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# For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers

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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 01 Nov 2018, 02:57
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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere

B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated

C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.

D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.

E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

 ! Please note that this question is from 2004 and is a slightly different version of the question included in the EP1. The updated question can be found here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/for-many-rev ... 60640.htmlThis discussion is currently locked.

Originally posted by marine on 27 Apr 2004, 06:43.
Last edited by Bunuel on 01 Nov 2018, 02:57, edited 5 times in total.
edited the title
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 22 Oct 2012, 07:58
18
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Hi,

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

It is very important to understand the intended meaning of the sentence here to get to the correct answer. The sentence says that for many historians, Columbus personifies devastation and enslavement in the name of progress because devastation and enslavement have destroyed native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Per the meaning, we know that “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress” have led to destruction of native peoples. However, “that” in this sentence refers to the immediate preceding noun “progress” because it is followed by singular verb. This modification now says that “progress” has destroyed native peoples. This certainly is not the logical meaning. Hence, we need plural verb “have” that will agree in number with “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress” and thus will convey the logical intended meaning.

POE:

A) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated: Incorrect.
1. This option now says that native peoples used devastation and enslavement to destroy. This is certainly not the intended meaning.
2. Also this choice is awkwardly written.

C) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated: Incorrect.
1. Use of “devastating” and “enslaving” is not appropriate. When a sentence requires the usage of a noun form, then we must use the real noun form of that word and not the verb-ing gerund form. Here “devastation and enslavement” are any day better than “devastating and enslaving”.
2. Since “that” is referring to people, it should be “who”.

D) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated: Incorrect.
1. Same noun expression error as in choice C.
2. “which” cannot refer to “people”.
3. The choice says that native peoples of the Western Hemisphere are still decimated. This is not the intended meaning. This choice has verb-tense error.

E) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere: Correct. Singular “has” has been converted to plural “have” to rectify the error of the original sentence. Also notice that “the” is understood before “enslavement”. We have ellipsis at paly here.

PS: Choice C has been wrongly worded in the original post.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Originally posted by egmat on 22 Oct 2012, 07:56.
Last edited by egmat on 22 Oct 2012, 07:58, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 06 May 2004, 00:25
19
13
ndidi204 wrote:
A is the best.

E has a subject-verb agreement problem.
"the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have .."

Progress here in singular and should have the singular verb "has" as shown in A.

NO. The "progress" did not do the decimating, the "devastion and enslavement" did.

Here is my 2-cents for whatever it is worth.

A. Wrong specifically because of subject-verb agreement. Also, I don't like the omission of the article "the" when refering to the "devastation..". IMO, Columbus personifies a particular period of incidents of devastation, not devastation and enslavement in general.

B. Wrong because it implies that the native people did the devastating.

C. Wordy and awkward. Also, IMO, the use of the gerund connotes that the devastation is ongoing or recent.

D. Same reason as C.

E. IMO, this is the best choice. First, it has good s-v agreement. (the Bread and butter argument is not relevant because item that are considered to be one entity are treated as singular ("bread and butter IS preferable to bacon and eggs for some dieters, though the latter IS surely more popular", "ham and eggs WAS his choice for breakfast", "black and white IS the favorite color scheme of Soho yuppies". This does NOT apply to "devastation and enslavement", e.g., "the devastion and enslavement were widespread" BTW, while "bread and butter is my breakfast" sounds awkward, "bread and butter are my breakfast" sounds worse. Of course, please take this with a grain of salt as my bread and butter IS not SC.

Finally, since Columbus personifies a particular devastion and enslavement, I think the use of the definite article "the" is appropriate if not mandatory here.

Originally posted by AkamaiBrah on 28 Apr 2004, 17:37.
Last edited by AkamaiBrah on 06 May 2004, 00:25, edited 1 time in total.
##### General Discussion
Manager
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2004, 07:25
1
A is the best.

E has a subject-verb agreement problem.
"the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have .."

Progress here in singular and should have the singular verb "has" as shown in A.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2004, 11:27
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marine wrote:
1.For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify <<devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.>>

A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Marine, can you tell us the source of this SC?

IMO, the best answer is E.

1. Devastation and enslavement is a compound subject...and needs "have" to agree with it.
2. Also, E resolves the issue of what "that" refers to with the plural verb have.

Sincerely
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2004, 11:56
2
1
Well this sentence is as ambiguous as it can get.
From the meaning point of view E looks the best as progress cannot be desimated ( it sounds awkward )
The sentence would be very clear if it had following construction

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify in the name of progress the devastation and the enslavement that have decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

or

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify in the name of progress the devastation and the enslavement that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

It is hard to say whether "devastation and enslavement " is singular or
plural. It depends on how it is used. Both are acceptable. For this reason I stick to A.

