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# Found only in the Western Hemisphere

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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2016, 13:58
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A) Found only in the western hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends ---incorrect because of wrong modification. Hummingbirds should appear immediately after the climate,

B) Found only in the western hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending —correct choice; ‘their range extending’ is a modifier of the birds surviving through extremes.

c.) Hummingbirds, found only in the western hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending – a fragment without a verb for the subject humming birds

D.)Hummingbirds, found only in the western hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extending from- same error as in C

E.)Hummingbirds are found only in the western hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends – This choice is running into structural problems and therefore a violation of intended meaning. The range that extends is descriptive of the birds’ survival through extremes of climate and not a disparate feature. Therefore, the range has to be subordinated to the surviving act and not be equated with another action verb
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2016, 03:50
OG16 SC126
Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends
- the opening modier should modify birds not their range.
-A is out.

(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
- their range + extending - is a "noun"+"noun modifier" ( I think its called appositive phrase) that can modify the preceding clause (and its verb) or any noun in the precding clause. Here it properly modifies hummingbirds .

(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
- run on sentence (hummingbirds have no verb)

(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
- run on sentence (hummingbirds have no verb)

(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends
- the parallelism's last obejct should be a verb, but instead we have a noun.
- E is out

=> B is correct
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2016, 05:10
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shonakshi wrote:
Found only in the western hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds's range extends from Alaska to Tierra el Fuego,from sea- level rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.
A) Found only in the western hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds's range extends
B) Found only in the western hemisphere, humingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
C.) Hummingbirds, found only in the western hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate , with their range extending
D.) Hummingbirds, found only in he western hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate,their range extending from
E.) Hummingbirds are found only in the western hemisphere , survive through extremes of climate ,and their range extends

Edit: Added underlining, corrected typos

Answer for this is B. You can eliminate A, C and D.
With E the highlighted portion is the modifier for Western hemisphere and not the Humming birds.
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2017, 13:07
Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range
extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sea-level rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and
ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

A. Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’
range extends
What is found in Western Hemisphere ?
Humming Bird …and NOT humming Bird’s Range

B. Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their
range extending
Correct

C. Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate,
with their range extending
Where is the Main Verb for Subject Hummingbirds ??

D. Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate,
their range extends
Same as Option C …missing main verb

E. Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and
their range extends
Two verbs for subject Hummingbirds are “found” and “survive” …here before the second verb “survive” “and” is required.
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2017, 00:24
daagh wrote:
(
Quote:
B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending

Where is the verb in C? It's a fragment

Hi Daagh,

Where is the verb for "their range" in the second clause?
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Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2017, 10:53
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Expert's post
SOUMYAJIT_ wrote:
Hi Daagh,

Where is the verb for "their range" in the second clause?

Dear SOUMYAJIT_,

I'm happy to respond. I hope you don't mind if I answer in the place of my brilliant colleague daagh.

Here's the OA, version (B).
Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.
As always, a brilliantly written question--the official questions always are superb!

As I believe you understand,
Found only in the Western Hemisphere = participial phrase, noun-modifier modifying the subject
hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate = MAIN CLAUSE of the sentence
hummingbirds = the main subject
survive = the main verb, in fact, the only full verb in the entire sentence

Now, what is going on after the word "climate"? We have a [noun] + [participle] structure. If we were trying to construct a second clause, we would have failed utterly here. Nevertheless, this is neither a clause nor a poor attempt at a clause. Instead, we have a very sophisticated grammatical structure known as an absolute phrase. See:
Absolute Phrases on the GMAT

Read that blog article, and let me know if you have any more questions.

Mike
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2017, 11:58
does anyone see any problems other than parallelism in E? I find it difficult to demur an option just due to a parallelism error.
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Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2017, 12:21
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My analysis.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends
This sentence says the humming birds' range is found in the western hemisphere - Incorrect

(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
After the first noun modifier we stop and ask, who or what is found in the western hemisphere? Hummingbird. this answer is correct.

(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
Here if you ignore the noun modifier, the sentence becomes 'Hummingbirds with their range extending from..' - Incorrect

(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
Same as D

(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends
, and is used to separate two independent clauses. If there was no comma after hemisphere but there was a conjunction 'and', it would be grammatically correct since there would be two independent clauses. Since there is a comma it is Incorrect.
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Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2017, 00:00
mikemcgarry wrote:
SOUMYAJIT_ wrote:
Hi Daagh,

Where is the verb for "their range" in the second clause?

Dear SOUMYAJIT_,

I'm happy to respond. I hope you don't mind if I answer in the place of my brilliant colleague daagh.

Here's the OA, version (B).
Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.
As always, a brilliantly written question--the official questions always are superb!

As I believe you understand,
Found only in the Western Hemisphere = participial phrase, noun-modifier modifying the subject
hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate = MAIN CLAUSE of the sentence
hummingbirds = the main subject
survive = the main verb, in fact, the only full verb in the entire sentence

Now, what is going on after the word "climate"? We have a [noun] + [participle] structure. If we were trying to construct a second clause, we would have failed utterly here. Nevertheless, this is neither a clause nor a poor attempt at a clause. Instead, we have a very sophisticated grammatical structure known as an absolute phrase. See:
Absolute Phrases on the GMAT

Read that blog article, and let me know if you have any more questions.

Mike

Hi Mike.

That helps! Thanks!

I have a feeling I might disregard a perfectly written absolute phrase(which is modifying an entire clause) assuming that the portion should have been a clause ,but since it has to verb it is wrong. I think I need to practice these sort of abslolute phrase questions a bit more. I need to spot an absolute phrase froma wrongly written clause. Is there any set of absolute phrase questions that you can suggest me?

