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Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules that contribu

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Project SC Butler: Day 126 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell damage.

A) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell

B) molecules who contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell

C) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and have precluded cell

D) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell

E) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidizing and precluding cell

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generis wrote:

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Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell damage.


Sentence Structure:
Subject - Verb - Contrast
    Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules
        that( molecules ) contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors,
      whereas antioxidants are molecules
        that( molecules ) inhibit oxidation and preclude cell damage.

Issues:
    1) whereas vs on the other hand - Redundancy
      A and C strike-out
    2) Parallelism issue between inhibit oxidation and precluding cell damage

A) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell

B) molecules who contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell
    Usage of who for inanimate things is WRONG.

C) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and have precluded cell
    Though at times shift in verb-tense is allowed, the general facts SHOULD be stated in present tense. - Unsolicited verb-tense shift.

D) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell
    Nice and swift. D is the Champ!

E) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidizing and precluding cell
    Even if we falsely assume the forced parallelism between oxidizing and precluding, we have a meaning issue in E.
    Forced Meaning:
      Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit
      1) oxidizing
      2) precluding cell damage
    Meaning issue: Antioxidants inhibit precluding cell damage -----> Antioxidants inhibit the prevention of cell damage: ( NOT NOT combination ) - Antioxidants allow cell damage.
    - Compared to Free Radicals, Antioxidants were supposed to be the good guys!

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Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules that contribu  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2019, 21:50
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 126 Sentence Correction (SC1)




Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell damage.

Quote:
A) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell

whereas and on the other hand are redundant (ridiculously so)
• . . . molecules that X and Y
-- X and Y must be parallel
-- inhibit (oxidation) and precluding (cell damage) are not parallel
• molecules that . . . precluding cell damage .. . . is nonsensical

Quote:
B) molecules who contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell

• Molecules are things, not people. Things take the pronoun THAT.

Quote:
C) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and have precluded cell

• same redundancy problem as that in A
• another parallelism issue, as in A: inhibit oxidation and have precluded cell damage are not parallel

Quote:
D) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell

• looks good

Quote:
E) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidizing and precluding cell

• parallelism problem: inhibit is not parallel to precluding (don't worry about oxidizing -- oxidation is preferred, but we need to see that the verbs do not match
• molecules that . . . precluding cell damage .. . . is nonsensical, as in A

The answer is D.

COMMENTS

saukrit and himani2093 , welcome.

I am glad to see a lot of people posting.

We have different processes of elimination, different emphases, and different voices, all of which will benefit people who follow.

Most of these answers are excellent, some are very good, and one is outstanding. Xylan , I am bumping you to Best Community Reply.
Quote:
Compared to Free Radicals, Antioxidants were supposed to be the good guys!
:lol: :lol: :lol:
Happy kudos, all!
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Re: Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules that contribu  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2019, 22:22
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Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell damage.


Sentence structure--> X is a whereas, Y is b.

Free radicals--> highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules ( their description basically)--> contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors( What they do)

Antioxidants--> inhibit oxidation and preclude cell damage(What they do)

There is a comparison between property of free radicals and antioxidants.
Whereas correctly compares the property of two entities.

On the other hand, is redundant.

Also Preclude is used in the wrong way as precluding. Antioxidants inhibit and preclude( should act as a verb here).

Choice D corrects all the mentioned errors.

IMHO D
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New post 17 Jun 2019, 22:43
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 126 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell damage.

A) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell

B) molecules who contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell

C) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and have precluded cell

D) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell

E) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidizing and precluding cell




A) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell
parallelism error........whereas and on the other hand are redundant

B) molecules who contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell
who is used to modify people .....which and that are used to modify non-living things

C) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and have precluded cell

D) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell
correct parallelism (correct)

E) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidizing and precluding cell
parallelism error
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New post 17 Jun 2019, 22:55
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D is the answer.

