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# Gasoline Cars in Papula Country

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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2013, 09:33
egmat wrote:
Please use the poll above. We will post the OA on Tuesday.

Per a recent survey carried out in Rambo City, capital of Papula country, an average middle-aged person drives his or her car for two thousand miles in a year and 99% of these people own a gasoline-run car. In addition, the survey suggested that if offered an economical option to switch to electric cars, most of these people would change their gasoline-run cars. The government of Papula is impressed with the environmental considerations shown by the citizens of Papula and is planning to implement a plan that would allow all the current owners of gasoline-run cars to switch to electric cars at a minimal cost.

Which of the following statements casts the most doubt on the ability of the plan to meet its required objective of significantly reducing air pollution in Papula in the next 5 years?

A. Though some of the citizens are concerned about the negative environmental impact of air pollution, they will not spend any extra money to protect the environment.
B. The budget deficit of the government of Papula is already at alarming levels, and any further increase in the deficit could lead to the bankruptcy of the country.
C. Since Papula is an aging country, with more than half its population near retirement age, the chief consideration for a large number of its citizens is the convenience to drive rather than the costs to do so.
D. In the last two decades, Papula has emerged as a major economic hub, leading to an increase in the living standard of its citizens and in the number of cars in the region.
E. Since people who don’t own gasoline cars would not be benefitted from the proposed plan, they may strongly oppose the use of taxpayer money on such a plan.

Assumptions
1) The government assumes that electric cars have no environmental effect - Well this hasnt been mentioned anywhere in the passage

Im not convinced with C) because no where it is mentioned that electric cars are not convenient to drive.
Also it is not mentioned whether gasoline cars are convenient to drive.

The only advantage here is that this shifts the deciding criteria to a convenient model from environmental concern.
Kindly explain.
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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2013, 21:05
vigneshceg wrote:
Assumptions
1) The government assumes that electric cars have no environmental effect - Well this hasnt been mentioned anywhere in the passage

Hi Vignesh,

I am not sure what your doubt is but as far as assumptions are concerned, they are not mentioned in the passage. Also, the author or different actors in the passage can make different assumptions. That is perfectly fine. Have a look at OG questions; you'll see that a lot of common sense and not-so-common-sense assumptions are made in the arguments.

vigneshceg wrote:
Assumptions
Im not convinced with C) because no where it is mentioned that electric cars are not convenient to drive.
Also it is not mentioned whether gasoline cars are convenient to drive.

The only advantage here is that this shifts the deciding criteria to a convenient model from environmental concern.
Kindly explain.

You are correct that the only thing option C does is bring in a factor which has not been considered before. Have a look at below OG question:

paper-print-is-a-chain-of-british-stores-selling-65446.html

In this, you'll see that correct option B does bring in a new factor (that Paper&Print is known more for its magazines than stationery) and you can also see that just because Paper&Print is known for magazines, it doesn't really mean that it's profits won't go up. The point of a weakener is to cast doubt on the conclusion - some weakeners cast a strong doubt, some not-so-strong. I suggest you do OG CR questions, you''ll realize all these nuances.

Thanks
Chiranjeev
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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2013, 07:04
egmat wrote:
Please use the poll above. We will post the OA on Tuesday.

Per a recent survey carried out in Rambo City, capital of Papula country, an average middle-aged person drives his or her car for two thousand miles in a year and 99% of these people own a gasoline-run car. In addition, the survey suggested that if offered an economical option to switch to electric cars, most of these people would change their gasoline-run cars. The government of Papula is impressed with the environmental considerations shown by the citizens of Papula and is planning to implement a plan that would allow all the current owners of gasoline-run cars to switch to electric cars at a minimal cost.

Which of the following statements casts the most doubt on the ability of the plan to meet its required objective of significantly reducing air pollution in Papula in the next 5 years?

A. Though some of the citizens are concerned about the negative environmental impact of air pollution, they will not spend any extra money to protect the environment.
B. The budget deficit of the government of Papula is already at alarming levels, and any further increase in the deficit could lead to the bankruptcy of the country.
C. Since Papula is an aging country, with more than half its population near retirement age, the chief consideration for a large number of its citizens is the convenience to drive rather than the costs to do so.
D. In the last two decades, Papula has emerged as a major economic hub, leading to an increase in the living standard of its citizens and in the number of cars in the region.
E. Since people who don’t own gasoline cars would not be benefitted from the proposed plan, they may strongly oppose the use of taxpayer money on such a plan.

