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# For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h

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For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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26 Dec 2009, 10:44
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For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing an average of 2,275 gallons of milk each per year.

(A) providing them with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing
(B) providing them with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, the Holstein cow produces
(C) provided with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing
(D) provided with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, the Holstein cow produces
(E) provided with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, Holstein cows will produce
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 03 Jun 2017, 03:55, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the OA

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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2009, 14:00
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I think E might be appealing to you because by itself, the underlined part sounds good. This sentence would be OK:

Provided with high-energy feed and milked regularly, Holstein cows will produce an average of 2,275 gallons of milk each per year.
(Structure: Modifier [provided and milked], Subject [H. cows] Verb [will produce] Object [an average of ....])

Note the parallelism between provided and milked. Also note that there is no comma between them, as there are just two actions that must be done for the cows. For lists of two things, we see "X and Y" with no comma. For lists of three or more things, we see "X, Y, and Z" and the GMAT puts a comma between each list item, including one before the final "and."

So, my question on (E) is where's the third list item that justifies the comma before "and milked"? I suppose it might be "cool," and we are supposed to think of provided and milked as descriptions of the cows rather than actions done for the cows. That is,

(1) For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool,
(2) For the farmer who takes care to keep them provided with high-energy feed,
(3) For the farmer who takes care to keep them milked regularly,
.....Holstein cows will produce ...

But looking at the other choices the same way (what three things are parallel?), you can't eliminate 4 choices for bad parallelism. There's a second judgement call about verb tense, and I'm not sure the question gives you enough context to rule out one tense in favor of another. What's the source of the question?
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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2009, 12:12
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We continued this discussion via private message, but here's a summary for the benefit of others.

Thanks for wonderful break up , it gives me more insight on this.

The source of the notes is one of these discussion forums' notes and the right answer is E in fact . But I do not get it fully, why this is the answer?

I believe, the given sentence being a general statement, "are producing" progressive tense won't make sense , so E is correct.
I agree, the generality of this statement is key. By using the future tense, (E) makes a prediction or statement of expectations.

In that case, I would like to ask parallelism of A is correct or incorrect if we ignore tense issue ?
I think the parallelism of (A) is still incorrect, and punctuation has something to do with it. Here's (A), with color-coding of what might be parallel:

For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing an average of 2,275 gallons of milk each per year.

Note that "producing" cannot be parallel to the other -ing words!! "Providing" and "milking" act as modifiers, whereas "are producing" is a tensed verb. Also, if "producing" were in our list of three things, the "and" would be in front of the third item, not the second.

There's no -ing word before the first comma to parallel "providing" and "milking," so this is just a list of two things and there's no reason to have a comma in front of "and milking" at all.

Finally, even if we took the comma out, it doesn't make sense for "providing" and "milking" to be used as adverbial modifiers of "takes care to keep them cool." Providing food and milking them aren't ways to keep cows cool, unless there's something important about cow tending that I am unaware of (quite likely!). The structure of (A) could be OK, if we solved both the comma problem and the meaning problem:

For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with adequate water and air-conditioning their shelters in the summer, Holstein cows are producing (better, as discussed above: will produce) an average of 2,275 gallons of milk each per year.
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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2010, 11:10
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I've come around to (E) on this one; I have to admit I wasn't thrilled with it and probably would have answered this incorrectly under timed circumstances!

cccmom wrote:
Esledge,
What about not repeating them on this one? How does that rule work with this question? Can you eliminate them in the other answer choices and have the meaning clear from the first part which says For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, and the last part which mentions the Holstein cows?
Thanks,
CCCMom

You don't have to repeat them for the sake of either parallelism or clarity. You DO have to have the plural Holstein cows as the subject (not the singular the Holstein cow), to serve as the referent for any plural them's in the modifier.

Here's another example, similar to (E):

For the handler who keeps them fit, well trained and intellectually stimulated, German Shepards will be loyal and competent companions.

See how the parallel structure comes after them? It's as if them gets used three times: keeps them fit, keeps them trained, keeps them stimulated.
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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2010, 23:46
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This one was very tricky. I was trying to find an option where all the actions are in parallel (normal practice for sentences with a list of actions). But the answer options were not as per my logic.
The only option that makes sense is if the sentence is describing a conditional out come. If A is provided with X and Y it will produce B.