Parallelism marker "and" is present in the underlined portion, bothe the verbs are in identical structure.
Also, it is not required to use whereas and on the other hand back to back as both are conveying same meaning

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generis wrote:

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Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell damage.


Free radicals are compared with Antioxidants. Free radicals are highly reactive whereas antioxidants inhibit oxidation.
Keywords - whereas


A) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell

on the other hand is redudant , whereas brings out the contrast in the sentence.

B) molecules who contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell

Pronoun WHO can only be used for people not for things.

C) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and have precluded cell

inhibit is not parallel to have precluded and on the other hand is redudant

D) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell
Correct . All above errors are rectrified in D.

E) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidizing and precluding cell

inhibit is not parallel to precluding
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New post Updated on: 18 Jun 2019, 00:48
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A and C ) On the other hand is redundant
In B ) molecules who contributeis written incorrectly. Who cannot refer to a thing(the molecule in this case)

IN E inhibit oxidizing and precluding cell is worded incorrectly

Hence IMO, the correct answer is D
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Originally posted by saukrit on 17 Jun 2019, 23:15.
Last edited by saukrit on 18 Jun 2019, 00:48, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 17 Jun 2019, 23:41
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My answer is D. I always use POE for SC questions. It took me 55 seconds in this case.

Issues with (A): In reading the questions, I was able to identify two problems: (1) whereas serves to show contrast, so "on the other hand" is redundant. (2) "and precluding" should be "and preclude" to be parallel with "inhibit" and to be grammatically correct.
Issue with (B): "Molecules who" should be "Molecules that" because who should be used to modify person(s).
Issues with (C): (1) "On the other hand" is redundant. (2) Present perfect tense ("Have precluded") is unjustified.
Issue with (E): "and precluding" should be "and preclude" to be parallel with "inhibit" and to be grammatically correct.
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Answer is D.
There are a set of things that should be checked in first look at answer choices.
These things are also pretty common. Eg.

-Use of that vs which vs who
: here we know that should be used
Eliminate B
- then quickly check parallelism of tenses
Eliminate A, C and E
Verbs should be in present tense and should be parallel to tense of “inhibit”

- then you can also see redundancy in A & C with use of ‘whereas’ as well as ‘on the other hand’

Keeping these quick things in mind. Such questions can be scanned and answered using process of elimination. :dazed


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Re: Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules that contribu  [#permalink]

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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 126 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell damage.

A) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell

B) molecules who contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell

C) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and have precluded cell

D) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell

E) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidizing and precluding cell


A) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell
Whereas and on the other hand seems redundant,"that inhibit oxidation and precluding" is not parallel

B) molecules who contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell
"Molecules Who" is incorrect, it corrects the errors in A

C) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and have precluded cell
Redundancy, same as A + "that inhibit oxidation and have precluded" while both are verbs change in tense not required.

D) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell - Correct.

E) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidizing and precluding cell
"that inhibit oxidizing and precluding cell" Verb and present participle are not in parallel
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Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell damage.


Error Analysis:

Free radicals are highly reactive,
oxygen-rich molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors,
whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and
precluding cell damage.

Here 1. oxygen-rich molecules and antioxidants should be parallel
2. inhibit oxidation and precluding cell damage should be parallel

A) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell -wrong
unnecessary use of on the other hand
inhibit oxidation and precluding cell damage should be parallel

B) molecules who contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell- wrong
molecules are not persons

C) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and have precluded cell - wrong
unnecessary use of on the other hand and use of have changes the intended meaning

D) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell - Correct
No Parallelism issues , no errors

E) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidizing and precluding cell- Wrong
Precluding is not parallel to inhibit
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New post 18 Jun 2019, 23:32
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IMO D

generis, should "that" be included before "preclude" to make it more appropriate so that the sentence becomes

Molecules that inhibit and that preclude cell damage

Is it mandatory to repeat "that" after a parallelism marker?
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Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell damage.

A) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and precluding cell---> whereas and on the other hand have the same meaning, therefore, redundancy. Also, inhibit and precluding are not parallel.

