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For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in [#permalink]

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For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A) a method to protect
B) as a method protecting
C) protecting
D) as a protection of
E) to protect

Guys, I need to know why the wrong choices are really wrong. Could you please explain your reasons of eliminating an answer choice in this case? I mean all the wrong choices.

I appreciate your inputs.

thanks
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deepaksharma1986 wrote:
bmwhype2 wrote:
For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

Dependent clause, independent clause, participial phrase.

participial phrases are extremely important on the GMAT test. Once I knew what they were, I realized that many questions contain this structure.


Hi, could anyone please explain what participle phrases/clauses mean? I am not at all clear on that concept. It'll be great if anyone could help on this. Thanks.


Hi deepak,

So participial phrases are basically -ING verb phrases that are separated with a comma (,) from the rest of the sentence.

So in this case, "protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears" is the participial phrase.

What is this phrase describing? Structurally, it is positioned to describe "animal-hide shields."

If you're not sure, you can always flip it and read it like this:

"Protecting warriors against enemy arrows, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment."

Ask yourself if this makes sense.

Do "shields" "protect warriors against enemy arrows"? Sure! So you know this makes sense.

You can read more of a detailed explanation of this question here: http://www.gmatpill.com/practice-questi ... orrection/
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For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in [#permalink]

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For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A. a method to protect

B. as a method protecting

C. protecting

D. as a protection of

E. to protect

Not convinced with the old discussions on this, plz throw some light and concepts
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Re: SC- Ashanti [#permalink]

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For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A. a method to protect
Shields are not methods....kung fu is a method :D
B. as a method protecting
Shields are not methods....kung fu is a method :D
C. protecting
they do not protect them now....it was in the 17th century.
D. as a protection of
Awkward use
E. to protect
Correct

lol...I got this correct earlier on...and forgot about my fundamentls...damn....here's the reasoing from my previous post...

"Honestly it took me more than a minute to answer this. Here's my reasoning

I chose C

D was the first option that i eliminated as

, as a protection of what?? warriors ??....well we never say as a protection of who...do we?? .....nonetheless both are not idiomatic...

A and B were out because weapons are forms of self - defense and not ways/methods of self-defense. We can say Karate is method but do we say knife/gun is a method??....errrr no...

I got stuck with E, cause 'to protect someone' is grammatically correct , such as 'I want you to protect him', but the issue now comes down to modifiers. So in our previous example we would not go about writing 'I want you, to protect him' but the usage of 'x, protecting him' where protecting modifies x is the right usage. Trust me the ',' makes the difference here.... "

Its C guys!!!

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Re: For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in [#permalink]

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IMO, the approach to this topic would be

(A) a method to protect – Animal shields are not a method. They are just materials so drop this

(B) as a method protecting --- same as in A

(C) protecting --- protecting modifies the simple clause preceding it. Correct choice

(D) as a protection of --- shields are not[protection or protections

(E) to protect --- The tricky issue here is the that we cannot idiomatically use an infinitive after a comma.
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To confirm:

so the participial phrase (protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears) in our case modifies the independent clause (its subject) (animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment) and not the noun (military equipment). Is that correct?


-> Would the following structure be incorrect then?
For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment that protected warriors against enemy arrows and spears

What do you guys think?
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For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in [#permalink]

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For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.
(A) a method to protect
(B) as a method protecting
(C) protecting
(D) as a protection of
(E) to protect

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Re: For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in [#permalink]

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miaojunmaggie wrote:
can anyone explain why we cannot use "to protect" here? the OG explanation is sort of strange. What does it mean by saying that "to protect" cannot act as a nonrestrictive adjectival phrase modifying items? What's nonrestrictive adj.?


First of all, in the original sentence, "a method," as a noun, seems most syntactically comparable to another noun. But syntactically it looks as though this "method" refers to "items of military equipment," since adjectives (with the sole exception of predicate adjectives) cannot be separated from the nouns they modify by conjugated verbs. Semantically, we WANT the "method" to be the shields. But that is ungrammatical. Furthermore, a "method" is not strictly speaking a tangible thing such as a shield, so semantically that seems a little bit weird.

It is better to use "protecting" rather than "a method to protect" or even "a method of protecting" since the gerundative phrase can be an adverb and therefore refer to the whole preceding clause.

Second, infinitive phrases tend to work best when they are used as nouns, not as modifiers. "A method to protect" would not be as good as "a method of protecting," particularly since "a method to protect" appears to imply that the method is DESTINED or FORCED to do the protecting.
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Re: For members of the seventeenth-century [#permalink]

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targetgmatchotu wrote:
For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A. a method to protect

B. as a method protecting

C. protecting

D. as a protection of

E. to protect

Not convinced with the old discussions on this, plz throw some light and concepts

Hii Saurabh.
Logic of the sentence is:
1)For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa
2) animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment,
3) These military equipments were used to protect warriors.

Now error analysis:
A) The military equipments were not methods.
B) An ing verb without comma will modify just the preceding noun. Hence in this case, the implied meaning is that the method is protecting warriors. Without comma, the construction becomes very ambigous.
C) Correct choice. An verb-ing preceded by a comma modifies the entire preceding clause and hence implies that animal-hide shields with wooden frames is protectig the warriors.
D) Method as a protection- illogical
E) Infinitives are not preceded by a comma. Incorrect

+1C
Hope that helps.
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Re: SC: Participle or the infinitive? [#permalink]

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I think the placement of the comma before the underlined portion is key here. You do not use a comma before an infinitive that expresses purpose - therefore: "..., to protect warriors against...." is incorrect because of the comma.
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Re: SC: Participle or the infinitive? [#permalink]

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I agree with C. I used the same logic of looking at the comma to eliminate E.
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ugimba wrote:
306. For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.
(A) a method to protect
(B) as a method protecting
(C) protecting
(D) as a protection of
(E) to protect

please explain .. how do you know/conclude the answer has to be a regular clause or modifier here? or explain a way how you come to the conclusion to get the answer?


