It is currently 25 Jun 2017, 02:09

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Status: what we want to do, do it as soon as possible
Joined: 24 May 2010
Posts: 110
Location: Vietnam
WE 1: 5.0
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

14 Mar 2011, 03:34
1
KUDOS
shoonya wrote:
For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A) a method to protect
B) as a method protecting
C) protecting
D) as a protection of
E) to protect

Guys, I need to know why the wrong choices are really wrong. Could you please explain your reasons of eliminating an answer choice in this case? I mean all the wrong choices.

thanks

C, The sentence test word choice.
"animal-hide shields" is not a method => eliminate A,B
(D)" as a protection of" is wordy unessarilly
(E):"to protect" we are not talking about the purpose so to-inf is not appropriate here.
_________________

Consider giving me kudos if you find my explanations helpful so i can learn how to express ideas to people more understandable.

SVP
Joined: 14 Apr 2009
Posts: 2085
Location: New York, NY
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

24 May 2011, 08:31
prasforgmat wrote:
Is it universal rule that infinitives (to) cannot come just after comma?

No. There are certainly possibilities where this can be done.
"For lizards, organisms that inhabit the earth, to [X] is to [Y]."
"For lizards, organisms that inhabit the earth, to [die] is to [leave your remains for the rest of the ecosystem]."

In this example "to" is right after a comma.
Manager
Joined: 09 Nov 2010
Posts: 63
Location: Paris, FRANCE
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

03 Nov 2011, 15:40
2
KUDOS
3
This post was
BOOKMARKED
miaojunmaggie wrote:
can anyone explain why we cannot use "to protect" here? the OG explanation is sort of strange. What does it mean by saying that "to protect" cannot act as a nonrestrictive adjectival phrase modifying items? What's nonrestrictive adj.?

First of all, in the original sentence, "a method," as a noun, seems most syntactically comparable to another noun. But syntactically it looks as though this "method" refers to "items of military equipment," since adjectives (with the sole exception of predicate adjectives) cannot be separated from the nouns they modify by conjugated verbs. Semantically, we WANT the "method" to be the shields. But that is ungrammatical. Furthermore, a "method" is not strictly speaking a tangible thing such as a shield, so semantically that seems a little bit weird.

It is better to use "protecting" rather than "a method to protect" or even "a method of protecting" since the gerundative phrase can be an adverb and therefore refer to the whole preceding clause.

Second, infinitive phrases tend to work best when they are used as nouns, not as modifiers. "A method to protect" would not be as good as "a method of protecting," particularly since "a method to protect" appears to imply that the method is DESTINED or FORCED to do the protecting.
_________________

Nicholas MOSES

c/o MBA Center Paris

VP
Joined: 09 Jun 2010
Posts: 1416
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

04 May 2012, 02:50
Ron said,
abstract noun can refer/modify the preceding clause. So, in A, I can understand that "a method " modify preceding clause.
A is not incorrect.

pls, help explain.
_________________

visit my facebook to help me.
on facebook, my name is: thang thang thang

Intern
Status: To retake , or not to retake;That is the question
Joined: 12 Mar 2012
Posts: 26
Location: India
Concentration: Strategy, General Management
GMAT 1: 710 Q49 V37
GPA: 3.8
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

19 Sep 2012, 14:09
In Original text "a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears" is a noun modifier modifying military equipment, which is certainly not a method.The original intention of this modifier is to modify "animal-hide Shields"

(A) As explained above
(B)same problem
(C)correct.comma with -Ing form correctly modifying the subject of the previous sentence that is "animal-hide Shields" here.Please note that without the comma it would have been wrong.
(D)same problem
(E)with the comma before it does not convey the intended meaning.
_________________

I too need Kudos sometimes !!!!!!!!!!!

BSchool Forum Moderator
Joined: 23 Jul 2010
Posts: 558
GPA: 3.4
WE: General Management (Non-Profit and Government)
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

24 Dec 2012, 16:49
1
KUDOS
abhijitlandge wrote:
Dear All,
Pls refer to the following problem. I want to clear my concept about in which situations should we prefer ing form of verb to infinitive form.t

For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

(A) a method to protect

(B) as a method protecting

(C) protecting

(D) as a protection of

(E) to protect

My first preference was to E and second preference was to C

Pls Help !

to-verb-vs-for-verb-ing-144017.html

For C 'verb-ing modifiers' are used Either to show a ongoing action/event OR to show a consequence of an action.Where the reason/cause is usually in the preceding clause

for example --animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment--REASON, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears.-CONSEQUENCE

using to protect here will change the meaning, hence its wrong.

