the noun form "devastation and enslavement" which is already present. If we don't have a noun form for example eating, we don't have a noun form, we can use "eating".
2) What is those referring to? -> is not clear.
3) "that have" obviously, hemisphere cannot be decimated so that refers to "native peoples". But here, the meaning changes as who devastated is removed.

d) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated
1) Same issue as that of option C) point 1)
2) Same issue as that of option C) point 2)
3) which refers to ? not clear.

e) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
-> Correct
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2015, 05:21
Piyush
Hi.
With regard to rice and curry: Many South Indians do not take Rice and curry together. They like to eat rice along with curd, or something known as ‘rasam’. Many of the special Rice items such as Lemon rice or Tomato rice are rather eaten with some fried papads or chips. So rice and curry are not eternal companions as ‘bread and butter’ is.

You also said

Quote:
The devastation and enslavement have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
The devastation and the enslavement have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
I think both are correct.

More importantly, with the above example, it may be noted that the use of article before enslavement is not in question here. As you may see none of the five choices carry the article before enslavement. In addition, to work from behind, Since E is the OA, it is not supposed to have any errors. So we should accept 'enslavement' without the article as the correct version or at least as the preferred version

( I do not know whether Piyush will be seeing this after a year's gap.)
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2017, 01:04
For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

This is one of the few questions that encounters all the exceptions and intricate nuances of GMAT SC.This question prompts to make quicker choices between have and has and which and that

Meaning

For many historians, CC has been personified as an embodiment of devastation and enslavement. These characters have decimated the people of Western Hemisphere
Here the devastation and enslavement have decimated the people lives not progress

(A) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
SVA error devastation and enslavement are plurals must be followed by plural verb
(B) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
Meaning ambiguity: progress has nothing to do with people's lives.
(C) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
Too many errors SVA error Modifier error and tenses error
(D) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated
Modifier and meaning errors Western hemisphere ahs nothing to do with people's lives
(E) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
that modifies the devastation and enslavement Correct

Note:
1. It's very typical to find a GMAT question in which "that " modifies the far away noun as in this case, though the meaning of the question has the highest precedence than grammar.
2. I the option E "the" is used before devastation and enslavement. if the subject is compound noun such as the bread and cheese or The bread and butter, will it not make much sense to use has instead of have.

Even my grammar tool "Grammarly" suggests has instead of have.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2017, 14:31
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RaguramanS, here are my thoughts on your questions:

1. I think you're asking whether it's normal for a modifier such as "that" to jump over a few words and modify an earlier noun. Yes, this is fine, although we have to make sure that the intended meaning is clear. The GMAT writers are often much less eager to apply strict modifier rules than aspiring SC masters would like them to be!

2. The simple answer is that almost all compound subjects (including "bread and butter/cheese") are plural. The only exception would be when we're describing one thing or process with two elements:

Research and development for the new space station is taking longer than anticipated.
Gin and tonic is a popular drink.

However, unless it's 100% clear that the two things must be considered as one unit, we're not going to see this, so the default should be to make all compound subjects plural.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2017, 12:57
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Verbal Question of The Day: Day 45: Sentence Correction

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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Every question of the day will be followed by an expert reply by GMATNinja in 12-15 hours. Stay tuned! Post your answers and explanations to earn kudos.

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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 01 Jul 2017, 07:16
1
Ok! This was a tricky one. I was torn between Choices (A) and (E) but finally picked Choice (E).

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Understanding the meaning: For many RH, CC has come to personify something. What has he come to personify? 1. Devastation 2. Enslavement in the name of progress. These two things have decimated native peoples of the WH.

Errors: The presence of 'that' is quite ambiguous. Is 'that' modifying progress or Is 'that' modifying the two things CC has come to personify. Let's consider that 'that' was referring to progress. It would mean 'progress has decimated native peoples of the WH' which makes no sense at all. How can progress destroy people? Let's consider that 'that' was referring to devastation and enslavement. Now, this makes sense since devastation can destroy people. For example, the devastation caused by the earthquake killed thousands of people and damaged city property. Makes sense. The tense for 'that' doesn't agree in number with the antecedent so there's a SV number error.

