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# Generic drugs contain exactly the same active ingredients as

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Generic drugs contain exactly the same active ingredients as [#permalink]

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12 May 2005, 12:37
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Generic drugs contain exactly the same active ingredients as their brand-name counterparts, but usually cost much less to develop, produce, and market. So, generic drugs are just as effective as their brand-name counterparts, but cost considerably less.

Which of of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The ingredients used in the manufacture of brand-name drugs cost no more than the ingredients used to produce their generic counterparts.
B) Generic drugs are no more likely than brand-name drugs to suffer from defects in composition.
C) Generic drugs are just as likely as brand-name drugs to be readily available in pharmacies.
D) THe higher costs of brand-name drugs underwrite drugs companies' heavy investment in research.
E) Because of advertising, doctors frequently prescribe brand-name drugs by their brand name, rather than by their chemical name.

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12 May 2005, 12:47
I pick B.

the assumption is besides cost, generic drug is the same as brand name drug. B strengthens this assumption.

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12 May 2005, 15:25
"D"
THe higher costs of brand-name drugs underwrite drugs companies' heavy investment in research.

That means the brand name drugs are costly!

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12 May 2005, 20:16
I am not so sure, I will be honest and pick A but D seems also the good option.

In my opnion B is not the answer because it is not about costs but about defects in composition.

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Re: CR - Generic Drugs [#permalink]

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12 May 2005, 20:26
gmataquaguy wrote:
Generic drugs contain exactly the same active ingredients as their brand-name counterparts, but usually cost much less to develop, produce, and market. So, generic drugs are just as effective as their brand-name counterparts, but cost considerably less.

Which of of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The ingredients used in the manufacture of brand-name drugs cost no more than the ingredients used to produce their generic counterparts.
B) Generic drugs are no more likely than brand-name drugs to suffer from defects in composition.
C) Generic drugs are just as likely as brand-name drugs to be readily available in pharmacies.
D) THe higher costs of brand-name drugs underwrite drugs companies' heavy investment in research.
E) Because of advertising, doctors frequently prescribe brand-name drugs by their brand name, rather than by their chemical name.

IMO - C

the generic drugs contain the same active ingredients, but cost less. So, what is the author driving at? He/she is trying to convey that we could use either B.Name drugs or G.Drugs.
If the availability is the same for both the groups, we will strengthen the argument. Which is what C seeks to establish!

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12 May 2005, 20:34
I think it is C because all major drug companies charge higher prices to offset their costly research. Generic "copycat" drugs need not research, just reproduce, so costs are kept at a minimum.

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12 May 2005, 20:43
A

The argument revolves around effectiveness and cost. Since the effectiveness of the generic brand is the same, then cost becomes a factor of concern. Choice A strengthens the cost argument of drugs that are exactly the same. The other choices do not do this.

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Re: CR - Generic Drugs [#permalink]

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12 May 2005, 21:15
The argument is

So, generic drugs are just as effective as their brand-name counterparts, but cost considerably less.

Generic drugs contain exactly the same active ingredients as their brand-name counterparts, but usually cost much less to develop, produce, and market. So, generic drugs are just as effective as their brand-name counterparts, but cost considerably less.

Which of of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The ingredients used in the manufacture of brand-name drugs cost no more than the ingredients used to produce their generic counterparts.
this does not strenthen the srgument that generic drugs are as effective as brand name

B) Generic drugs are no more likely than brand-name drugs to suffer from defects in composition.

this is the comparison of effectiveness.

C) Generic drugs are just as likely as brand-name drugs to be readily available in pharmacies.
out of scope
D) THe higher costs of brand-name drugs underwrite drugs companies' heavy investment in research.
out of scope

E) Because of advertising, doctors frequently prescribe brand-name drugs by their brand name, rather than by their chemical name.
out of scope

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12 May 2005, 21:47
I choose B.

In the argument it is mentioned that the same active ingredients are used. the assumption is even the composition is same, which would support the fact that the generic drugs should cost less.

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Re: CR - Generic Drugs [#permalink]

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13 May 2005, 15:17
Pretty interesting discussion, so I thought I'd chip in with my views as well. Please provide criticism.

The argument: "So, generic drugs are just as effective as their brand-name counterparts, but cost considerably less."

