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The next set of PS questions. I'll post OA's with detailed explanations after some discussion. Please, post your solutions along with the answers.1. The length of the diagonal of square S, as well as the lengths of the diagonals of rhombus R are integers. The ratio of the lengths of the diagonals is 15:11:9, respectively. Which of the following could be the difference between the area of square S and the area of rhombus R?
I. 63 II. 126 III. 252A. I only B. II only C. III only D. I and III only E. I, II and III Solution: freshmeat15104680.html#p12153182. Set S contains 7 different letters. How many subsets of set S, including an empty set, contain at most 3 letters?A. 29 B. 56 C. 57 D. 63 E. 64 Solution: freshmeat151046100.html#p12153233. How many different subsets of the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} do not contain 0?A. 16 B. 27 C. 31 D. 32 E. 64 Solution: freshmeat151046100.html#p12153294. The functions f and g are defined for all the positive integers n by the following rule: f(n) is the number of positive perfect squares less than n and g(n) is the number of primes numbers less than n. If f(x) + g(x) = 16, then x is in the range:A. 30 < x < 36 B. 30 < x < 37 C. 31 < x < 37 D. 31 < x < 38 E. 32 < x < 38 Solution: freshmeat151046100.html#p12153355. Which of the following is a factor of 18!+1?A. 15 B. 17 C. 19 D. 33 E. 39 Solution: freshmeat151046100.html#p12153386. If the least common multiple of a positive integer x, 4^3 and 6^5 is 6^6. Then x can take how many values?A. 1 B. 6 C. 7 D. 30 E. 36 Solution: freshmeat151046100.html#p12153457. The greatest common divisor of two positive integers is 25. If the sum of the integers is 350, then how many such pairs are possible?A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 E. 5 Solution: freshmeat151046100.html#p12153498. The product of a positive integer x and 377,910 is divisible by 3,300, then the least value of x is:A. 10 B. 11 C. 55 D. 110 E. 330 Solution: freshmeat151046100.html#p12153599. What is the 101st digit after the decimal point in the decimal representation of 1/3 + 1/9 + 1/27 + 1/37?A. 0 B. 1 C. 5 D. 7 E. 8 Solution: freshmeat151046100.html#p121536710. If x is not equal to 0 and x^y=1, then which of the following must be true?
I. x=1 II. x=1 and y=0 III. x=1 or y=0A. I only B. II only C. III only D. I and III only E. None Solution: freshmeat151046100.html#p1215370Kudos points for each correct solution!!!
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28 May 2014, 03:53
Miraarun12345 wrote: Hi Bunuel, 1. I went about the combinatorial approach and got 31 and saw your response below that states that one subset is the null set (empty set) 2. Now I also came across M1623 in the GMAT club tests that states that "If the mean of the set S does not exceed mean of any subset of set S, which of the following must be true about set S?" And the right answer to that question is "all elements in set S are equal" and "the median of set S equals the mean of set S". Aren't 1 and 2 contradictory? The only way in question M1623 set S can have a mean more than mean of every subset including null set is if set S is null itself? I am sure I am overthinking this and just need my caffeine. Thanks, Meera Bunuel wrote: 3. How many different subsets of the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} do not contain 0?
A. 16 B. 27 C. 31 D. 32 E. 64
Consider the set without 0: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. Each out of 5 elements of the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} has TWO options: either to be included in the subset or not, so total number of subsets of this set is 2^5=32. Now, each such set will be a subset of {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and won't include 0.
Answer: D. The point is that an empty set has no mean or the median, so when considering the subsets of S, we can ignore an empty set. Anyway this is out of the scope of the GMAT, so I wouldn't worry about it at all.
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If x = 31, then f(31) = 5 and g(31) = 10: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 10 = 15. Why g(31) = 10 is not a prime number. Bunuel wrote: 4. The functions f and g are defined for all the positive integers n by the following rule: f(n) is the number of positive perfect squares less than n and g(n) is the number of primes numbers less than n. If f(x) + g(x) = 16, then x is in the range:
A. 30 < x < 36 B. 30 < x < 37 C. 31 < x < 37 D. 31 < x < 38 E. 32 < x < 38
Perfect squares: 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, .., Prime numbers: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, ...
If x = 31, then f(31) = 5 and g(31) = 10: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 10 = 15. If x = 32, then f(32) = 5 and g(32) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 11 = 16. ... If x = 36, then f(36) = 5 and g(36) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 11 = 16. If x = 37, then f(37) = 6 and g(37) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 6 + 11 = 17.
Thus x could be 32, 33, 34, 35 or 36: 31<x<37.
Answer: C.
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20 Aug 2014, 03:31
arindamsur wrote: If x = 31, then f(31) = 5 and g(31) = 10: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 10 = 15. Why g(31) = 10 is not a prime number. Bunuel wrote: 4. The functions f and g are defined for all the positive integers n by the following rule: f(n) is the number of positive perfect squares less than n and g(n) is the number of primes numbers less than n. If f(x) + g(x) = 16, then x is in the range:
A. 30 < x < 36 B. 30 < x < 37 C. 31 < x < 37 D. 31 < x < 38 E. 32 < x < 38
Perfect squares: 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, .., Prime numbers: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, ...
If x = 31, then f(31) = 5 and g(31) = 10: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 10 = 15. If x = 32, then f(32) = 5 and g(32) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 11 = 16. ... If x = 36, then f(36) = 5 and g(36) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 11 = 16. If x = 37, then f(37) = 6 and g(37) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 6 + 11 = 17.
Thus x could be 32, 33, 34, 35 or 36: 31<x<37.
Answer: C. Why should it be? g(n) is the number of primes numbers less than n: the number of prime numbers less than 31 is 10: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, and 29.
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09 Sep 2014, 05:31
8. The product of a positive integer x and 377,910 is divisible by 3,300, then the least value of x is:
A. 10 B. 11 C. 55 D. 110 E. 330
Answer:D...
(x * 377910 ) / 3300... try cancel out common 377910's factor with 3310's factor.. whatever value left out in divisor should be X..
377910  (3)*3*4199*(10) 3310 (3)*11*10*(10)..
u shall cancel the values 3 & 10 as both are available.. the left out in divisor is 11*10 then it should be the value of X. since 3310 is a divisor of the product