Hi e-gmat,

I agree with your explanations for C.

I chose option D, since it states that there will be an increase in number of cars in the region(has emearged ---> leading to)

Now, the arguments states that "The government is planning to implement a plan that would allow all the current owners of gasoline-run cars to switch to electric cars at a minimal cost."

Since, it mentions that the plan allows only for current owners, we cannot say that the new cars(increase in number of cars) will be the electric cars and not the gasoline-cars.

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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2013, 10:08
jaituteja wrote:

Hi e-gmat,

I agree with your explanations for C.

I chose option D, since it states that there will be an increase in number of cars in the region(has emearged ---> leading to)

Hi Jai,

Option D does not states that there will be an increase. It states that there has been an increase in the number of cars. The region has emerged as a leading hub and this fact has led to increase in the number of cars.

jaituteja wrote:
Now, the arguments states that "The government is planning to implement a plan that would allow all the current owners of gasoline-run cars to switch to electric cars at a minimal cost."

Since, it mentions that the plan allows only for current owners, we cannot say that the new cars(increase in number of cars) will be the electric cars and not the gasoline-cars.

I think my comments above should help somewhat. Since the number of cars has already increased, even if we are only talking about current owners, we are covering a almost all of them.
Secondly, the first line of the argument says that 99% of the people who drive for more than 2000 miles a year already have a gasoline car - so almost all the heavy users of cars would get electric cars and therefore, the pollution should be reduced significantly.

Thus, option D does not weaken the argument.

Does this help?

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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16 Oct 2013, 06:41
eGMAT: Why are you assuming that the electric cars will be inconvenient? For all we know it can also be convenient to plug your car in the house and charge it rather than standing in line at the gas station. There can be several such assumptions.
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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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16 Oct 2013, 09:43
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mohnish104 wrote:
eGMAT: Why are you assuming that the electric cars will be inconvenient? For all we know it can also be convenient to plug your car in the house and charge it rather than standing in line at the gas station. There can be several such assumptions.

Hi Mohnish,

I am not assuming it. Electric cars may indeed be more convenient.

The reason why option C weakens the argument is that it brings in a new variable "convenience" which the argument has not even considered. The passage has so far focused on the costs. Now option C comes and say that "convenience" is more important than costs and you have not even looked at "convenience".

Wouldn't that make you less sure of the argument?

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2013, 03:45
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egmat wrote:
Hi,

Please find below the official Solution:

UNDERSTANDING THE PASSAGE

1. As per a survey:
a. an average middle-aged person drive 2000 miles a year and almost all of them own a gasoline-run car
b. Most of these middle-aged guys would switch their cars to electric ones, if the costs of making the switch are not high

2. The government of Papula is planning to implement a plan that would allow all the current owners of gasoline-run cars to switch to electric cars at a minimal cost.

UNDERSTANDING THE QUESTION STEM

The given question is a weaken question; however the conclusion is not stated in the passage but is given in the question stem. Basically, when we say that the conclusion is stated in the question stem, what we mean is that the statement that needs to be weakened is in the question stem.

The relevant conclusion is:
The plan, as envisaged by the government of Papula, will be able to significantly reduce the air pollution in the country in the next five years.

PRE-THINKING

The author in this question makes predictions about the behavior of a population based on data from survey from a sample of the population – middle aged people. Hence, while making the prediction the author makes the assumption that the sample data must be representative of the population data or the preferences of the sample must be representative of the preferences of the majority.

One easy to spot weak point of the argument is that the plan of the government is based on the data of only middle-aged persons whereas the objective that needs to be achieved i.e. reduction in pollution will depend on other sections of population also. Besides, there is nothing to suggest in the passage that middle-aged population is responsible for a large proportion of the total pollution in the country. Thus, we can pre-think two weakeners for the given argument:

1. Any statement that suggests that other sections of population have preferences which are different from middle-aged population
2. Any statement that suggests that middle-aged population accounts for only a small proportion of the total population in the country

A. Though some of the citizens are concerned about the negative environmental impact of air pollution, they will not spend any extra money to protect the environment. – The success of the plan does not require each and every citizen to use the plan. There could be exceptions. This kind of answer choice is one of common type of incorrect choices used by GMAT in weaken question type. Incorrect.