Fine Print : The argument talks about "equal effectiveness" AND "considerably lower cost".

Now individual statements:

A. This argument doesn't explain why brand name drugs are expensive - in fact it states the opposite - that the ingredients for generic and brand name drugs cost the same. This is no new information anyway, because the passage already states "Generic drugs contain exactly the same active ingredients as their brand-name counterparts". It does not talk about other factors that might differentiate between the final price of drugs (develop, produce and market). I'd not really go with it.

B. Defects in composition is not considered in the passage. It is not a part of the argument. I think it is quite irrelevant.

C. Again, ready availability doesnt have anything directly to do with cost and effectiveness - so I guess quite irrelevant here.

D. Here it comes - the higher price of a brand name drug is because of a higher investment of the drug company in research.

[For those who might not be in the know - a company which develops a drug initially takes a patent on it, and chooses a fancy name to market the product, and at a significantly high price. After the patent expires, other companies can develop the same drug and sell it as generic drugs. Since the other companies were not the original developers, they had not incurred the costs on R&D, and hence can offer the drug cheap in the market. Of course the original drug company has the early mover advantage, and a market share advantage, so can still continue to charge higher price, which is also partly because the company might not have recovered its cost on R&D completely]

E. This is true, but doesn't explain why "cost more and same effect". So I'd not go with this too.

My final choice would be D.

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13 May 2005, 15:40
D.

It strenghten the argument by explaining that the higher cost has more to do with investment in research rather than superior effectiveness.

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Re: CR - Generic Drugs [#permalink]

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14 May 2005, 00:44
Assumptions Same active ingredients therefore same effectiveness, prices don't matter.

A. Similar ingredient costs suggest similar ingredient quality therefore it's a strengthener.

B's 'defects in composition' sound too general to me

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Re: CR - Generic Drugs [#permalink]

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14 May 2005, 06:55
gmataquaguy wrote:
Generic drugs contain exactly the same active ingredients as their brand-name counterparts, but usually cost much less to develop, produce, and market. So, generic drugs are just as effective as their brand-name counterparts, but cost considerably less.

Which of of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A) The ingredients used in the manufacture of brand-name drugs cost no more than the ingredients used to produce their generic counterparts.
B) Generic drugs are no more likely than brand-name drugs to suffer from defects in composition.

The OA is B. Here is the OE:

the conclusion of the argument has two parts: (1) that generic drugs are just as effective as their brand-name counterparts and (2) that generic drugs cost less than their brand-name counterparts.

The Correct Answer is B. The effectiveness of a drug depends not only on its having certain active ingredients but also on the drug being correctly manufactured so that it has the right composition. (B) tells us that generic drugs are no more likely to be defective in their composition than brand-name drugs are, thereby strengthening the arguement for part (1) of the conclusion.

The OE eliminates (A) on the following basis: We already know that generic drugs contain the same active ingredients as their brand-name counterparts. So the fact that the ingredients used in the manufacture of brand-name drugs are no more expensive than those used in the manufacture of generic drugs provides no additional evidence concerning the effectiveness of the generic drug. And A clearly does not add support for the conclusion that generic drugs cost less than their brand-name counterparts.

I think AC "A" does provide support for the conclusion that generic drugs cost less than their brand-name. Here is why:
Total Cost of Drugs = Cost of production of drug [ingredientcost+development cost+marketing] + MarkUp.

But based on the premise [generic drugs contain exactly the same active ingredient as their brand-name counterparts, but cost much less to develop, produce and market] we now know the "cost of production" is the same. This premise in conjuction with the above equation proves that its the "markup" of brand name drugs that is hiking up the price. Therefore it supports the conclusion that generic drugs cost less.

What is wrong with this logic? How could the author say that AC A doesnt add support to the conclusion that it is generic drugs cost less than brand-name drugs.

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Re: CR - Generic Drugs [#permalink]

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14 May 2005, 14:41
gmataquaguy wrote:
I think AC "A" does provide support for the conclusion that generic drugs cost less than their brand-name. Here is why:
Total Cost of Drugs = Cost of production of drug [ingredientcost+development cost+marketing] + MarkUp.