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09 Sep 2014, 05:55
7. The greatest common divisor of two positive integers is 25. If the sum of the integers is 350, then how many such pairs are possible?A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 E. 5 gcd(x,y) = 25 then x & y should be divisible by 25 & both x & Y should not have any other common prime factor. given x+y = 350 & we know 25 is the only common factor then we can write this like 25(X+Y) = 350; x+y=14 1+13 , 5+9 , 3+11 .... both X & Y didn't share any other common factors... Hence answer C 25+325 , 1225+225 , 75+275



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09 Sep 2014, 07:35
Bunuel wrote: 3. How many different subsets of the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} do not contain 0?
A. 16 B. 27 C. 31 D. 32 E. 64
Consider the set without 0: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. Each out of 5 elements of the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} has TWO options: either to be included in the subset or not, so total number of subsets of this set is 2^5=32. Now, each such set will be a subset of {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and won't include 0.
Answer: D. I used a choose method and got 31. With the binary method you used, there is a set which contains no numbers. This increases the number to 32. But the question doesn't say there can be a subset with no numbers because 0 is also not included... but I like the binary method & may use it on these kinds of problems & just subtract 1 if that is necessary so THANK YOU. Thank you
Last edited by logophobic on 09 Sep 2014, 07:46, edited 3 times in total.



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09 Sep 2014, 07:38
logophobic wrote: Bunuel wrote: 3. How many different subsets of the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} do not contain 0?
A. 16 B. 27 C. 31 D. 32 E. 64
Consider the set without 0: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. Each out of 5 elements of the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} has TWO options: either to be included in the subset or not, so total number of subsets of this set is 2^5=32. Now, each such set will be a subset of {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and won't include 0.
Answer: D. I used a choose method and got 31. With the binary method you used, there is a set which contains no numbers. This increases the number to 32. But the question doesn't say there can be a subset with no numbers because 0 is also not included... Empty set is a subset of all nonempty sets.
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28 Sep 2014, 13:34
Bunuel wrote: 7. The greatest common divisor of two positive integers is 25. If the sum of the integers is 350, then how many such pairs are possible?
A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 E. 5
We are told that the greatest common factor of two integers is 25. So, these integers are \(25x\) and \(25y\), for some positive integers \(x\) and \(y\). Notice that \(x\) and \(y\) must not share any common factor but 1, because if they do, then GCF of \(25x\) and \(25y\) will be more that 25.
Next, we know that \(25x+25y=350\) > \(x+y=14\) > since \(x\) and \(y\) don't share any common factor but 1 then (x, y) can be only (1, 13), (3, 11) or (5, 9) (all other pairs (2, 12), (4, 10), (6, 8) and (7, 7) do share common factor greater than 1).
So, there are only three pairs of such numbers possible: 25*1=25 and 25*13=325; 25*3=75 and 25*11=275; 25*5=125 and 25*9=225.
Answer: C. The first thing that comes to mind in these kinds of question is to start by prime factorization of the "350", but that didn't help me.. Is there a way to do it like what I tried? If not, how do you categorize which question to do with which method?