IMO C). But confused..
"protecting" refers to the "subject + verb" since it is a verb modifier.

A) wrong - noun modified does not modify entire clause, it is not near to noun.
B) as a method to protect - "animal-hide shields" is not method but it is item.
D) as a protection of - same as B.
E) to protect - "infinitive form" cannot modify the clause.
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Re: Ashanti tribe [#permalink]

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shoonya wrote:
For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A) a method to protect
B) as a method protecting
C) protecting
D) as a protection of
E) to protect

Guys, I need to know why the wrong choices are really wrong. Could you please explain your reasons of eliminating an answer choice in this case? I mean all the wrong choices.

I appreciate your inputs.

thanks


C, The sentence test word choice.
"animal-hide shields" is not a method => eliminate A,B
(D)" as a protection of" is wordy unessarilly
(E):"to protect" we are not talking about the purpose so to-inf is not appropriate here.
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talking about result without an action or event... [#permalink]

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For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.
(A) a method to protect
(B) as a method protecting
(C) protecting
(D) as a protection of
(E) to protect


Read below after you make a decision on the answer --




I see we can eliminate:
1. A and B - "animal-hide shields with wooden frames" isn't a method, but just an equipment. so, eliminated.
2. D - I guess we can accept this without a comma, so eliminated.
3. E - same as D.

Still C doesn't seem to be a best fit. Of the 3 parts we have here separated by commas in this sentence, i guess last part represents a result when it started by a gerund (protecting). We need to have an action or event in the 2nd part before we talk about result. So, i am not 100% convinced.

any thoughts?
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Re: For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in [#permalink]

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abhijitlandge wrote:
Dear All,
Pls refer to the following problem. I want to clear my concept about in which situations should we prefer ing form of verb to infinitive form.t

For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

(A) a method to protect

(B) as a method protecting

(C) protecting

(D) as a protection of

(E) to protect

My first preference was to E and second preference was to C
Official Answer is C

Pls Help !


Please read the Article below it will help you to undertsand the usage of 'to+verb" [as in choice E]
to-verb-vs-for-verb-ing-144017.html

For C 'verb-ing modifiers' are used Either to show a ongoing action/event OR to show a consequence of an action.Where the reason/cause is usually in the preceding clause

for example --animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment--REASON, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears.-CONSEQUENCE

using to protect here will change the meaning, hence its wrong.

Hope its clear
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gmatpill wrote:
deepaksharma1986 wrote:
bmwhype2 wrote:
For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

Dependent clause, independent clause, participial phrase.

participial phrases are extremely important on the GMAT test. Once I knew what they were, I realized that many questions contain this structure.


Hi, could anyone please explain what participle phrases/clauses mean? I am not at all clear on that concept. It'll be great if anyone could help on this. Thanks.


Hi deepak,

So participial phrases are basically -ING verb phrases that are separated with a comma (,) from the rest of the sentence.

So in this case, "protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears" is the participial phrase.

What is this phrase describing? Structurally, it is positioned to describe "animal-hide shields."

If you're not sure, you can always flip it and read it like this:

"Protecting warriors against enemy arrows, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment."

Ask yourself if this makes sense.

Do "shields" "protect warriors against enemy arrows"? Sure! So you know this makes sense.

You can read more of a detailed explanation of this question here: http://www.gmatpill.com/practice-questi ... orrection/


When the order is changed as you said, it sounds way more natural to use "to protect"...

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Re: Ashanti tribe [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2007, 23:15
shoonya wrote:
For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

A) a method to protect
B) as a method protecting
C) protecting
D) as a protection of
E) to protect

Guys, I need to know why the wrong choices are really wrong. Could you please explain your reasons of eliminating an answer choice in this case? I mean all the wrong choices.

I appreciate your inputs.

thanks


C.

A) a method to protect => its not a method.
B) as a method protecting => use of as wrong.
C) protecting => participal modifier - correct for me.
D) as a protection of => same as b.
E) to protect => infinitive is wrong.
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For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

Dependent clause, independent clause, participial phrase.

participial phrases are extremely important on the GMAT test. Once I knew what they were, I realized that many questions contain this structure.
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New post 31 Jul 2007, 14:29
bmwhype2 wrote:
For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

Dependent clause, independent clause, participial phrase.

participial phrases are extremely important on the GMAT test. Once I knew what they were, I realized that many questions contain this structure.


Just out of curiousity, what other orders are possible for the three items in order for a sentence to be GMAT-ically correct? :)

Last edited by beckee529 on 31 Jul 2007, 22:21, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 31 Jul 2007, 14:57
beckee529 wrote:
bmwhype2 wrote:
For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears.

Dependent clause, independent clause, participial phrase.

participial phrases are extremely important on the GMAT test. Once I knew what they were, I realized that many questions contain this structure.


Just out of curiousity, what other orders are possible for the three items in order for a sentence to me GMAT-ically correct? :)

As far as I know, they can come in any combination, bar participal phrase cannot modify dependent clause.

Participal phrase attached to the independent clause with a comma modifies a subject of the independent clause

In the example below, "protecting blah blah...." is modifying "animal-hide shields with wooden frames".

For members of the seventeenth century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears.
  [#permalink] 31 Jul 2007, 14:57

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