Only option E makes sense. D comes close but looses out to E because "produces" fails to convey the idea of conditional outcome.

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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2010, 17:20
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iDisappear wrote:
For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with high-energy
feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing
an average of 2,275
gallons of milk each per year.
A. providing them with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are
producing
B. providing them with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, the Holstein cow
produces
C. provided with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are
producing
D. provided with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, the Holstein cow produces
E. provided with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, Holstein cows will produce

tricky indeed....was so close going for B

*to keep them cool* therefre the subject is plural
B,D eliminated
GMAT never uses present continuous (BE -ing) to describe a habit, fact, future etc......
therefore A, C eliminated, with E the only option

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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2010, 05:55
rohitgoel15 wrote:
I fell for A

zisis wrote:
iDisappear wrote:
GMAT never uses present continuous (BE -ing) to describe a habit, fact, future etc......
therefore A, C eliminated, with E the only option

hi @zisis,
can you please exp this rule better?

@rohitgoel15
to my understanding -

if something is a fact GMAT will use simple present to describe it
eg. The farmer is rich
eg2. the cows produce 43345235 barrels of milk
etc

if something is going to happen in the future, GMAT will use a future tense ie "will"
the cows will produce 58937458 barrels of milk

again, my understand and please people correct me if i am wrong, GMAT will rarely use the "be -ing" (present continuous) tense... only if something is happening currently and has duration.....present continuous is a difficult to use tense ( i can recall a book wholly written in present continuous) and is rarely applicable to written word.....

does the above make sense?

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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2010, 20:53
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iDisappear wrote:
For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with high-energy
feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing
an average of 2,275
gallons of milk each per year.
A. providing them with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are
producing
B. providing them with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, the Holstein cow
produces
C. provided with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are
producing
D. provided with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, the Holstein cow produces
E. provided with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, Holstein cows will produce

This one was very tricky. First I chose B but after giving it a closer look I chose E.
takes acre to keep them cool implies that it should be COWS.
SO A, C and E are left
For Farmers who takes .... means its a conditional sentence. So the outcome of the condition has to be in future.
SO clearly E

Good question

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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2010, 23:14
provided...... and milked..... are two opening modifiers which refer to holestian cows.Now, the question doesnt talk about present continuous state of activities , so A is out.
In D and E, since non underlined part mentions EACH we must choose plural cows - answer choice E.. correct me if i am wrong anywher
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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2010, 21:04
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The structure of this sentence took me a moment to digest, so I went with the simple pronoun split first ("cows" versus " cow").

The first "them" is not underlined, so we must be looking for a plural subject--lose B and D.

Examining the remaining choices shows us two more splits -- the progressive tense verb ("are producing" ) versus the future tense ("will produce"), and the type of modifier (-ing versus past participle).

Whenever I see a list of things, I tend to check for parallelism right away--the items in the list should be parallel OR the nonparallel items should be subordinate/have a clear-in-meaning reason for being structurally different from the rest of the items in the list. Parallelism is good not because of any intrinsic value, but because the clarity of a sentence's meaning is served by that parallel structure. If the meaning doesn't warrant parallelism, don't force the issue.

If we look at choice A, then "providing them.....regularly" would have to be considered a subordinate clause ("providing" is not parallel to "cool" because "providing" refers back to the farmer rather than the cows, so it cannot be part of a properly parallel list).

The structure of A would then seem to be--
For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool,
(1) providing them with high-energy feed,
(2) and milking them regularly
Holstein cows....

The structure is still a little awkward because we have not one but TWO additional -ing modifiers that are subordinate before we reach the subject of the sentence (the cows). Are these two additional modifiers, separated by a comma (which would seem to suggest a list of 3+ items), of same "weight" and both less important than the fact that the cows are kept cool?

Whereas in E, the meaning is clear, and clearly supported by parallel structure--

For the farmer who takes care to keep them
(1) cool,
(2) provided with high-energy feed,*
(3) and milked regularly,*
Holstein cows....

Choice C is a mix of A and E (provided/milking) so can be considered neither a proper subordinate clause nor a proper parallel list-- lose C.