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12 Dec 2014, 23:26
Bunuel wrote: 4. The functions f and g are defined for all the positive integers n by the following rule: f(n) is the number of positive perfect squares less than n and g(n) is the number of primes numbers less than n. If f(x) + g(x) = 16, then x is in the range:
A. 30 < x < 36 B. 30 < x < 37 C. 31 < x < 37 D. 31 < x < 38 E. 32 < x < 38
Perfect squares: 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, .., Prime numbers: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, ...
If x = 31, then f(31) = 5 and g(31) = 10: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 10 = 15. If x = 32, then f(32) = 5 and g(32) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 11 = 16. ... If x = 36, then f(36) = 5 and g(36) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 11 = 16. If x = 37, then f(37) = 6 and g(37) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 6 + 11 = 17.
Thus x could be 32, 33, 34, 35 or 36: 31<x<37.
Answer: C. I believe the answer is wrong or please explain. My reasoning IF x=36, there are 6 perfect squares NOT 5 (1,2,3,4,5,,6), and the sum would be 17. Thus the answer A is correct.



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mika84 wrote: Bunuel wrote: 4. The functions f and g are defined for all the positive integers n by the following rule: f(n) is the number of positive perfect squares less than n and g(n) is the number of primes numbers less than n. If f(x) + g(x) = 16, then x is in the range:
A. 30 < x < 36 B. 30 < x < 37 C. 31 < x < 37 D. 31 < x < 38 E. 32 < x < 38
Perfect squares: 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, .., Prime numbers: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, ...
If x = 31, then f(31) = 5 and g(31) = 10: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 10 = 15. If x = 32, then f(32) = 5 and g(32) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 11 = 16. ... If x = 36, then f(36) = 5 and g(36) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 11 = 16. If x = 37, then f(37) = 6 and g(37) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 6 + 11 = 17.
Thus x could be 32, 33, 34, 35 or 36: 31<x<37.
Answer: C. I believe the answer is wrong or please explain. My reasoning IF x=36, there are 6 perfect squares NOT 5 (1,2,3,4,5,,6), and the sum would be 17. Thus the answer A is correct. There are 5 positive perfect squares less than 36: 1 = 1^1, 4 = 2^2, 9 = 3^2, 16 = 4^4, and 25 = 5^2.
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13 Dec 2014, 06:51
Bunuel wrote: mika84 wrote: Bunuel wrote: 4. The functions f and g are defined for all the positive integers n by the following rule: f(n) is the number of positive perfect squares less than n and g(n) is the number of primes numbers less than n. If f(x) + g(x) = 16, then x is in the range:
A. 30 < x < 36 B. 30 < x < 37 C. 31 < x < 37 D. 31 < x < 38 E. 32 < x < 38
Perfect squares: 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, .., Prime numbers: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, ...
If x = 31, then f(31) = 5 and g(31) = 10: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 10 = 15. If x = 32, then f(32) = 5 and g(32) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 11 = 16. ... If x = 36, then f(36) = 5 and g(36) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 5 + 11 = 16. If x = 37, then f(37) = 6 and g(37) = 11: f(x) + g(x) = 6 + 11 = 17.
Thus x could be 32, 33, 34, 35 or 36: 31<x<37.
Answer: C. I believe the answer is wrong or please explain. My reasoning IF x=36, there are 6 perfect squares NOT 5 (1,2,3,4,5,,6), and the sum would be 17. Thus the answer A is correct. There are 5 positive perfect squares less than 36: 1 = 1^1, 4 = 2^2, 9 = 3^2, 16 = 4^4, and 25 = 5^2. It's correct 5 positive perfect squares + 11 prime number=16 for x<36, thus A is correct answer And if the answer C, then there are 6 perfect squares (1,2,3,4,5 and 6^2=36)+11 primes=17  which is not correct  If C is correct, please explain why 36 is excluded then?