Hope its clear
_________________

General Mistakes to Avoid on the GMAT
TOP 10 articles on Time Management on the GMAT
Thanks = Kudos. Kudos are appreciated

Rules for posting on the verbal forum

Retired Moderator
Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 3968
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

27 Dec 2012, 07:34
3
KUDOS
IMO, the approach to this topic would be

(A) a method to protect – Animal shields are not a method. They are just materials so drop this

(B) as a method protecting --- same as in A

(C) protecting --- protecting modifies the simple clause preceding it. Correct choice

(D) as a protection of --- shields are not[protection or protections

(E) to protect --- The tricky issue here is the that we cannot idiomatically use an infinitive after a comma.
_________________

“Better than a thousand days of diligent study is one day with a great teacher” – a Japanese proverb.
9884544509

BSchool Forum Moderator
Joined: 23 Jul 2010
Posts: 558
GPA: 3.4
WE: General Management (Non-Profit and Government)
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

27 Dec 2012, 08:24
well the bigger issue with E is that use of 'to+verb' ie to protect changes the meaning of the sentence altogether.

Posted from my mobile device
VP
Status: Been a long time guys...
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Posts: 1381
Location: United States (NY)
Concentration: Finance, Marketing
GPA: 3.75
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Jan 2013, 12:11
2
KUDOS
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
targetgmatchotu wrote:
For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A. a method to protect

B. as a method protecting

C. protecting

D. as a protection of

E. to protect

Not convinced with the old discussions on this, plz throw some light and concepts

Hii Saurabh.
Logic of the sentence is:
1)For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa
2) animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment,
3) These military equipments were used to protect warriors.

Now error analysis:
A) The military equipments were not methods.
B) An ing verb without comma will modify just the preceding noun. Hence in this case, the implied meaning is that the method is protecting warriors. Without comma, the construction becomes very ambigous.
C) Correct choice. An verb-ing preceded by a comma modifies the entire preceding clause and hence implies that animal-hide shields with wooden frames is protectig the warriors.
D) Method as a protection- illogical
E) Infinitives are not preceded by a comma. Incorrect

+1C
Hope that helps.
_________________
VP
Joined: 09 Jun 2010
Posts: 1416
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Jan 2013, 22:56
this problem is in og10 and so maybe old to study

I find a problem

C is correct, I agree.

but

in A, "a method..." can modify the whole preceding clause and is correct. A is also correct

a similar example is

I learn gmat, a good thing many persons know.

am I correct, pls help. i am confused.
VP
Status: Been a long time guys...
Joined: 03 Feb 2011
Posts: 1381
Location: United States (NY)
Concentration: Finance, Marketing
GPA: 3.75
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

10 Jan 2013, 00:43
thangvietnam wrote:
this problem is in og10 and so maybe old to study

I find a problem

C is correct, I agree.

but

in A, "a method..." can modify the whole preceding clause and is correct. A is also correct

a similar example is

I learn gmat, a good thing many persons know.

am I correct, pls help. i am confused.

Unless the phrase is an Absolute Phrase, it cannot modify the preceding clause.
The preceding clause can be entirely modified by:
1) Absolute Phrase
2) ", verb-ing"
Apart from this, I don't think that the preceding clause can me modified.
_________________
Intern
Joined: 29 May 2013
Posts: 9
Concentration: Operations, Strategy
Schools: ISB '15
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

22 Aug 2013, 23:41
Sachin9 wrote:
Hi deepak,

So participial phrases are basically -ING verb phrases that are separated with a comma (,) from the rest of the sentence.

So in this case, "protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears" is the participial phrase.

What is this phrase describing? Structurally, it is positioned to describe "animal-hide shields."

If you're not sure, you can always flip it and read it like this:

"Protecting warriors against enemy arrows, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment."

Ask yourself if this makes sense.

Do "shields" "protect warriors against enemy arrows"? Sure! So you know this makes sense.

You can read more of a detailed explanation of this question here: http://www.gmatpill.com/practice-questi ... orrection/

amazing.. Why is D wrong? [/quote][/quote]

Because comma is fixed before underlined portion, infinitive will not work here.

Pls note: if the clause before comma is non essential then it depends on the main clause.

Posted from GMAT ToolKit
Director
Joined: 03 Aug 2012
Posts: 893
Concentration: General Management, General Management
GMAT 1: 630 Q47 V29
GMAT 2: 680 Q50 V32
GPA: 3.7
WE: Information Technology (Investment Banking)
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 Aug 2013, 02:43
For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A. a method to protect (military equipment cannot be a method)

B. as a method protecting ( Method doesn't do protecting instead the animal shields do the protecting)

C. protecting ( This one correctly modifiers the noun in the preceding clause "animal-shields")

D. as a protection of ( Although grammatically correct choice, wordiness is the issue here)

E. to protect ( "to protect " is the purpose and shouldn't follow a comma)

Although I cannot argue against the OG's explanation, I have a query related to answer choice (E):

-ING modifier has three forms:

(1). Modifies NOUN
(2). Modifies verb and verb's subject
(3). Result of the main clause

Here the -ING modifier functions clearly as (1). as it modifies "Shields"

Meaning: Shields protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment

But the option (E) explanation by OG is

Although the infinitive to protect would work if it were not preceded by a comma, it cannot act as a nonrestrictive adjectival
phrase modifying items

We aren't modifying ITEMS here , we are modifying "SHIELDS" here. So why this explanation?

