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Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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Marcab wrote:
Guys I would like to ask all of you that how can "sudden fluctuations" and "tilting" be parallel?
"tilting" is a simple gerund and "fluctuations" is an action noun, and according to MGMAT SC, simple gerunds and action nouns can't be parallel.
So the sentence goes like this:
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include [sudden fluctuations in( local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the earth's crust)], changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in/of the electrical properties of underground rocks.

Regarding the preposition, MGMAT says that there is no compulsion on the prepositions to be the same.

Correct me if I am wrong.
Verbal experts noburu, metallicafan, Tommy please help.


according to Manhattan SC:
simple gerund should be parallel to simple gerund ONLY
complex gerund can be parallel to action nouns

look at the answer choice D. in this example, we have following warning signs for a major earthquake: sudden fluctuation in local seismic activities, tilting of the Earth's crust, changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in the electrical properties of underground rocks. now examine words in bold - fluctuation is an action noun (from verb fluctuate), changes is an action noun (from verb change), variations is an action noun (from verb vary) and as for tilting of, it is a complex gerund phrase, since complex gerund phrases are "noun through and through", which means that if you look inside the phrase, you can not turn it into a working verb. for example, try to place some noun inside the phrase "tilting of the earth's crust", such as "earthquake is tilting of the earth's crust" - you will see that this sentence does not make sense, cause it can not be turned into working verb (because of having Of-preposition in the phrase).

to sum it up, three action nouns (fluctuation, changes, variation) and one complex gerund (tilting of) are made parallel. so correct answer choice is D.


hope it helps.

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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goalsnr wrote:
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth's crust, changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

A. changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
B. changing measurements of the strain across afault zone, and varying
C. changing the strain as measured across a faultzone, and variations of
D. changes in the measured strain across a faultzone, and variations in
E. changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among


D It is.

Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include j, k, l, and m. These j, k, l, m are the items in a list of a warning signs. Hence needs to be parallel.

The first two items are in the form of Adjectival Phrases 1) sudden fluctuations..... 2)tilting ...... of the earth's crust.
So to take care of parallelism remaining two items also need to be in the form of Adjectival phrase.

A) INCORRECT :- changing and varying are verbs, which can not parallel to phrases

B) INCORRECT :- varying is verb, which can not parallel to phrase. Also Change is in the strain and not in the measurements.

C) INCORRECT :- changing is verb, which can not parallel to phrase.

D) CORRECT :- This choice makes the remaining two signs parallel to previous signs. changes...... variations.....

E) INCORRECT :- changes are in the strain and not in the measurements.

Hope That Helps!
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jan 2014, 09:33
No, I wouldn't go that far away Marcab. "Tilting", in this case, is a noun - a noun participle to be precise.

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2014, 16:44
I fell for parallelism on this. Ignored D and E right away. Shouldnt have done that. I clicked A and only after that I even read "D". Arrrrrrr

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2014, 22:54
This is OG Verbal 2nd edition SC Q#77

Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

The parallel list is:

1. sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity
2. tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust
3. changing the measured stain across a fault zone
4. varying the electrical properties of underground rocks

Changing and varying are in verb+ing form if we change it to changes… variations.
N.B titling is a Noun here.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among

A,B,C are out --> Only comlex Gerunds can be parallel to the action noun as tilting OF THE EARTH's.. (and it is a complex gerund because it is parallel to deromations--- tilting ...AND deformations)
(E) is out for 2 reasons: 1) Dont change the original sentence, unless it's meaning isn't nonsensical. changes in measurements is wrong - changes in strain. 2) Variations among means we that are talking about different properties, but we are talking about different outputs of the same properties for different Rocks
So, we are left with D.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth's crust, changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

A. changing the measured strain across a fault zone and varying

B. changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying

C. changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of

D. changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in

E. changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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it takes me 5 second to go to D and E but more than 3 minutes to think over D and E.
choose D finally

among means the changes between two properties
in means the changes in one properties and we have many property

very hard.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2015, 02:52
thangvietnam wrote:
it takes me 5 second to go to D and E but more than 3 minutes to think over D and E.
choose D finally

among means the changes between two properties
in means the changes in one properties and we have many property

very hard.


"variations in" is much better than "variations among". Thats why it was D (for me).

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2015, 20:46
The original question needs to be edited to stop the underline right before the "the electrical properties....".

