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# From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the

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From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2007, 10:57
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From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the way in which the Ojibwa society organized its labor, provided access to its resources, and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources.
(A) and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources
(B) defining rights and obligations involved in their distribution and consumption
(C) and defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and consumption
(D) whose rights and obligations were defined in their distribution and consumption
(E) the distribution and consumption of them defined by rights and obligations

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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2007, 07:14
OA is A.

kinship determined the way in which the Ojibwa society
organized its labor,
defined rights and obligations involved (in the distribution and consumption of those resources)
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2007, 23:01
Clearly C) is wrong.

(C) and defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and consumption

here "they" is incorrectly referring to "tribe" which is singular and was referred to using "it" as in "its labor" and "its resources".
Also, "its" in "its distribution" is incorrectly referring to plural 'resources'

In A) apart from its parallel construction, 'those' is clearly referring to resources mentioned in the previous sentence
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2009, 11:55
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bmwhype2 wrote:
321. From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the way in which the Ojibwa society organized its labor, provided access to its resources, and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources.
(A) and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources
(B) defining rights and obligations involved in their distribution and consumption
(C) and defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and consumption
(D) whose rights and obligations were defined in their distribution and consumption
(E) the distribution and consumption of them defined by rights and obligations

Well I admit that I firstly choosed B instead of A .

A)organized....provided and...defined Paralelism
B) Defining is not paralel to organized and provided. First here I thought since '', providing'' modifies to whole sentence which preecede it, the phrase did not distort the paralelism and meaning . Yet , I was wrong.
C Since passive voice is used OUT (No passive is used in the sentence) Last sentence ends with ''resources'' and its here looks like modifying resources rather than society.
D whose is used for people not resources OUT
E no explanation but illogical
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2011, 07:39
bmwhype2 wrote:
321. From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the way in which the Ojibwa society organized its labor, provided access to its resources, and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources.
(A) and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources
(B) defining rights and obligations involved in their distribution and consumption
(C) and defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and consumption
(D) whose rights and obligations were defined in their distribution and consumption
(E) the distribution and consumption of them defined by rights and obligations

I was confused by the (A) ....of those resources. It looked like of those refer to Ojibwa society (a singular form), and therefore made (A) a wrong one and reason why that I emitted (A) and went for (C)

Can anyone pls explain......thanks
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2011, 13:28
bmwhype2 wrote:
321. From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the way in which the Ojibwa society organized its labor, provided access to its resources, and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources.
(A) and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources
(B) defining rights and obligations involved in their distribution and consumption
(C) and defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and consumption
(D) whose rights and obligations were defined in their distribution and consumption
(E) the distribution and consumption of them defined by rights and obligations

why organized, provided and defined should be in parallel?
defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources - this sentence is talking about distribution of resources. Hence "and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources" should modify "provided access to its resources".

Thank you -
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2011, 17:16
bmwhype2 wrote:
321. From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the way in which the Ojibwa society organized its labor, provided access to its resources, and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources.
(A) and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources
(B) defining rights and obligations involved in their distribution and consumption
(C) and defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and consumption
(D) whose rights and obligations were defined in their distribution and consumption
(E) the distribution and consumption of them defined by rights and obligations

Hi Friends,

We have couple of queries here , Let's try to analyze. I appreciate everyone for doubts/explanations. My explanations might have some flaws or lack clarity. Any question, welcome to revert.

1.

PerfectStranger wrote:
C Since passive voice is used OUT (No passive is used in the sentence) Last sentence ends with ''resources'' and its here looks like modifying resources rather than society

Hi PerfectStranger,
Sorry friend, I don't agree with you on this explanation.
a)"they were involved in its distribution and consumption" Not a passive voice.
b) Modifier never comes with "And" so "and defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and consumption" can not modify anything. In other words if any clause is separated with "comma+and", it can not modify preceding clause.

2.

miweekend wrote:
I was confused by the (A) ....of those resources. It looked like of those refer to Ojibwa society (a singular form), and therefore made (A) a wrong one and reason why that I emitted (A) and went for (C)

Hi miweekend,
Friend, you are already telling that those is plural and society is singular so how could it refer to society. Apart from that "those" is coming before "resources" so how can society be resource.

3.

gaurav1083 wrote:
why organized, provided and defined should be in parallel?
defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources - this sentence is talking about distribution of resources. Hence "and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources" should modify "provided access to its resources".

Hi gaurav1083,
a)To understand parallelism in this sentence let's remove all middleman ( modifier and prepositional phrases).
[strike]From the earliest days of the tribe[/strike], [strike]kinship determined the way in which[/strike]the Ojibwa society organized its labor, provided access to its resources, and defined rights and obligations involved [strike]in the distribution and consumption of those resources[/strike]

Now can you see parallelism clearly.

b) Any clause with "comma+and" can not modify previous clause.