Also, is always true that a Noun+Noun Modifier is an absolute phrase ?
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Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2017, 10:28
Hello GMATNinja,

I have a query regarding the absolute phrase at the end of option B.

(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

their range extending from X to Y, from A to B of P and Q.

Since this is officially correct answer, I am guessing its grammatical to omit any connector between the two 'from'? e.g. from X to Y and from A to B.

Can you please throw some light on this sort of construction?
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2017, 12:07
Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends
- opening modifier implies "hummingbirds' range" is found only in western hemisphere...should be "hummingbirds are found there"

(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
- correct as is

(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
- "hummingbirds"..."with their range..." = incorrect.

(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
- same as "C". "hummingbirds"..."their range" = incorrect.

(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends
- "and their range extends" = incorrect. "their range ..." = modifier

key here is to READ FOR MEANING. the main idea here is that hummingbirds survive through extreme climate -- then sentence goes on to give examples (Alaska to Tierra, sealevels to snowfields, etc.)
> understand everything after "extreme climate", aka those examples, are all less important than the main point -- they're all examples/modifiers, etc.

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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2017, 14:21
Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends -Opening modifier should modify birds, not range.
(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending -Correct
(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending -Not a sentence
(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends -their range is nonsensical.
(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends -Wrong usage of their
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Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2017, 14:40
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warriorguy wrote:
Hello GMATNinja,

I have a query regarding the absolute phrase at the end of option B.

(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

their range extending from X to Y, from A to B of P and Q.

Since this is officially correct answer, I am guessing its grammatical to omit any connector between the two 'from'? e.g. from X to Y and from A to B.

Can you please throw some light on this sort of construction?

Hi warriorguy,

Let me try to answer. First of all I would like to draw your attention towards the highlighted part in your statement.
The correct construction is "their range extending from X to Y, from A to B." (I have color coded X,Y,A and B in the original sentence).

Now let us take a day to day life example.

People can go from North to South, from East to West to find their missing family members.
--Here we are not trying to quantify that people really go from North to South first and then from East to West, we are just trying to say that people have no bounds.

Similarly, in the given sentence, we are not trying to say that the humming birds actually survive in those regions, it's just that the humming birds survive a wide variety of climatic changes.
If we say that "The humming birds survive a wide variety of climatic changes, their range extending from X to Y and A to B" we literally mean to say that they survive between the regions X and Y and between wide variety of climatic fluctuations.

When we say that - I love you very much. My love knows no bounds, from head to toe, from front to back; I am all yours - we are just expressing the depths of our love.

I hope it helps.
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2017, 07:46
amatya wrote:
OG16 SC126
Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends
(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends

Press Kudos if you like the post

The answer is B

A the clause before should modify Hummingbirds not their range
B Correct the structure is changes and we have proper meaning
C The main clause does not have the verb and preposition with is incorrectly used
D Again the main clause does not have verb so this option is a fragment .
E this choice was difficult to eliminate , here the meaning is changed as it just gives facts about the humming birds

I would like Experts to please explain E in more detail .

Regards,
Arvind
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2017, 11:02
amatya wrote:
OG16 SC126
Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends
(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends

Press Kudos if you like the post

Option B is the ANSWER
First Part---Adjective Modifier modifying immediate noun(humming birds)
Second Part-Clause with complete verb and subject
Third Part- Present participli--+ing form after comma again a modifier
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2017, 11:03
tanmeetbhatia wrote:
amatya wrote:
OG16 SC126
Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends
(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends

Press Kudos if you like the post

Option B is the ANSWER
First Part---Adjective Modifier modifying immediate noun(humming birds)
Second Part-Clause with complete verb and subject
Third Part- Present participli--+ing form after comma again a modifier

@daagh-please throw some light....
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2017, 11:30
amatya wrote:
OG16 SC126
Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends
(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends

Press Kudos if you like the post

Option B is the winner
Reasons
First part before comma-modifier
Second part-clause with complete subject and verb
Third Part-Again a modifier extending is a modifier
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2017, 11:31
tanmeet wrote:
amatya wrote:
OG16 SC126
Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

(A) Found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, hummingbirds’ range extends
(B) Found only in the Western Hemisphere, hummingbirds survive through extremes of climate, their range extending
(C) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, with their range extending
(D) Hummingbirds, found only in the Western Hemisphere and surviving through extremes of climate, their range extends
(E) Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends

Press Kudos if you like the post

Option B is the winner
Reasons
First part before comma-modifier
Second part-clause with complete subject and verb
Third Part-Again a modifier extending is a modifier

@daagh-Aprt from my explanation can you put some more light on it
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2017, 20:34
B. E is out because their range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet. describes how the hummingbirds survive extremes of weather, therefore ,and their range... is illogical and distorts meaning
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Re: Found only in the Western Hemisphere [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2017, 11:46
arvind910619 wrote:

A the clause before should modify Hummingbirds not their range
B Correct the structure is changes and we have proper meaning
C The main clause does not have the verb and preposition with is incorrectly used
D Again the main clause does not have verb so this option is a fragment .
E this choice was difficult to eliminate , here the meaning is changed as it just gives facts about the humming birds

I would like Experts to please explain E in more detail .

Here's (E), pasted into the full sentence:

Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, from sealevel rain forests to the edges of Andean snowfields and ice fields at altitudes of 15,000 feet.

The easiest way to eliminate (E) is by thinking about parallelism. "And" always indicates some sort of parallelism, right? In this case, "and" is followed by a noun ("their range...").

But that doesn't work here, because the first part of the sentence is setting us up for a list of verbs: "Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, survive through extremes of climate, and their range extends..." Structurally, the list gives us a verb ("are found"), another verb ("survive"), and then a noun ("their range"), and that doesn't work. It might be OK if there was an "and" before "survive", but that's not the case here.

I hope this helps!
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