B. The budget deficit of the government of Papula is already at alarming levels, and any further increase in the deficit could lead to the bankruptcy of the country. – We are concerned with the impact of the plan on the pollution in the country. The impact the plan has on the financial status of the country is not the concern of the argument. Incorrect.

C. Since Papula is an aging country, with more than half its population near retirement age, the chief consideration for a large number of its citizens is the convenience to drive rather than the costs to do so. – This statement actually captures both the weakeners that we came up with during the pre-thinking stage. It not only tells that a majority of population is not middle-aged, it also tells that the majority of population prefers convenience, something that the government has not taken into consideration while coming up with it’s plan.-. Therefore, this statement weakens the conclusion. Correct.

D. In the last two decades, Papula has emerged as a major economic hub, leading to an increase in the living standard of its citizens and in the number of cars in the region. – This statement tell us that the number of cars have increased in the country. But as per the plan, these cars would be replaced with electric ones and once that is done, the pollution should decrease, doesn’t matter the number of cars. Therefore, this option doesn’t affect the conclusion. Incorrect.

E. Since people who don’t own gasoline cars would not be benefitted from the proposed plan, they may strongly oppose the use of taxpayer money on such a plan. – Like option 2, this option also tries to cast a doubt on whether the plan can be implemented. However, within the context of the conclusion, we are not concerned about such a thing. Incorrect.

Hope this helps

Thanks,
Chiranjeev

Hi I think question itself does not give any clear indication to chose betwen A and C.

A -> argument already mention that in survey people are ready to switch if economical option is given.
C-> No where in argument its is mention that gasoline cars are more comfortable. or the eco cars are not comfortable.
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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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11 Jan 2014, 08:56
I just wanted to confirm if such type of ambiguous questions do appear in GMAT as well??
As the questions I have seen in the OG and other GMAT official sources, options which require too vague assumptions (obv if it is not an assumption question), are rare. The OA of this question is also of similar type.
In fact, I have read from different sources(manhattan cr strategy guide) that weakening type questions should not have any additional evidence to ans. The option should just weaken either the conclusion or the assumption of the argument.
Please if any expert could clear it.
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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2014, 19:06
Sukant2010 wrote:
I just wanted to confirm if such type of ambiguous questions do appear in GMAT as well??
As the questions I have seen in the OG and other GMAT official sources, options which require too vague assumptions (obv if it is not an assumption question), are rare. The OA of this question is also of similar type.
In fact, I have read from different sources(manhattan cr strategy guide) that weakening type questions should not have any additional evidence to ans. The option should just weaken either the conclusion or the assumption of the argument.
Please if any expert could clear it.

Hi Sukant,

Thank you for posting this query.

I think how we define something "vague" is actually vague itself. I suggest that you look at the official question (OG13 Q94) and the discussion around this in the below thread:

as-a-construction-material-bamboo-is-as-strong-as-steel-and-135997.html

The correct option in the above question requires you to understand/assume where multistory buildings will be required most. If we say this is vague assumption or additional information required to make this option correct, then essentially we are going against the official question.

Regarding what you read in Manhattan or other guides, I am not sure what you mean when you say it should require additional evidence. A correct weakening choice is an additional evidence (i.e. in addition to the argument) that weakens your belief in the conclusion. Now, if you think (I am just guessing) that a correct choice should not bring rely on new information to make it correct, then look at below official question:

twenty-years-ago-balzania-put-in-place-regulations-130755.html

The correct option is C, which relies on information after "because" in the option statement. So, the first part of option C will not explain the paradox unless we know the part after "because". So, the option gives you two pieces of information which complement each other to explain the paradox and hence make the choice correct.

Let me know if you still have questions.

