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# Gasoline-powered boat engines manufactured in the North

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Gasoline-powered boat engines manufactured in the North [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2004, 13:26
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4. Gasoline-powered boat engines manufactured in the North American country prior to 1990 contribute significantly to the pollution found in the worldâ€™s oceans. In 1990, however, the government imposed stricter pollution controls on gasoline engines manufactured for boats, and beginning in 1995, the government imposed a program of inspections for pre-1990 boat engines with increasingly rigorous pollution standards. <As the older boat engines fail to pass inspection, boat owners are increasingly retiring their old engines in favor of newer, less-polluting boat engines.> As a result, <the amount of pollution these older boat engines emit into the worldâ€™s oceans will steadily decrease over the next en years>.

The two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first is a pattern of cause and effect that acts as an evidence in support of this argument; the second is the conclusion that can be drawn from this argument.
B. The first is a fact that acts as a principle in support of this argument; the second is the conclusion that must be drawn from this argument.
C. The first is a pattern of cause and effect that acts as an special evidence in support of the conclusion; the second is a general point that can be drawn from this argument.
D. The first is a pattern of cause and effect that acts as the third evidence in support of the argument; the second is a conclusion that must be true.
E. The first is a final evidence in support of the argument; the second is a conclusion that can be drawn only from the first

I guess it's E. What do you think?
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29 Jun 2004, 17:30
I would go with A on this one
Cause: As the older boat engines fail to pass inspection
Effect: boat owners are increasingly retiring their old engines in favor of newer, less-polluting boat engines
Conclusion: [Because there will be more newer, less-polluting engines boats] "the amount of pollution these older boat engines emit into the worldâ€™s oceans will steadily decrease over the next ten years"
This is exactly what A says

B) no principle involved here
C) "general point"? What is that supposed to mean? To me, the second point seems to be a logical conclusion that can be drawn from the first point.
D) I'm not comfortable with "third evidence" and "a conclusion that MUST be true" here.
E) Hmmm, "final evidence"? Not sure about that. Also, it says "the second is a conclusion that can be drawn ONLY from the first" The sentence immediately preceding the first can also lead to the conclusion. Hence, conclusion can not only be drawn from the first.
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30 Jun 2004, 00:11
I would also go with A
E is wrond because its not the evidence of the argument'
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30 Jun 2004, 01:04
I go with A because The first portion has the pattern of "cause & effect" in terms of "as.., .." and the second portion has a conclusion that has evidences from the second statement & the third statement.

B - There is nothing like principle here.
C - I am not sure what is special evidence here.
D - There is no third evidence. Infact it is the second evidence as per the sentences. The first sentence is just an opening sentence no offering any evidence to the conclusion.
E - The conclusion need not be drawn from the first boldfaced portion alone.

What is OA?

boksana wrote:
4. Gasoline-powered boat engines manufactured in the North American country prior to 1990 contribute significantly to the pollution found in the worldâ€™s oceans. In 1990, however, the government imposed stricter pollution controls on gasoline engines manufactured for boats, and beginning in 1995, the government imposed a program of inspections for pre-1990 boat engines with increasingly rigorous pollution standards. <As the older boat engines fail to pass inspection, boat owners are increasingly retiring their old engines in favor of newer, less-polluting boat engines.> As a result, <the amount of pollution these older boat engines emit into the worldâ€™s oceans will steadily decrease over the next en years>.

The two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first is a pattern of cause and effect that acts as an evidence in support of this argument; the second is the conclusion that can be drawn from this argument.
B. The first is a fact that acts as a principle in support of this argument; the second is the conclusion that must be drawn from this argument.
C. The first is a pattern of cause and effect that acts as an special evidence in support of the conclusion; the second is a general point that can be drawn from this argument.
D. The first is a pattern of cause and effect that acts as the third evidence in support of the argument; the second is a conclusion that must be true.
E. The first is a final evidence in support of the argument; the second is a conclusion that can be drawn only from the first

I guess it's E. What do you think?

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30 Jun 2004, 01:52
I would have gone for (D) had the figure of "ten year" been not mentioned in the conclusion. (I presume it is "ten years" where it says "over the next en years")

IMO (A) is best among the given choices.
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30 Jun 2004, 11:30
I will toss between A and E and expect the coin to land straight.

Boksana,

Where do you get these questions from.

--Bhai
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30 Jun 2004, 12:15
I would prefer... A

E = wrong cos it takes to extremes when it tells'' final evidence'' and the second is the conclusion can b drawn ONLY from THE first

hope that helps

Have fun...
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the whole worldmakes way for the man who knows wer he's going... good luck

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30 Jun 2004, 18:06
Sorry, no OA
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22 Jul 2004, 18:40
how exactly do you define a 'principle' in these type of problems?
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19 Aug 2004, 12:04
OA is A.
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19 Aug 2004, 22:25
I think it's A. It's not a final evidence but a cause and effect (cause = pollution, effect = stringent controls and checks resulting in engines being changes) that acts as an evidence. The second is a conclusion drawn from this argument
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22 Aug 2004, 09:27
lastochka wrote:
how exactly do you define a 'principle' in these type of problems?

a principle would be a sort of guideline, theory or something fundamental on which the argument would hinge.
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Paul

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04 Feb 2005, 11:20
Hi Paul - I think what was being asked was ...Have you got an approach or methodology for these BOLD FACE questions ..thank you...

which doesnt involved premise - consideration - evident - assumption ...these all mean the same thing
thanks
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04 Feb 2005, 11:30
This question is such a dumb question. I mean what first evidence, second evidence, third evidence, and final evidence? Are we expected to count or something?
04 Feb 2005, 11:30
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