But based on the premise [generic drugs contain exactly the same active ingredient as their brand-name counterparts, but cost much less to develop, produce and market] we now know the "cost of production" is the same. This premise in conjuction with the above equation proves that its the "markup" of brand name drugs that is hiking up the price. Therefore it supports the conclusion that generic drugs cost less.

What is wrong with this logic? How could the author say that AC A doesnt add support to the conclusion that it is generic drugs cost less than brand-name drugs.

gmataquaguy, The 'MarkUp' is not mentioned in the argument, this is an assumption made on your part - word of caution, do not bring in external information while doing CRs.

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16 May 2005, 20:04
Let me rephrase my question:

The premise says "Generic drugs contain exactly the same active ingredients as their brand-name counterparts, but usually cost much less to develop, produce, and market."

Portion of the conclusion says: ...But cost less.

Wouldnt it be fair to say that if total cost of ingredients [from answer stem A]is identical and [generic drugs usually cost much less] well we know that brand name drugs are making "profit".

You have 3 variables. Cost of making product product, Cost of ingredients, and "something" else.

Answer Choice A: Cost of ingredients [for brand drug] = Cost of ingredients [for generic drug]
Premise1: Ingredients [for brand drug] = Ingredients [for generic drug]
Premise2: Cost to develop/produce/market [for brand drug] > cost to develop/produce/market [generic drug]

Combining AC A and premise 1,2 isnt it clear that generic drugs are cheaper than brand name drugs?

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22 May 2005, 23:04
A compares the cost of ingredients. But the stem already provided that generic drugs have exactly the same ingredients as the brand names. Therefore A doesn't really provide more support to the argument.
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23 May 2005, 00:25
gmataquaguy, Premise2: Cost to develop/produce/market [for brand drug] > cost to develop/produce/market [generic drug]

cannot lead to the fact that profit of brand drug > profit of generic drug.

Though they may be using the same ingredients, the process might be v.different. Eg. both diamond & coal use carbon as ingredient but the manufacturing process are v.different. (bad eg. I guess)

It might happen that the cheaper drugs are of cheap quality and thus might not be equally effective.
B is the only stmt that says that both drugs are equally prone to defects.

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Generic drugs contain exactly the same active ingredients as [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2013, 11:26
Generic drugs contain exactly the same active ingredients as their brand name counterparts, but usually cost much less to develop, produce and market. So, generic drugs are just as effective as their brand-name counterparts, but cost considerably less.

Which of the following if true most strengthens the argument?

(A) The ingredients used in the manufacture of brand name drugs cost no more than the ingredients used to produce their generic counterparts.
(B) Generic drugs are just as likely as brand-name drugs to be readily available in pharmacies.
(C) Generic drugs are no more likely than brand-name drugs to suffer from defects in composition.
(D) The higher cost of brand-name drugs underwrite drug companies' heavy investment in research.
(E) Because of advertising, doctors frequently prescribe brand-name drugs by their brand-name, rather than by their chemical name.
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07 Jan 2013, 11:46
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The argument essentially states that generic drugs are just as effective as their brand name counterparts because they contain the same active ingredients as brand name drugs. Since the question is asking you to find something that strengthens the argument, you must find something that has something to do with the active ingredients. C is correct because it addresses a concern that someone may have regarding the argument. It reinforces the argument's position that generic drugs are just as effective as brand name drugs.

A is incorrect because it is redundant. We already know that generic drugs cost the same as brand name drugs (it was stated in the argument).

B is incorrect because it is irrelevant. Availability has nothing to do with price or anything with the argument for that matter.

D is similar to A. We already know about the price. Also, research was never mentioned.

E is incorrect because it is irrelevant.

I hope the helps
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Re: Generic drugs contain exactly the same active ingredients as [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2013, 02:07
Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs that have exactly the same dosage, intended use, effects, side effects, route of administration, risks, safety, and strength as the original drug. In other words, their pharmacological effects are exactly the same as those of their brand-name counterparts.

An example of a generic drug, one used for diabetes, is metformin. A brand name for metformin is Glucophage. You can find better information on the difference between brand and generic drugs at this pharmacy InternationalDrugMart

Last edited by Ammymickens on 17 Jul 2013, 04:03, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Generic drugs contain exactly the same active ingredients as   [#permalink] 04 Apr 2013, 02:07

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