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Bunuel wrote: 9. What is the 101st digit after the decimal point in the decimal representation of 1/3 + 1/9 + 1/27 + 1/37?
A. 0 B. 1 C. 5 D. 7 E. 8
\(\frac{1}{3} + \frac{1}{9} + \frac{1}{27} + \frac{1}{37}=\frac{333}{999} + \frac{111}{999} + \frac{37}{999} + \frac{27}{999}=\frac{508}{999}=0.508508...\).
102nd digit will be 8, thus 101st digit will be 0.
Answer: A. Can we see that since 5 is the first digit it will be the 100th digit and count from there or is that pure luck on this problem?
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redfield wrote: Bunuel wrote: 9. What is the 101st digit after the decimal point in the decimal representation of 1/3 + 1/9 + 1/27 + 1/37?
A. 0 B. 1 C. 5 D. 7 E. 8
\(\frac{1}{3} + \frac{1}{9} + \frac{1}{27} + \frac{1}{37}=\frac{333}{999} + \frac{111}{999} + \frac{37}{999} + \frac{27}{999}=\frac{508}{999}=0.508508...\).
102nd digit will be 8, thus 101st digit will be 0.
Answer: A. Can we see that since 5 is the first digit it will be the 100th digit and count from there or is that pure luck on this problem? Pattern starts with 5 and repeats in block of three: 508 508 508... Thus 5 will be 100th digit because 100 = {multiple of 3} + 1 and 101st digit will be next number in pattern  0.
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Bunuel wrote: 5. Which of the following is a factor of 18!+1?
A. 15 B. 17 C. 19 D. 33 E. 39
18! and 18!+1 are consecutive integers. Two consecutive integers are coprime, which means that they don't share ANY common factor but 1. For example 20 and 21 are consecutive integers, thus only common factor they share is 1.
Now, since we can factor out each 15, 17, 33=3*11, and 39=3*13 out of 18!, then 15, 17, 33 and 39 ARE factors of 18! and are NOT factors of 18!+1. Therefore only 19 could be a factor of 18!+1.
Answer: C. Since 18! and 18!+1 don't share any common factor, so any factor in 18! will not be factor of 18!+1 so 15,17, 11x3, and 13x3 will not be factor of 18!+1 really good to know! Thanks Bunuel



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Bunuel wrote: 6. If the least common multiple of a positive integer x, 4^3 and 6^5 is 6^6. Then x can take how many values?
A. 1 B. 6 C. 7 D. 30 E. 36
We are given that \(6^6=2^{6}*3^{6}\) is the least common multiple of the following three numbers:
x; \(4^3=2^6\); \(6^5 = 2^{5}*3^5\);
First notice that \(x\) cannot have any other primes other than 2 or/and 3, because LCM contains only these primes.
Now, since the power of 3 in LCM is higher than the powers of 3 in either the second number or in the third, than \(x\) must have \(3^{6}\) as its multiple (else how \(3^{6}\) would appear in LCM?).
Next, \(x\) can have 2 as its prime in ANY power ranging from 0 to 6, inclusive (it cannot have higher power of 2 since LCM limits the power of 2 to 6).
Thus, \(x\) could take total of 7 values.
Answer: C. Bunuel, please correct me if I am wrong, the 7 values included below? 1) 3 2) 2 3) 2^2 4) 2^3 5) 2^4 6) 2^5 7) 2^6 Thank you so much



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Re: Fresh Meat!!! [#permalink]
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18 Aug 2017, 02:24
Bunuel wrote: 7. The greatest common divisor of two positive integers is 25. If the sum of the integers is 350, then how many such pairs are possible?
A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 E. 5
We are told that the greatest common factor of two integers is 25. So, these integers are \(25x\) and \(25y\), for some positive integers \(x\) and \(y\). Notice that \(x\) and \(y\) must not share any common factor but 1, because if they do, then GCF of \(25x\) and \(25y\) will be more that 25.
Next, we know that \(25x+25y=350\) > \(x+y=14\) > since \(x\) and \(y\) don't share any common factor but 1 then (x, y) can be only (1, 13), (3, 11) or (5, 9) (all other pairs (2, 12), (4, 10), (6, 8) and (7, 7) do share common factor greater than 1).
So, there are only three pairs of such numbers possible: 25*1=25 and 25*13=325; 25*3=75 and 25*11=275; 25*5=125 and 25*9=225.
Answer: C. Bunuel, How do we know if x and y do not share any common factor? what is the hint? Thank you



