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For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2011, 03:34
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shoonya wrote:
For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A) a method to protect
B) as a method protecting
C) protecting
D) as a protection of
E) to protect

Guys, I need to know why the wrong choices are really wrong. Could you please explain your reasons of eliminating an answer choice in this case? I mean all the wrong choices.

I appreciate your inputs.

thanks


C, The sentence test word choice.
"animal-hide shields" is not a method => eliminate A,B
(D)" as a protection of" is wordy unessarilly
(E):"to protect" we are not talking about the purpose so to-inf is not appropriate here.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2011, 08:31
prasforgmat wrote:
Is it universal rule that infinitives (to) cannot come just after comma?


No. There are certainly possibilities where this can be done.
"For lizards, organisms that inhabit the earth, to [X] is to [Y]."
"For lizards, organisms that inhabit the earth, to [die] is to [leave your remains for the rest of the ecosystem]."

In this example "to" is right after a comma.

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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miaojunmaggie wrote:
can anyone explain why we cannot use "to protect" here? the OG explanation is sort of strange. What does it mean by saying that "to protect" cannot act as a nonrestrictive adjectival phrase modifying items? What's nonrestrictive adj.?


First of all, in the original sentence, "a method," as a noun, seems most syntactically comparable to another noun. But syntactically it looks as though this "method" refers to "items of military equipment," since adjectives (with the sole exception of predicate adjectives) cannot be separated from the nouns they modify by conjugated verbs. Semantically, we WANT the "method" to be the shields. But that is ungrammatical. Furthermore, a "method" is not strictly speaking a tangible thing such as a shield, so semantically that seems a little bit weird.

It is better to use "protecting" rather than "a method to protect" or even "a method of protecting" since the gerundative phrase can be an adverb and therefore refer to the whole preceding clause.

Second, infinitive phrases tend to work best when they are used as nouns, not as modifiers. "A method to protect" would not be as good as "a method of protecting," particularly since "a method to protect" appears to imply that the method is DESTINED or FORCED to do the protecting.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2012, 02:50
Ron said,
abstract noun can refer/modify the preceding clause. So, in A, I can understand that "a method " modify preceding clause.
A is not incorrect.

pls, help explain.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2012, 14:09
In Original text "a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears" is a noun modifier modifying military equipment, which is certainly not a method.The original intention of this modifier is to modify "animal-hide Shields"

(A) As explained above
(B)same problem
(C)correct.comma with -Ing form correctly modifying the subject of the previous sentence that is "animal-hide Shields" here.Please note that without the comma it would have been wrong.
(D)same problem
(E)with the comma before it does not convey the intended meaning.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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abhijitlandge wrote:
Dear All,
Pls refer to the following problem. I want to clear my concept about in which situations should we prefer ing form of verb to infinitive form.t

For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

(A) a method to protect

(B) as a method protecting

(C) protecting

(D) as a protection of

(E) to protect

My first preference was to E and second preference was to C
Official Answer is C

Pls Help !


Please read the Article below it will help you to undertsand the usage of 'to+verb" [as in choice E]
to-verb-vs-for-verb-ing-144017.html

For C 'verb-ing modifiers' are used Either to show a ongoing action/event OR to show a consequence of an action.Where the reason/cause is usually in the preceding clause

for example --animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment--REASON, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears.-CONSEQUENCE

using to protect here will change the meaning, hence its wrong.

Hope its clear
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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IMO, the approach to this topic would be

(A) a method to protect – Animal shields are not a method. They are just materials so drop this

(B) as a method protecting --- same as in A

(C) protecting --- protecting modifies the simple clause preceding it. Correct choice

(D) as a protection of --- shields are not[protection or protections

(E) to protect --- The tricky issue here is the that we cannot idiomatically use an infinitive after a comma.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2012, 08:24
well the bigger issue with E is that use of 'to+verb' ie to protect changes the meaning of the sentence altogether.

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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targetgmatchotu wrote:
For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A. a method to protect

B. as a method protecting

C. protecting

D. as a protection of

E. to protect

Not convinced with the old discussions on this, plz throw some light and concepts

Hii Saurabh.
Logic of the sentence is:
1)For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa
2) animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment,
3) These military equipments were used to protect warriors.

Now error analysis:
A) The military equipments were not methods.
B) An ing verb without comma will modify just the preceding noun. Hence in this case, the implied meaning is that the method is protecting warriors. Without comma, the construction becomes very ambigous.
C) Correct choice. An verb-ing preceded by a comma modifies the entire preceding clause and hence implies that animal-hide shields with wooden frames is protectig the warriors.
D) Method as a protection- illogical
E) Infinitives are not preceded by a comma. Incorrect

+1C
Hope that helps.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2013, 22:56
this problem is in og10 and so maybe old to study

I find a problem

C is correct, I agree.

but

in A, "a method..." can modify the whole preceding clause and is correct. A is also correct

a similar example is

I learn gmat, a good thing many persons know.

am I correct, pls help. i am confused.

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2013, 00:43
thangvietnam wrote:
this problem is in og10 and so maybe old to study

I find a problem

C is correct, I agree.

but

in A, "a method..." can modify the whole preceding clause and is correct. A is also correct

a similar example is

I learn gmat, a good thing many persons know.

am I correct, pls help. i am confused.