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2014, 15:49
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Hi Chiranjeev,
Thanx for ur response. As I said, I have seen very rare such questions. But in the example question you have given, the ans is a little bit clear as there is no other option actually targeting any disadvantage of bamboos over steel and concrete. In fact, in the question all the options assumed something or other and finally, I could easily mark option (b) because of the above said reason. In the current question being discussed, I can clearly see from option (a) that if there are people who won't spend any money when they actually required to, how can govt get the funds or how can govt provide these subsidized electric cars.
U are right that sometimes, we have to assume something to get the right answer, but in this question from option (a), I can explicitly tell that govt won't be able to do so if people aren't willing any more to buy even if they have told the opposite in the surveys. I actually donot have to assume anything. This is quite clear.
But in option (c), firstly, I have to assume that electric cars are more convenient that gasoline cars ( hell of an assumption, considering the fact that 'convenience' word is not even used once during the passage). I say I am an expert and gasoline cars are more convenient than electric cars. Then, option (c) cant be the answer. This was actually what I meant by saying 'vague' assumptions because we are taking too far fetched information to prove a point.
The only concern for govt is funds and an interested market; option (a) destroys the second point (interested market). Govt cannot sell cars if they donot get an interested market. From option (c), we are also (though by taking such assumptions) attacking the second point (an interested market), but via option (a) we donot have to assume anything that is far beyond the scope of the passage.
You can check all examples of OG as well in which assumptions are being taken in the options, but there will be explicit assumptions such as the one you showed. Never will there be any question in which an option explicitly answers the question and an option which answers by assuming way too much.
I think I have made my point. Please correct me wherever I am wrong...
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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2014, 00:42
Sukant2010 wrote:
Hi Chiranjeev,
Thanx for ur response. As I said, I have seen very rare such questions. But in the example question you have given, the ans is a little bit clear as there is no other option actually targeting any disadvantage of bamboos over steel and concrete. In fact, in the question all the options assumed something or other and finally, I could easily mark option (b) because of the above said reason. In the current question being discussed, I can clearly see from option (a) that if there are people who won't spend any money when they actually required to, how can govt get the funds or how can govt provide these subsidized electric cars.
U are right that sometimes, we have to assume something to get the right answer, but in this question from option (a), I can explicitly tell that govt won't be able to do so if people aren't willing any more to buy even if they have told the opposite in the surveys. I actually donot have to assume anything. This is quite clear.
But in option (c), firstly, I have to assume that electric cars are more convenient that gasoline cars ( hell of an assumption, considering the fact that 'convenience' word is not even used once during the passage). I say I am an expert and gasoline cars are more convenient than electric cars. Then, option (c) cant be the answer. This was actually what I meant by saying 'vague' assumptions because we are taking too far fetched information to prove a point.
The only concern for govt is funds and an interested market; option (a) destroys the second point (interested market). Govt cannot sell cars if they donot get an interested market. From option (c), we are also (though by taking such assumptions) attacking the second point (an interested market), but via option (a) we donot have to assume anything that is far beyond the scope of the passage.
You can check all examples of OG as well in which assumptions are being taken in the options, but there will be explicit assumptions such as the one you showed. Never will there be any question in which an option explicitly answers the question and an option which answers by assuming way too much.
I think I have made my point. Please correct me wherever I am wrong...

Hi Sukant,

I see that you have some good understanding of the official questions. Let me put here two points to explain my case: one in favor of option C and one against option A.

1. In option C, even if you ignore "convenience" part, there is one more information embedded in option C as I explain in my detailed solution. Option C also says that people near retirement age constitute more than 50% of the population. Now, we know from the argument that the government's plan relies on a survey of middle-aged people.

Option C suggests that the government's plan might not work for a majority of population (unless you assume that the priorities of both the categories of people are same).

In other words, option C suggests that the surveyed people are actually not representative of the population. Now, since the argument relies on the survey results, the argument is weakened by option C. Actually, some official questions are actually built around this idea of representative sample. You can refer to my article on Representative Samples:

article-representative-sample-a-concept-tested-in-gmat-cr-158832.html

2. The problem with option A is "some". It suggests that some people will not switch to electric cars. Right?

Now, an important point to consider here is that does the argument require all people to switch for the plan to be successful. The answer is No.

Even if 10% of the people don't switch, the plan will very likely to succeed.

This plan is going to affect the population of the whole country. It is rather expected that there would be some people who will not switch. The plan does not rely on or expect all people to switch.

Just because we know some people will not switch, our belief in the plan does not go down.

On the other hand, if option A had suggested 50% of the people will not switch, then it might be correct.

I hope it helps.