E has clean parallelism and avoids that unnecessary usage of the present progressive (are providing) in A that the above poster mentioned.

*note: remember that past participles can serve as adjectives!
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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2010, 21:55
E

Great explanation Parker.

Splitting between cows and the cow would have saved me a lot of time.

I didn't see the distinction until I narrowed the answer choices to D and E.
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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2010, 19:15
Well in very formal English - Plants grow,for the Sun shines.

For can be replaced by Because and the sentence structure becomes like this -

Because the Sun shines,plants 'will' grow.
I followed the same structure here apart from POE'ing out the other options with parallelism and Subject Verb agreement.

I believe this will help.
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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2012, 22:01
parker wrote:
If we look at choice A, then "providing them.....regularly" would have to be considered a subordinate clause ("providing" is not parallel to "cool" because "providing" refers back to the farmer rather than the cows, so it cannot be part of a properly parallel list).

The structure of A would then seem to be--
For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool,
(1) providing them with high-energy feed,
(2) and milking them regularly
Holstein cows....

The structure is still a little awkward because we have not one but TWO additional -ing modifiers that are subordinate before we reach the subject of the sentence (the cows). Are these two additional modifiers, separated by a comma (which would seem to suggest a list of 3+ items), of same "weight" and both less important than the fact that the cows are kept cool?

Whereas in E, the meaning is clear, and clearly supported by parallel structure--

For the farmer who takes care to keep them
(1) cool,
(2) provided with high-energy feed,*
(3) and milked regularly,*
Holstein cows....

I am not able to get this explanation.
Howz A wrong and E correct ?

For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, to provide them with high-energy
feed, and to milk them regularly, Holstein cows are producing an average of 2,275
gallons of milk each per year.

Then the explanation provided above would be justified. But E uses the same structure as used by A, with the only difference that E uses past participle and A uses present participle.

Can anybody clear this doubt ?

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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2012, 22:29
Parse it as:
Farmer takes care to
KEEP them cool,
KEEP them provided with high energy food,
KEEP them milked regularly.

Hence, for //ism, E.

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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2012, 13:46
For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool : Them (Plural ) ........ So it will be Cows and not Cow ( Singular )

thus B n D - eliminated

Bxn A / C /E :

the structure/intent of the sentence -

If u care TO (INFINITIVE- always implies INTENT) do X ,....... Y WILL happen.

We can easily chop off A n C ( are producing ) and zone in on E.

Leading to my take E: If farmers take care to keep Cows cool,...... Cows WILL provide Y ( apart from Parallelism)

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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2012, 21:42
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mohan514 wrote:
skmskm wrote:
For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool : Them (Plural ) ........ So it will be Cows and not Cow ( Singular )

thus B n D - eliminated

Bxn A / C /E :

the structure/intent of the sentence -

If u care TO (INFINITIVE- always implies INTENT) do X ,....... Y WILL happen.

We can easily chop off A n C ( are producing ) and zone in on E.

Leading to my take E: If farmers take care to keep Cows cool,...... Cows WILL provide Y ( apart from Parallelism)

looks like you have got a good logic for questions of this type whjere infinitive is used..

i wasnt able to dessect the question as you did..

hi Mohan,

First thing first :

1.I checked the non underlined portion : Found THEM .................. what them refers to = COWS thus PLURAL
2. Verical scan to find any clue ========= VOILA B & D speaks of singular COW = Eliminated
3. Left with A / C / E
4. Rereading the stem : To get the intent/ meaning

Infinitives always suggest INTENT : To draw an analogy ,

If Mohan cares TO KEEP up the hard work , Mohan ..................... fetch a 750 on GMAT

Just from sheer logic & our daily usage, what can you insert in the blank ( Forget all Grammar & IF / THEN construction / Hypo subjunctives everything) ........................... Guess nothing but WILL

5. Checked A n C :
If Gmat aspirants care TO KEEP up the hard work ,............. they are fetching 750 on GMAT ( Does it make sense? ) = Eliminated

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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2012, 23:40
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1.I checked the non underlined portion : Found THEM .................. what them refers to = COWS thus PLURAL
2. Verical scan to find any clue ========= VOILA B & D speaks of singular COW = Eliminated
3. Left with A / C / E
4. Rereading the stem : To get the intent/ meaning