Let us hear the OA.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2004, 12:06
17
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Another vote for A

E is out because the devastation and enslavement is singular.
"The X and Y" is singular, whereas "the X and the Y" is plural.

For example,
The CEO and chairman is in the office today.
Means: one person holding both the positions. Thus, this sentence warrents singular verb.

On the other hand,
The CEO and the chairman are in the office today.
Means: there are two people in the office. Therefore, this sentence
warrents plural verb.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 08:01
But Shraddha, don't you feel that "the devastation and enslavement" is singular?
Example- Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker.
This sentence is absolutely correct and doesn't requires a plural verb.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 08:24
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Hi @Marcab

Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker.

In this sentence Mahendra Singh Dhoni is the subject. Hence we have singular verb “is” here. This verb has nothing to do with the modifiers that have been added in the sentence.

In the SC problem you have posted, “that” is the subject that refers to two individual entities – devastation and enslavement in the name of progress. These entities in general are not used as one subject. They are two different entities. Generally, those two entities are treated as singular that are generally used together. For example:

Bread and butter is my favorite breakfast.
Bat and ball is needed to play cricket.

In both the sentences above, “bread and butter” and “bat and ball” cannot be used independently for breakfast and cricket respectively. Hence these items make a pair. However, this is not the case with “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress”. That is why they are two separate entitiues and need plural verb.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 08:42
egmat wrote:
Hi @Marcab

Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker.

In this sentence Mahendra Singh Dhoni is the subject. Hence we have singular verb “is” here. This verb has nothing to do with the modifiers that have been added in the sentence.

In the SC problem you have posted, “that” is the subject that refers to two individual entities – devastation and enslavement in the name of progress. These entities in general are not used as one subject. They are two different entities. Generally, those two entities are treated as singular that are generally used together. For example:

Bread and butter is my favorite breakfast.
Bat and ball is needed to play cricket.

In both the sentences above, “bread and butter” and “bat and ball” cannot be used independently for breakfast and cricket respectively. Hence these items make a pair. However, this is not the case with “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress”. That is why they are two separate entitiues and need plural verb.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

So the "the" has no significance? Would it have been the same effect, if it were without "the"?
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 08:58
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Marcab wrote:

So the "the" has no significance? Would it have been the same effect, if it were without "the"?

Hi there,

Well, the usage of "the" has not been tested exclusively on GMAT. Also, in my first post, I did mention that "the" is ellipsed or understood before "enslavement" because the already appears before "devastation", the first entity in the parallel list. Hence, it is not needed to repeat it before "enslavement". If we remove "the" before "devastation" in choice E, then also it would stand correct because of the SV agreement, which is a deterministic issue in selecting the correct answer.

Hope this helps.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2013, 00:06
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Quite tough, but this just underscores "that" can modify whatever makes "logical sense".
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2014, 19:47
2
This is a tough question but the answer is a clear E.

When you cut the fluff, the simple story reads:
"Columbus has come to personify the devastation and enslavement that have decimated the native peoples"
So the devastation and enslavement decimated the native peoples; not the progress.

The phrase "in the name of progress" does make this sentence more confusing. However, you must know that relative clauses can be an exception to the "Modifier Touch Rule".

For example,
"The rain in the province of Santa Monica that has caused a severe impact will continue for 2 more days."
- The simple story reads: "The rain that has caused a severe impact will continue for 2 more days"
- The phrase "in the province of Santa Monica" is actually a modifier modifying the noun rain.

Therefore, "that" actually modifies the more distant noun "rain" and not the immediately preceding noun phrase "in the province of Santa Monica".
In other words, the "rain" caused the severe impact; not the province of Santa Monica.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2016, 22:28
between A and E

Has vs Have

I thought "progress" is being referred and marked A as Progress is singular.
How will i know to what is this has or have are referring to ? "devastation and enslavement" or "progress" ? Experts pleas explain
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2016, 09:22
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deepthit wrote:
I thought "progress" is being referred and marked A as Progress is singular.
How will i know to what is this has or have are referring to ? "devastation and enslavement" or "progress" ? Experts pleas explain

Hi deepthit, this is because from a logic (intended meaning) perspective, clearly devastation and enslavement (and not progress) have decimated the native peoples.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses the usage of that, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2016, 01:12
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Marcab wrote:
For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

MODERATORS: Please note that since the question was originally posted in 2004, no correct answer has been provided yet. This post is just to ensure that I, in addition to all other members of the club, get the correct answer.

Please correct the flaws in B) and C)
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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2017, 21:29
 ! Please note that this question is from 2004 and is a slightly different version of the question included in the EP1. The updated question can be found here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/for-many-rev ... 60640.htmlThis discussion is currently locked.

Edit: This discussion has retired. Find the new thread HERE

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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to pers   [#permalink] 19 Mar 2017, 21:29