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2014, 03:20
Hi chiranjeev,
You are absolutely right about your argument that more than half of the population is near its retirement age and thus, there can be a chance that the survey results might have been for wrong people. But I still find the answer very ambiguous.
I am still not confident how (c) can be the answer as there are too many assumptions again been taken but you have convinced me to accept the fact there are also some anomalies in option (a) as well. I am mainly struck in the 'convenience' part.
Thus, I find all the options ambiguous . Though I have seen questions in the OG where almost all the options are ambiguous but we always have that option as an answer which can be correctly identified as the answer as targeting something important in the context of the passage. Here, you do have reasonable assumptions to take (c) as the answer but again, 'convenience' is one part which cannot be accepted (according to me, I may be incorrect) as nothing even remotely been said about it in the complete passage.
I again switch to my earlier post of this forum, are seriously such type of questions asked in the GMAT...?
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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2014, 15:10
And thanks for the article. It was really very fruitful.
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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2014, 08:13
egmat wrote:

Hi Sukant,

I see that you have some good understanding of the official questions. Let me put here two points to explain my case: one in favor of option C and one against option A.

1. In option C, even if you ignore "convenience" part, there is one more information embedded in option C as I explain in my detailed solution. Option C also says that people near retirement age constitute more than 50% of the population. Now, we know from the argument that the government's plan relies on a survey of middle-aged people.

Option C suggests that the government's plan might not work for a majority of population (unless you assume that the priorities of both the categories of people are same).

In other words, option C suggests that the surveyed people are actually not representative of the population. Now, since the argument relies on the survey results, the argument is weakened by option C. Actually, some official questions are actually built around this idea of representative sample. You can refer to my article on Representative Samples:

article-representative-sample-a-concept-tested-in-gmat-cr-158832.html

2. The problem with option A is "some". It suggests that some people will not switch to electric cars. Right?

Now, an important point to consider here is that does the argument require all people to switch for the plan to be successful. The answer is No.

Even if 10% of the people don't switch, the plan will very likely to succeed.

This plan is going to affect the population of the whole country. It is rather expected that there would be some people who will not switch. The plan does not rely on or expect all people to switch.

Just because we know some people will not switch, our belief in the plan does not go down.

On the other hand, if option A had suggested 50% of the people will not switch, then it might be correct.

I hope it helps.

Thanks,
Chiranjeev

Hi,
A - some, can mean from 1%-100% (by the post from RonVeritas I think), and this actually gives a clear reason why people won't change.
C - even if older people account for more than 50% of the population, we don't know how many % of the drivers they are.
If they only account for 10% of all drivers, than this whole option is irrelevant....

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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2015, 12:33
egmat wrote:
Hi,

Please find below the official Solution:

UNDERSTANDING THE PASSAGE

1. As per a survey:
a. an average middle-aged person drive 2000 miles a year and almost all of them own a gasoline-run car
b. Most of these middle-aged guys would switch their cars to electric ones, if the costs of making the switch are not high

2. The government of Papula is planning to implement a plan that would allow all the current owners of gasoline-run cars to switch to electric cars at a minimal cost.

UNDERSTANDING THE QUESTION STEM

The given question is a weaken question; however the conclusion is not stated in the passage but is given in the question stem. Basically, when we say that the conclusion is stated in the question stem, what we mean is that the statement that needs to be weakened is in the question stem.

The relevant conclusion is:
The plan, as envisaged by the government of Papula, will be able to significantly reduce the air pollution in the country in the next five years.

PRE-THINKING

The author in this question makes predictions about the behavior of a population based on data from survey from a sample of the population – middle aged people. Hence, while making the prediction the author makes the assumption that the sample data must be representative of the population data or the preferences of the sample must be representative of the preferences of the majority.

One easy to spot weak point of the argument is that the plan of the government is based on the data of only middle-aged persons whereas the objective that needs to be achieved i.e. reduction in pollution will depend on other sections of population also. Besides, there is nothing to suggest in the passage that middle-aged population is responsible for a large proportion of the total pollution in the country. Thus, we can pre-think two weakeners for the given argument:

1. Any statement that suggests that other sections of population have preferences which are different from middle-aged population
2. Any statement that suggests that middle-aged population accounts for only a small proportion of the total population in the country

A. Though some of the citizens are concerned about the negative environmental impact of air pollution, they will not spend any extra money to protect the environment. – The success of the plan does not require each and every citizen to use the plan. There could be exceptions. This kind of answer choice is one of common type of incorrect choices used by GMAT in weaken question type. Incorrect.

