For some birds the sense of smell appears to play a role in : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# For some birds the sense of smell appears to play a role in

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Manager
Joined: 15 May 2006
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For some birds the sense of smell appears to play a role in [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2006, 21:28
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For some birds the sense of smell appears to play a role in navigation, since pigeons with surgically removed olfactory nerves were found to have increased difficulties in homing.
(A) were found to have increased difficulties
(B) have been found to have increased difficulty
(C) were found to have increasing difficulty
(D) had been found to have increased difficulties
(E) have been found to have increasing difficulties
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Manager
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17 Jun 2006, 21:35
why not A ??

why not use simple past tense , any rule to decide when to use the past participle form
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17 Jun 2006, 21:39
We are relating what is happening presently (sense of smell playing a role in navigation) to the results of a study that has been done in the past (brutal removal of olfactory nerve )

So, I guess, B. 'increased difficulty' seems better than 'increased difficulties'.
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17 Jun 2006, 23:24
difficulty in v-ing~ is idiomatic

Taking (B) also
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17 Jun 2006, 23:41
foolz_rulz wrote:
For some birds the sense of smell appears to play a role in navigation, since pigeons with surgically removed olfactory nerves were found to have increased difficulties in homing.
(A) were found to have increased difficulties
(B) have been found to have increased difficulty
(C) were found to have increasing difficulty
(D) had been found to have increased difficulties
(E) have been found to have increasing difficulties

it should be present perfect coz the fact is up to now. B is better with "difficulty"
Re: SC -- Pigeons   [#permalink] 17 Jun 2006, 23:41
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