Infinitives always suggest INTENT : To draw an analogy ,

If Mohan cares TO KEEP up the hard work , Mohan ..................... fetch a 750 on GMAT

Just from sheer logic & our daily usage, what can you insert in the blank ( Forget all Grammar & IF / THEN construction / Hypo subjunctives everything) ........................... Guess nothing but WILL

5. Checked A n C :
If Gmat aspirants care TO KEEP up the hard work ,............. they are fetching 750 on GMAT ( Does it make sense? ) = Eliminated

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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2012, 00:41
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akashv wrote:
I came accross this question in GMAT Prep:

For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing an average of 2,275 gallons of milk each per year.
a. providing them with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing
b.providing them with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, the Holstein cow produces
c.provided with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing
d.provided with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, the Holstein cow produces
e.provided with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, Holstein cows will produce

I eliminated B-D because of obvious parallelism errors, but was stuck with A and E.

Is A wrong only because of "are producing"?

Is "providing them with and milking them correct"?

Is there any other explanation (The above two are my guesses)

Analyze the situation

A) too may them: the question became confused

B and C are not parallel : providing and milked

Between D and E: think about the meaning of the sentece: if you provided and milked the cow, then they WILL produce milk. Moreover, THE holstein cows is wrong.

E wins.
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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2012, 14:18
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Hi Akash,

For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing an average of 2,275 gallons of milk each per year.

Well, this question is certainly confusing and not written in the best possible manner. However let’s get into the logic of this sentence. The sentence is saying that for the farmers who takes care of the Holstein cows in certain ways, these cows produce an average of 2,275 gallons of milk each per year. Now here comes the tricky part. The ways in which the farmers takes care of these cows is that he takes care:
a. to keep them cool,
b. to keep them provided with high-energy feed, and
c. to keep them milked regularly.

1. From the original sentence, it is clear that the entities in the list are not parallel. While “cool” is an adjective, “providing…” and “milking…” are working as gerunds (nouns) in this sentence.
2. In case, if you could not figure out the correct parallel list to rectify it, look at the problem this way. “providing…” and “milking…” are the verb-ing modifiers preceded by comma. This means that they are modifying the preceding clause. However, it does not make sense to say that the farmer keeps the cows cool by providing them good feed and by milking them. So these modifiers do not fit here.
3. Also notice the inconsistent verb tenses. This sentence is providing general information about the Holstein cows. Using present continuous tense “are producing” does not make sense here.

POE:

a. providing them with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

b. providing them with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, the Holstein cow produces: Incorrect.
1. The verb-ing modifier “providing…” does not make sense as in choice A.
2. The entities in the list are still not parallel.
3. The singular antecedent “the Holstein cow” does not agree in number with plural pronoun “them”.

c. provided with high-energy feed, and milking them regularly, Holstein cows are producing: Incorrect.
1. Verb-ing modifier “milking…” does not make sense.
2. The entities in the list are still not parallel.
3. Use of “are producing” is incorrect.

d. provided with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, the Holstein cow produces: Incorrect. The singular antecedent “the Holstein cow” does not agree in number with plural pronoun “them”.

e. provided with high-energy feed, and milked regularly, Holstein cows will produce: Correct. The use of future “will produce” is correct because we have a causal relationship here. If the farmers take care of the cows in certain ways, then the cows produce certain amount of milk. The cause is written in the simple present. Hence, the effect can be written in either simple present tense or simple future tense.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2012, 10:11
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KUDOS
Shraddha, fantastic explanation. I struggled with this question during my test and I decided to move on and selected random.

I was inclined towards E but the comma ',and' after high energy feed was bothering me. This comma proves that the provided-milked is not a modifier. I think I was right but I couldnt see the parallel list. I tried searching for all the possible explanations but yours one is the perfect example of what gmat takers are looking for.
I m sure it would be of great help to gmat-takers if your team pays more attentions on replying such gmatprep questions. Not only does it help to understand the given question, but also it makes sure you won't miss such trap thereafter.
Thanks again.
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Kudos [?]: 1928 [2], given: 235

Re: For the farmer who takes care to keep them cool, providing them with h   [#permalink] 29 Sep 2012, 10:11

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