Furthermore, the explanation for the correctness of option (C) is

Correct. In this sentence, protecting properly
introduces a modifying phrase revealing the
purpose of the items.

Rgds,
TGC !
_________________

Rgds,
TGC!
_____________________________________________________________________
I Assisted You => KUDOS Please
_____________________________________________________________________________

Last edited by Narenn on 26 Aug 2013, 12:01, edited 1 time in total.
Merging Similar Topics.
Manager
Joined: 31 May 2012
Posts: 158
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

06 Apr 2014, 12:33
"Animal-hide shields were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears"

Even above sentence is correct, this type of sentence (simplified) is rarely or never read by me before in English. I request you to provide me few similar examples of this type.
Director
Joined: 18 Oct 2014
Posts: 908
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 660 Q49 V31
GPA: 3.98
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

31 Jul 2016, 09:38
TGC wrote:
For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A. a method to protect

B. as a method protecting

C. protecting

D. as a protection of

E. to protect

Not convinced with the old discussions on this, plz throw some light and concepts

'a method to protect' must modify the previous noun- 'military equipment'. But, military equipment is not a 'method'. A and B are out.

'to protect' must not be followed by ','. E is out.

'as a protection of' what?? Not right.

C is the right option.

Infact if we flip the sentence, we see that 'protecting' correctly modifies following sentence.

Protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment.
_________________

I welcome critical analysis of my post!! That will help me reach 700+

Senior Manager
Joined: 07 Sep 2014
Posts: 376
Concentration: Finance, Marketing
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

31 Jul 2016, 23:58
A - Wrong --> "a method" is wrong here.

animal-hide shields with wooden
frames were essential items of military equipment --> it's not a method.

E is wrong because comma before "to" is wrong.

I believe if sentence is written like this:

animal-hide shields with wooden
frames were essential items of military equipment to protect warriors against enemy arrows
and spears. --> then it's right.
BSchool Forum Moderator
Status: Aiming 800 Q51 V51
Joined: 18 Jul 2015
Posts: 1871
Location: India
GMAT 1: 670 Q50 V32
GMAT 2: 700 Q50 V34
GPA: 3.65
WE: Brand Management (Health Care)
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

12 Mar 2017, 02:07
As per the meaning of the sentence, shields were important for them as these shields protect then from something.

Clearly, C maintains the meaning and this the correct answer.
_________________

Good Luck

Intern
Joined: 01 Aug 2016
Posts: 28
Schools: ISB '18
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

12 Mar 2017, 04:38
abhimahna wrote:
As per the meaning of the sentence, shields were important for them as these shields protect then from something.

Clearly, C maintains the meaning and this the correct answer.

I'm still not getting the answer. I studied "to verb vs for verb-ing notes" also but this question is still confusing

Here if you want to go with "to verb" then you should have a purpose in the passage. Here in the main question the soldiers hide their weapons to protect from enemies.

They hide weapons is the context. Purpose is to protect them from enemies.

But the answer is "for protecting". According to you if i replace "to protect" in the actual sentence the meaning will change. Can you help me in this?

abhimahna egmat
BSchool Forum Moderator
Status: Aiming 800 Q51 V51
Joined: 18 Jul 2015
Posts: 1871
Location: India
GMAT 1: 670 Q50 V32
GMAT 2: 700 Q50 V34
GPA: 3.65
WE: Brand Management (Health Care)
Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima [#permalink]

### Show Tags

12 Mar 2017, 05:33
sai897 wrote:
I'm still not getting the answer. I studied "to verb vs for verb-ing notes" also but this question is still confusing

Here if you want to go with "to verb" then you should have a purpose in the passage. Here in the main question the soldiers hide their weapons to protect from enemies.

They hide weapons is the context. Purpose is to protect them from enemies.

But the answer is "for protecting". According to you if i replace "to protect" in the actual sentence the meaning will change. Can you help me in this?

abhimahna egmat

I understand your point but here as per the question the meaning is certain tools are important items and then we are told why are they important/how are they useful. They are important because they protect warriors against enemies.

Also, answer is not 'for protecting' but 'protecting'. Meaning tools are essential as they have a consequence of protecting.

Take these examples:

I want to give GMAT to get an admit in Harvard. Here the purpose/intend is given.

I woke up late in the morning, missing my GMAT exam. Here the consequence is given.
_________________

Good Luck

Re: For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, anima   [#permalink] 12 Mar 2017, 05:33

Go to page   Previous    1   2   [ 39 posts ]

Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
1 Marston was an early seventeenth-century dramatist, and it is likely 3 13 Dec 2015, 05:58
42 By the mid-seventeenth century, Amsterdam had built a new 10 28 Jul 2016, 04:36
By the mid-seventeenth century, Amsterdam had built a new 1 10 Apr 2012, 17:33
6 By the mid-seventeenth century, Amsterdam had built a new 9 15 Sep 2015, 04:09
6 By the mid-seventeenth century, Amsterdam had built a new 9 12 Nov 2015, 06:07
Display posts from previous: Sort by