Moderators please edit the original post containing the question. Thanks.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2015, 07:52
thangvietnam wrote:
it takes me 5 second to go to D and E but more than 3 minutes to think over D and E.
choose D finally

among means the changes between two properties
in means the changes in one properties and we have many property

very hard.


same here, just 5 sec to eliminate ABC but stuck bw D and E
and choose E.

feel like i should get a check list for SC que and apply to all que.. is it possible?
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2015, 01:07
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Yes, this is a tough one. The choice between D and E requires some really fine detail work. As several people have said, "among" is wrong because, in contrast to the meaning of A-D, that would be a comparison from one rock to another. It would be odd to expect the properties of all rocks to be the same in the first place. Additionally, changes in measurement shouldn't be a sign of an earthquake. We should be looking for changes in the thing we are measuring--strain. That makes this element parallel with the other signs--fluctuations in activity, tilting of the crust, etc.

As for developing a checklist, you don't want to do it! It certainly wouldn't have helped with D vs. E. If you were writing a computer program, sure, but you won't be able to apply that checklist efficiently on the test. Here's what I recommend:

1) Start by looking at the basic core of the sentence. Skip over modifiers to see the simple subject, verb, etc. Here, that would be "Geologists believe that the signs may include fluctuations, tilting and other deformations, changing, and varying." (Notice that I've left out adjectives and prepositional phrases.) The subject-verb relationships ("Geologists believe" and "signs may include") are fine, but the second half of the sentence has parallelism problems. That gets rid of A-C right away.

2) Once you've settled any issues with the core (sometimes there are none), you can start looking at meaning, modifiers, etc., but there's no time to go down a list. What's more helpful is to train yourself to spot these issues when they show up. See a sentence that starts with "Unlike"? Expect a comparison issue. See a modifier that moves around? Look at how it affects the meaning.

3) If you get stuck, guess and move on! There is nothing wrong with guessing between the final two on a question like this, even if you are aiming for 700+. Know when you are beat and save your time for problems you are able to resolve with confidence!
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2016, 08:16
goalsnr wrote:
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth's crust, changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

A. changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying

B. changing measurements of the strain across afault zone, and varying

C. changing the strain as measured across a faultzone, and variations of

D. changes in the measured strain across a faultzone, and variations in

E. changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among


Please explain the parallelism in the sentence- use of "changing" in option C and "changes" in D.
How it is working as a verb in C and as a noun in D?

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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goalsnr wrote:
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth's crust, changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

A. changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying

B. changing measurements of the strain across afault zone, and varying

C. changing the strain as measured across a faultzone, and variations of

D. changes in the measured strain across a faultzone, and variations in

E. changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among


Please explain the parallelism in the sentence- use of "changing" in option C and "changes" in D.
How it is working as a verb in C and as a noun in D?


Per the meaning of the sentence - The warning signs for a major earthquake include 4 things - a,b,c,& d. In this case - a,b,c,&d need to be parallel.

a - Sudden fluctuations in ..
b - tilting and other deformations of
c - (need to keep the consistency of writing) changes in the measured strain
d - variations in

This kind of string parallelism is correct in option D.

In addition, Changing is not a verb . (Any wording is not a verb unless preceded by is,am, are etc)
Changes in - noun preposition structure - parrallel with other similar structure in the string.

Hope this helps
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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This topic have been merged with: http://gmatclub.com/forum/topic-168405.html

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i [#permalink]

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mbafall2011 wrote:
326. Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
Here the fluctuations and changes are two independent signs and are equally important. Changes is not a sub warning sign. Hence it has to be changes.
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying -Not parallel
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of-this is verbose compared to A, also changing
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in -
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among - This is also verbose compared to D.


Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include P,Q,R, and S. (the comma after R is called an oxford comma)
P=sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity
Q=tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust
R=changes in the measured stain across a fault zone
S=variation in the electrical properties of underground rocks


HENCE CORRECT ANSWER D

OPTION A,B,C are incorrect because they lack parallelism.

OPTION D and E are correctly treating Reason P,Q, R and S as various independent reasons
Although all these reason P,Q,R and S are laden with adverbial and adjective phrases

OPTION E is incorrect because of "variation among" which is a wrong idiom.


Correct Idions for vary/variation are
vary between (someone and someone else)
In choosing a bridge partner, Sam varied between Tom and Wally.

vary between (something and something else)
The daytime temperatures vary between 80 and 90 degrees. She varies between angry and happy.

vary from (something to something)
Indian Summer varies from balmy warm to burning hot.

vary with (something)
The rainfall in Sahara desert varies with the season.

vary up
The University varied up its subjects with a new kind of practical and modern courses.
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