B) molecules who contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell---> who is used to describe humans and molecules are not humans.

C) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants, on the other hand, are molecules that inhibit oxidation and have precluded cell---> same as option A

D) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell----> concise and parallel

E) molecules that contribute to the growth of cancerous tumors, whereas antioxidants are molecules that inhibit oxidizing and precluding cell[/quote]---->inhibit and precluding are not parallel.
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The official explanation has been posted HERE.
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New post 19 Jun 2019, 20:30
Ashokshiva wrote:
IMO D

generis, should "that" be included before "preclude" to make it more appropriate so that the sentence becomes

Molecules that inhibit and that preclude cell damage

Is it mandatory to repeat "that" after a parallelism marker?

Ashokshiva , no, it is not mandatory to repeat that after a parallelism marker all the time.

There is no cut-and-dried rule.

If the right side of the parallelism marker (here, AND) has a THAT before it, then the left side must also have a THAT.
The reverse is not true. . . . molecules that inhibit and preclude is fine.
We can omit things from the right side, but if something is on the right side, it must be on the left side.

If a verb automatically takes THAT but has two clauses, we often use THAT before the second clause to tie it back to the verb.

People used to think that the earth was flat and that ships could fall off the edge of the earth.
We need to repeat that.
Otherwise we have
People used to think that the earth was flat and ships could fall off the edge of the earth.
Fact 1: People used to think that the earth was flat and
Fact 2: Ships could fall off the edge of the earth

Ships could never fall off the edge of the earth.
People used to think that ships could fall off the edge of the earth.

In other words, if a verb requires that, almost all of the time we repeat THAT for both clauses.

In this case, no, we do not need to repeat the THAT.
There are different kinds of molecules.
Which molecules are we talking about?
The molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell damage
THAT modifies molecules; there's little chance of confusion.
THAT placed right after molecules means that anything attached to that also "carries back" to the molecules.

Hope that helps.
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New post 20 Jun 2019, 08:00
generis wrote:
Ashokshiva wrote:
IMO D

generis, should "that" be included before "preclude" to make it more appropriate so that the sentence becomes

Molecules that inhibit and that preclude cell damage

Is it mandatory to repeat "that" after a parallelism marker?

Ashokshiva , no, it is not mandatory to repeat that after a parallelism marker all the time.

There is no cut-and-dried rule.

If the right side of the parallelism marker (here, AND) has a THAT before it, then the left side must also have a THAT.
The reverse is not true. . . . molecules that inhibit and preclude is fine.
We can omit things from the right side, but if something is on the right side, it must be on the left side.

If a verb automatically takes THAT but has two clauses, we often use THAT before the second clause to tie it back to the verb.

People used to think that the earth was flat and that ships could fall off the edge of the earth.
We need to repeat that.
Otherwise we have
People used to think that the earth was flat and ships could fall off the edge of the earth.
Fact 1: People used to think that the earth was flat and
Fact 2: Ships could fall off the edge of the earth

Ships could never fall off the edge of the earth.
People used to think that ships could fall off the edge of the earth.

In other words, if a verb requires that, almost all of the time we repeat THAT for both clauses.

In this case, no, we do not need to repeat the THAT.
There are different kinds of molecules.
Which molecules are we talking about?
The molecules that inhibit oxidation and preclude cell damage
THAT modifies molecules; there's little chance of confusion.
THAT placed right after molecules means that anything attached to that also "carries back" to the molecules.

Hope that helps.


Thank you so much generis

That was very helpful

A detailed explanation with lucid examples.

Thank you once again
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New post 20 Jun 2019, 12:08
Ashokshiva wrote:

Thank you so much generis

That was very helpful

A detailed explanation with lucid examples.

Thank you once again

Ashokshiva , ("lucid," such a great word) -- you are welcome.
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Re: Free radicals are highly reactive, oxygen-rich molecules that contribu   [#permalink] 20 Jun 2019, 12:08
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