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Garibaldi captured Rome in 1870, in the final step in Italian Reunific

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Garibaldi captured Rome in 1870, in the final step in Italian Reunific  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2018, 01:21
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C
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E

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Garibaldi captured Rome in 1870, in the final step in Italian Reunification, and as a consequence, the Vatican had ceased holding an army and had become a purely religious institution.

A. had ceased holding an army and had become
B. has ceased holding an army and has become
C. has ceased holding an army and becoming
D. ceased holding an army and becoming
E. ceased holding an army and became

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Garibaldi captured Rome in 1870, in the final step in Italian Reunific  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2018, 02:26
Garibaldi captured Rome in 1870, in the final step in Italian Reunification, and as a consequence, the Vatican had ceased holding an army and had become a purely religious institution.

A. had ceased holding an army and had become
We are already showing the underlined portion as an activity after the first by use of " as a consequence" so past perfect HAD not required

B. has ceased holding an army and has become
Present perfect Vs past tense - past tense is better as shown below
Here we are talking of a specific timeframe of past when the event happened.


C. has ceased holding an army and becoming
tense issue and parallelism between ceased and becoming

D. ceased holding an army and becoming
parallelism between ceased and becoming

E. ceased holding an army and became
CORRECT..... correctly talks of an event that is over...

E

Present perfect Vs past tense -
both talk of an action that has happened earlier but there is a difference nevertheless..
simple past talks of an event that is over at a specific time in past ---
so I finished my graduation and thereafter I joined IBM.
Present perfect is related more with the present scenario,
I have joined IBM.
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Garibaldi captured Rome in 1870, in the final step in Italian Reunific  [#permalink]

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Garibaldi captured Rome in 1870, in the final step in Italian Reunification, and as a consequence, the Vatican had ceased holding an army and had become a purely religious institution.


A. had ceased holding an army and had become --the use of the past perfect 'had ceased and had become' is wrong since these two are later events.

B. has ceased holding an army and has become --- It is not clear whether the Vatican, although a state as such, is still not having an army. If it is still not having an army, then 'has ceased and has become' turn relevant. This must be the answer.

C. has ceased holding an army and becoming-- 'has ceased and becoming ' un//.
D. ceased holding an army and becoming ---- 'ceased and becoming'-- un//.
E. ceased holding an army and became --- since 'not holding' (my belief) still continues, this choice flouts the 'verb tense' usage

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Originally posted by daagh on 30 Jun 2018, 02:33.
Last edited by daagh on 01 Jul 2018, 09:50, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Garibaldi captured Rome in 1870, in the final step in Italian Reunific  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2018, 20:00
Garibaldi captured Rome in 1870, in the final step in Italian Reunification, and as a consequence, the Vatican had ceased holding an army and had become a purely religious institution.

Before jumping to answer the question , I had doubt regarding the placement of commas before and after "and as a consequence" . If remove the modifier the sentence is basically "Garibaldi captured Rome in 1870 and as a consequence, " what is the use of the comma after consequence?

I chose the best looking answer anyway - E
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Re: Garibaldi captured Rome in 1870, in the final step in Italian Reunific  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2018, 08:19
Between B and E
My vote for B



B. has ceased holding an army and has become - looks good. // and indicates that the event occurred in the past but the Vatican remains a religious institution today
E. ceased holding an army and became - Calls out the event that happened in the past, but the current state of the Vatican still has a religious purpose today. I think B expresses that point more clearly.
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Re: Garibaldi captured Rome in 1870, in the final step in Italian Reunific  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2018, 06:17

Official Explanation


Split #1: verb tense. Garibaldi capture Rome, and then as a result, the Vatican took some action. The action that the Vatican took had to happen either more or less at the same time as Garibaldi's actions or even slightly later, so we definitely do not need the past perfect ("had ceased"). The present perfect ("has ceased") is awkward, because it would suggest that the "ceasing" is an action that continues up to the present day, but that makes no sense --- "to cease" is a one-time action. Therefore the only tense that makes sense is the simple past ("ceased"): this is what choices (D) & (E) have.

Split #2: parallelism. Should the final verb ("become"/ "becoming"/ "became") be in parallel to the "ceasing" or to the "holding"? What is the sense of the prompt? The prompt communicates that the Vatican did two actions. One action was ceasing to hold an army. The other action was becoming a purely religious institution. Those two verbs, "cease" and "become", must be in parallel. Choices (C) & (D) make the mistake of putting "become" in parallel with "holding".

For all these reasons, (E) is the only possible answer.
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Re: Garibaldi captured Rome in 1870, in the final step in Italian Reunific &nbs [#permalink] 13 Sep 2018, 06:17
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