B. The budget deficit of the government of Papula is already at alarming levels, and any further increase in the deficit could lead to the bankruptcy of the country. – We are concerned with the impact of the plan on the pollution in the country. The impact the plan has on the financial status of the country is not the concern of the argument. Incorrect.

C. Since Papula is an aging country, with more than half its population near retirement age, the chief consideration for a large number of its citizens is the convenience to drive rather than the costs to do so. – This statement actually captures both the weakeners that we came up with during the pre-thinking stage. It not only tells that a majority of population is not middle-aged, it also tells that the majority of population prefers convenience, something that the government has not taken into consideration while coming up with it’s plan.-. Therefore, this statement weakens the conclusion. Correct.

D. In the last two decades, Papula has emerged as a major economic hub, leading to an increase in the living standard of its citizens and in the number of cars in the region. – This statement tell us that the number of cars have increased in the country. But as per the plan, these cars would be replaced with electric ones and once that is done, the pollution should decrease, doesn’t matter the number of cars. Therefore, this option doesn’t affect the conclusion. Incorrect.

E. Since people who don’t own gasoline cars would not be benefitted from the proposed plan, they may strongly oppose the use of taxpayer money on such a plan. – Like option 2, this option also tries to cast a doubt on whether the plan can be implemented. However, within the context of the conclusion, we are not concerned about such a thing. Incorrect.

Hope this helps

Thanks,
Chiranjeev

chiranjeev,
i narrowed down C and D because the others dont stand a chance. A slight doubt wrt C is;
Since Papula is an aging country, with more than half its population near retirement age, the chief consideration for a large number of its citizens is the convenience to drive rather than the costs to do so.

does the argument mention anywhere that conversion to an electric vehicle, or driving an electric vehicle or any such thing would be inconvenient for older people. this is something that is being assumed inherently that driving or shifting to an electric vehicle would be inconvenient for olde rpeople. Now, the best way to weaken a survey related question is to just portray that the section of the society being surveyed is not representative of the entire society, true that!! but in this case another unwanted assumption is that fact doing any of the things mentioned above would be inconvenient for the older people. would be great if you could confirm/clarify my understanding.
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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2016, 22:03
hi,

can we not just assume that convenience can be achieved with minimal cost as convenience is not mentioned in the argument. i got confused whether to consider option C or not. when we do not know about the convenience factor, it can be provided high at cost or low at cost. As, we cannot conclude on that point can't we rule out that option?

please explain if my logic is wrong
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Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2016, 19:33
Question Type: Weaken / Statistical.
How To Weaken: - Sample not representative - Conclusion doesn't match stats - Flaw in calculations
Question Objective: Weaken Assumptions.

Premise: Recent survey carried out, an average middle-aged person drives his or her car for two thousand miles in a year and 99% of these people own a gasoline-run car.
Premise: Survey suggested that if offered an economical option to switch to electric cars, most of these people would change their gasoline-run cars.
Premise: Planning to implement a plan that would allow all the current owners of gasoline-run cars to switch to electric cars at a minimal cost.
------------
Assumption: Survey is representative
Assumption: Middle-aged people are large percentage of population
Assumption: Switching cars from gas to electrical will reduce air pollution
------------
Conclusion: Meet its required objective of significantly reducing air pollution in Papula in the next 5 years

A. Though some of the citizens are concerned about the negative environmental impact of air pollution, they will not spend any extra money to protect the environment. - Can affect assumptions, slightly. Is there better?

B. The budget deficit of the government of Papula is already at alarming levels, and any further increase in the deficit could lead to the bankruptcy of the country. - Out of Scope. Doesn't affect assumptions.

C. Since Papula is an aging country, with more than half its population near retirement age, the chief consideration for a large number of its citizens is the convenience to drive rather than the costs to do so. - Affects assumptions. Survey isn't representative of all people.

D. In the last two decades, Papula has emerged as a major economic hub, leading to an increase in the living standard of its citizens and in the number of cars in the region. - Doesn't affect assumptions. Historical information. Not relevant.

E. Since people who don’t own gasoline cars would not be benefitted from the proposed plan, they may strongly oppose the use of taxpayer money on such a plan. - Doesn't affect assumptions. Insufficient details.
Re: Gasoline Cars in Papula Country   [#permalink] 20 Dec 2016, 19:33

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