Unless the phrase is an Absolute Phrase, it cannot modify the preceding clause.
The preceding clause can be entirely modified by:
1) Absolute Phrase
2) ", verb-ing"
Apart from this, I don't think that the preceding clause can me modified.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2013, 23:41
Sachin9 wrote:
Hi deepak,

So participial phrases are basically -ING verb phrases that are separated with a comma (,) from the rest of the sentence.

So in this case, "protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears" is the participial phrase.

What is this phrase describing? Structurally, it is positioned to describe "animal-hide shields."

If you're not sure, you can always flip it and read it like this:

"Protecting warriors against enemy arrows, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment."

Ask yourself if this makes sense.

Do "shields" "protect warriors against enemy arrows"? Sure! So you know this makes sense.

You can read more of a detailed explanation of this question here: http://www.gmatpill.com/practice-questi ... orrection/



amazing.. Why is D wrong? :shock:[/quote][/quote]

Because comma is fixed before underlined portion, infinitive will not work here.

Pls note: if the clause before comma is non essential then it depends on the main clause.

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2013, 02:43
For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A. a method to protect (military equipment cannot be a method)

B. as a method protecting ( Method doesn't do protecting instead the animal shields do the protecting)

C. protecting ( This one correctly modifiers the noun in the preceding clause "animal-shields")

D. as a protection of ( Although grammatically correct choice, wordiness is the issue here)

E. to protect ( "to protect " is the purpose and shouldn't follow a comma)

Although I cannot argue against the OG's explanation, I have a query related to answer choice (E):

-ING modifier has three forms:

(1). Modifies NOUN
(2). Modifies verb and verb's subject
(3). Result of the main clause

Here the -ING modifier functions clearly as (1). as it modifies "Shields"

Meaning: Shields protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment

But the option (E) explanation by OG is

Although the infinitive to protect would work if it were not preceded by a comma, it cannot act as a nonrestrictive adjectival
phrase modifying items


We aren't modifying ITEMS here , we are modifying "SHIELDS" here. So why this explanation?

Furthermore, the explanation for the correctness of option (C) is

Correct. In this sentence, protecting properly
introduces a modifying phrase revealing the
purpose of the items.


Please advise !!

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 06 Apr 2014, 12:33
"Animal-hide shields were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears"

Even above sentence is correct, this type of sentence (simplified) is rarely or never read by me before in English. I request you to provide me few similar examples of this type.

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2016, 09:38
TGC wrote:
For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A. a method to protect

B. as a method protecting

C. protecting

D. as a protection of

E. to protect

Not convinced with the old discussions on this, plz throw some light and concepts


'a method to protect' must modify the previous noun- 'military equipment'. But, military equipment is not a 'method'. A and B are out.

'to protect' must not be followed by ','. E is out.

'as a protection of' what?? Not right.

C is the right option.

Infact if we flip the sentence, we see that 'protecting' correctly modifies following sentence.

Protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2016, 23:58
A - Wrong --> "a method" is wrong here.

animal-hide shields with wooden
frames were essential items of military equipment --> it's not a method.

E is wrong because comma before "to" is wrong.

I believe if sentence is written like this:

animal-hide shields with wooden
frames were essential items of military equipment to protect warriors against enemy arrows
and spears. --> then it's right.

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2017, 02:07
As per the meaning of the sentence, shields were important for them as these shields protect then from something.

Clearly, C maintains the meaning and this the correct answer.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2017, 04:38
abhimahna wrote:
As per the meaning of the sentence, shields were important for them as these shields protect then from something.

Clearly, C maintains the meaning and this the correct answer.


I'm still not getting the answer. I studied "to verb vs for verb-ing notes" also but this question is still confusing

Here if you want to go with "to verb" then you should have a purpose in the passage. Here in the main question the soldiers hide their weapons to protect from enemies.

They hide weapons is the context. Purpose is to protect them from enemies.

But the answer is "for protecting". According to you if i replace "to protect" in the actual sentence the meaning will change. Can you help me in this?

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2017, 05:33
sai897 wrote:
I'm still not getting the answer. I studied "to verb vs for verb-ing notes" also but this question is still confusing

Here if you want to go with "to verb" then you should have a purpose in the passage. Here in the main question the soldiers hide their weapons to protect from enemies.

They hide weapons is the context. Purpose is to protect them from enemies.

But the answer is "for protecting". According to you if i replace "to protect" in the actual sentence the meaning will change. Can you help me in this?

abhimahna egmat


I understand your point but here as per the question the meaning is certain tools are important items and then we are told why are they important/how are they useful. They are important because they protect warriors against enemies.

Also, answer is not 'for protecting' but 'protecting'. Meaning tools are essential as they have a consequence of protecting.

Take these examples:

I want to give GMAT to get an admit in Harvard. Here the purpose/intend is given.

I woke up late in the morning, missing my GMAT exam. Here the consequence is given.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2017, 10:30
Good one to teach me that infinitives are not preceded by COMMAs

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Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima   [#permalink] 05 Jul 2017, 10:30

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