One more thing which is there in C. The idiom "defined...X...as...Y.." but usage of that idiom is wrong here.
defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and consumption. One more reason to eliminate c.

I hope my explanation will help. If indeed, please give me kudos.
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2011, 20:41
(C) is wrong because " rights and obligations involved" is much better than "rights and obligations as they were involved" and doesnt emphasize resources but society
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2011, 21:22
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gaurav1083 wrote:
gaurav1083 wrote:
bmwhype2 wrote:
321. From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the way in which the Ojibwa society organized its labor, provided access to its resources, and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources.
(A) and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources
(B) defining rights and obligations involved in their distribution and consumption
(C) and defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and consumption
(D) whose rights and obligations were defined in their distribution and consumption
(E) the distribution and consumption of them defined by rights and obligations

why organized, provided and defined should be in parallel?
defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources - this sentence is talking about distribution of resources. Hence "and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources" should modify "provided access to its resources".

Thank you -

what is wrong with option B?

Hi Gaurav,

When you use V+ing after comma its work as a modifier and will modify the whole clause before comma, not the word it precede.
Here "defining rights and obligations involved in their distribution and consumption" is modifying whats coming before comma, not only the word "resources", which is not what original sentence says. Original sentence says kinship was determined based on 3 factors by society 1.organized its labor, 2. provided access to its resources, And 3.defined rights and obligations involved

Please revert if you have any question.

I hope my explanation helped, if indeed give me kudos.
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2012, 17:51
I have picked A for this question:

A. This answer choice maintains proper parallelism - "organized, provided and defined." Also, this answer choice is clear and concise.

B. "defining rights and obligations" is not parallel to organized and provided.

C. Although "and defined rights and obligations" is parallel to organized and provided, we have other errors such as pronoun and wordiness. "As they were" is very wordy - this could definitely be worded better. Also, the pronoun "its" is unclear because we're not sure what "its" refers to.

D. It seems like "whose" is referring to resources. This should in fact refer to the society itself. In either case, this breaks parallelism, so it is incorrect.

E. Parallelism is broken because "the distribution and consumption" are not parallel to "organized and provided."
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2012, 16:18
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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21 May 2012, 02:21
Isn't a comma before the conjunction and incorrect usage?

At first I picked option (A) as it maintains the parallelism but seeing the comma before and I got confused.

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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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21 May 2012, 06:37
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avi12 wrote:
Isn't a comma before the conjunction and incorrect usage?

At first I picked option (A) as it maintains the parallelism but seeing the comma before and I got confused.

Hi @avi12,

Your confusion is pretty valid. In our education system we have not been taught to use comma before “and”. However, it is a little different in GMAT. Whenever the entities in a parallel list are joined by commas and “and”, there is always a comma after the second last entity in the list. This comma is then followed by “and”. Every comma makes it preceding entity an independent entity. This usage is common all across the SC parallelism questions in every official source.

Hence the usage of comma before “and” is not incorrect in choice A.

Hope this helps.
Thnaks.
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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21 May 2012, 20:58
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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22 May 2012, 11:12
IMO it should be A. case of parallelism.. defined, determined all parallel.
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2012, 03:05
Hi e-gmat,
You said that in the following

whose rights and obligations were defined in their distribution and consumption

Whose refers to resources, my doubt is whether the rule for which ( which is that 'which' should touch the noun it modifies) also applies to that, whose, etc?

Regards,
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 09:45
Sachin9 wrote:
Hi e-gmat,
You said that in the following

whose rights and obligations were defined in their distribution and consumption

Whose refers to resources, my doubt is whether the rule for which ( which is that 'which' should touch the noun it modifies) also applies to that, whose, etc?

Regards,
Sach

Hi Sachin,
"Whose" is also a relative pronoun just like "which", "that", etc. It also modifies the preceding noun entity. In choice D, "whose" is preceded by "resources" and hence illogically modifies this noun entity.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 09:53
So the same rule applies for all relative pronouns( which, that, whose, who,etc ) ?
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 09:56
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Sachin9 wrote:
So the same rule applies for all relative pronouns( which, that, whose, who,etc ) ?

Hi Sachin,

That's correct. Realtive pronouns refers to the preceding noun entity that can be a single-word noun or a noun phrase.

Thanks.
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Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 11:42
321. From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the way in which the Ojibwa society organized its labor, provided access to its resources, and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources.
(A) and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources
(B) defining rights and obligations involved in their distribution and consumption
(C) and defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and consumption
(D) whose rights and obligations were defined in their distribution and consumption
(E) the distribution and consumption of them defined by rights and obligations

Parallelism wins. Answer is A.
Re: From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the   [#permalink] 26 Nov 2012, 11:42

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# From the earliest days of the tribe, kinship determined the

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