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Re: Fresh Meat!!! [#permalink]
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18 Aug 2017, 02:31
pclawong wrote: Bunuel wrote: 6. If the least common multiple of a positive integer x, 4^3 and 6^5 is 6^6. Then x can take how many values?
A. 1 B. 6 C. 7 D. 30 E. 36
We are given that \(6^6=2^{6}*3^{6}\) is the least common multiple of the following three numbers:
x; \(4^3=2^6\); \(6^5 = 2^{5}*3^5\);
First notice that \(x\) cannot have any other primes other than 2 or/and 3, because LCM contains only these primes.
Now, since the power of 3 in LCM is higher than the powers of 3 in either the second number or in the third, than \(x\) must have \(3^{6}\) as its multiple (else how \(3^{6}\) would appear in LCM?).
Next, \(x\) can have 2 as its prime in ANY power ranging from 0 to 6, inclusive (it cannot have higher power of 2 since LCM limits the power of 2 to 6).
Thus, \(x\) could take total of 7 values.
Answer: C. Bunuel, please correct me if I am wrong, the 7 values included below? 1) 3 2) 2 3) 2^2 4) 2^3 5) 2^4 6) 2^5 7) 2^6 Thank you so much x can take the following 7 values: \(3^6\); \(2*3^6\); \(2^2*3^6\); \(2^3*3^6\); \(2^4*3^6\); \(2^5*3^6\); \(2^6*3^6\).
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Re: Fresh Meat!!! [#permalink]
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18 Aug 2017, 02:38
pclawong wrote: Bunuel wrote: 7. The greatest common divisor of two positive integers is 25. If the sum of the integers is 350, then how many such pairs are possible?
A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 E. 5
We are told that the greatest common factor of two integers is 25. So, these integers are \(25x\) and \(25y\), for some positive integers \(x\) and \(y\). Notice that \(x\) and \(y\) must not share any common factor but 1, because if they do, then GCF of \(25x\) and \(25y\) will be more that 25.
Next, we know that \(25x+25y=350\) > \(x+y=14\) > since \(x\) and \(y\) don't share any common factor but 1 then (x, y) can be only (1, 13), (3, 11) or (5, 9) (all other pairs (2, 12), (4, 10), (6, 8) and (7, 7) do share common factor greater than 1).
So, there are only three pairs of such numbers possible: 25*1=25 and 25*13=325; 25*3=75 and 25*11=275; 25*5=125 and 25*9=225.
Answer: C. Bunuel, How do we know if x and y do not share any common factor? what is the hint? Thank you If x and y are NOT coprime, the GCD of \(25x\) and \(25y\) will be more than 25, not 25 as given.
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Collection of Questions: PS: 1. Tough and Tricky questions; 2. Hard questions; 3. Hard questions part 2; 4. Standard deviation; 5. Tough Problem Solving Questions With Solutions; 6. Probability and Combinations Questions With Solutions; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 12 Easy Pieces (or not?); 9 Bakers' Dozen; 10 Algebra set. ,11 Mixed Questions, 12 Fresh Meat DS: 1. DS tough questions; 2. DS tough questions part 2; 3. DS tough questions part 3; 4. DS Standard deviation; 5. Inequalities; 6. 700+ GMAT Data Sufficiency Questions With Explanations; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 The Discreet Charm of the DS; 9 Devil's Dozen!!!; 10 Number Properties set., 11 New DS set.
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Re: Fresh Meat!!! [#permalink]
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29 Aug 2017, 16:51
Bunuel wrote: 3. How many different subsets of the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} do not contain 0?
A. 16 B. 27 C. 31 D. 32 E. 64
Consider the set without 0: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. Each out of 5 elements of the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} has TWO options: either to be included in the subset or not, so total number of subsets of this set is 2^5=32. Now, each such set will be a subset of {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and won't include 0.
Answer: D. When we say subset, is it okay to include an empty set even if it's not explicitly stated? If we include the empty set, answer is 31, else 32.







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