A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated.
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
verb-ing modifier implies that CC devastated and enslaved native peoples. 'those' is a demonstrative pronoun and is unnecessary here.
'which' illogically modifies WH. This choice is a total snoozefest.

D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.
'have' agrees in number with its antecedent 'devastation and enslavement'. This is by far the best choice. The article before devastation implies definite devastation rather than general devastation. the second article is understood and is removed because of ellipsis.

IMHO - the sentence might be better off without the article before devastation.
For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Looking forward to @GMATNinja's explanation.

Originally posted by swapnak on 30 Jun 2017, 14:04.
Last edited by swapnak on 01 Jul 2017, 07:16, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2017, 22:19
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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

a) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
b) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere have been decimated
c) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated
d) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated

Quote:
e) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere

1. It is not the general devastation and (the) enslavement that this topic is talking about. It is the specific aftermaths of the Columbian Occupation that it is referring to. The use of the definite article in 'the devastation' and '(the) enslavement' is justifiable.

2. The prepositional phrase 'in the name of progress' is modifying just enslavement. Therefore, we now have two fallouts namely 1. 'the devastation and 2. (the) enslavement in the name of progress', rendering the whole phrase a compounded plural. Therefore, you may see that the plural verb 'have decimated' stands well.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2017, 01:02
Ashokshiva pikolo2510

I am not an expert, but let me add my two cents.

Quote:
What does ''that'' refer to in option E.

That refers to two nouns devastation and enslavement.

I hope you are aware usage of THAT as a relative pronoun modifer.
A relative pronoun will always start a dependent clause. The relative pronoun may
or may not be the subject of the DC that it starts.

The reason why you might be confused is due to presence of prepositional phrase -
in the name of progress - which modifies above two nouns. It is
perfectly valid for a modifier (that) to jump over a prepositional phrase to
refer back to both above nouns as subject and make sense with plural
verb - have decimated.

As yourself: Is it progress or evastation and enslavement
that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Here is complete sentence structure for you:

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress

that have decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Subject - Verb pairs are as highlighted

Hope this helps.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2017, 10:48
1
Ashokshiva pikolo2510

I am not an expert, but let me add my two cents.

Quote:
What does ''that'' refer to in option E.

That refers to two nouns devastation and enslavement.

I hope you are aware usage of THAT as a relative pronoun modifer.
A relative pronoun will always start a dependent clause. The relative pronoun may
or may not be the subject of the DC that it starts.

The reason why you might be confused is due to presence of prepositional phrase -
in the name of progress - which modifies above two nouns. It is
perfectly valid for a modifier (that) to jump over a prepositional phrase to
refer back to both above nouns as subject and make sense with plural
verb - have decimated.

As yourself: Is it progress or evastation and enslavement
that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Here is complete sentence structure for you:

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress

that have decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Subject - Verb pairs are as highlighted

Hope this helps.

I am so happy and proud to see how well you guided pikolo2510 to resolve his own doubt. Great job there.

However, I would just like to make a correction in your above-mentioned analysis.

Please note that have decimated is the verb for the subject that, NOT for devastation and enslavement.

Yes, the noun modifier that refers to devastation and enslavement. But devastation and enslavement does NOT associate with have decimated as a subject. It is that that does so.

If you remove the that clause from the sentence, you will have to remove the verb have decimated also because the verb cannot exist without its subject.

Hope this helps.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2017, 23:38
Ashokshiva

Yes correct. Cheers Happy learning !
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2017, 23:52
Ashokshiva

Yes correct. Cheers Happy learning !

So should we conclude by saying ''that'' can refer to plural nouns.

There were instances where i have eliminated answer options by using this technique. Now i would have find an another one.!!
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2017, 01:55
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Ashokshiva wrote:
Ashokshiva

Yes correct. Cheers Happy learning !

So should we conclude by saying ''that'' can refer to plural nouns.

There were instances where i have eliminated answer options by using this technique. Now i would have find an another one.!!

Hello Ashokshiva,

When that is used a noun modifier, it can refer to a singular as well as a plural noun entity as we saw in the case of the two official sentences that you solved.

When that is used just as a pronoun, then it only refers to a singular noun entity.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers &nbs [#permalink] 02 Oct 2017, 01:55
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