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Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2016, 07:57
nikitagmat30 wrote:
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.
(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among

q1.Look at the "," after tilting. Does that mean anything? I mean is "A, B and C" different from "A, B, and C".

q2. The parallel structure can be interpreted in 2 ways. First, 3 signs are listed: 1. sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity; 2. tilting 3. other deformations of the Earth's crust. And then 2 things that these signs cause.
Other way of looking at the parallel structure is 4 signs are:
1. sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity
2. tilting and other deformations
3. changes in the measured strain across a fault zone and
4. variations in the electrical properties of underground rocks.

This is the correct one acc to the answer (D). I dont why this is better than the first one.

I have faced similar problems in other questions i.e. how to interpret the logical parallel structure when it can be done in 2 ways. Can you elaborate on this and the meaning of the ",". Would be really helpful!

Your q1: Both are equivalent - comma before "and" is optional.

First meaning you suggested: Warning signs change the measured strain and vary electrical property..... not a meaningful sentence. (Warning signs may cause triggering of an alarm, but they cannot cause changes in measurement or vary electrical properties of rocks - they are just SIGNS after all.)
The second meaning you suggested: Changes in measured strains and varying electrical properties are warning signs.... makes sense.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2016, 08:00
nikitagmat30 wrote:
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.
(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among

q1.Look at the "," after tilting. Does that mean anything? I mean is "A, B and C" different from "A, B, and C".

q2. The parallel structure can be interpreted in 2 ways. First, 3 signs are listed: 1. sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity; 2. tilting 3. other deformations of the Earth's crust. And then 2 things that these signs cause.
Other way of looking at the parallel structure is 4 signs are:
1. sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity
2. tilting and other deformations
3. changes in the measured strain across a fault zone and
4. variations in the electrical properties of underground rocks.

This is the correct one acc to the answer (D). I dont why this is better than the first one.

I have faced similar problems in other questions i.e. how to interpret the logical parallel structure when it can be done in 2 ways. Can you elaborate on this and the meaning of the ",". Would be really helpful!

You have not understood the meaning of the question clearly.

Always remember We should also look for Meaning while solving any question.

There may be multiple options that are Grammatically correct but may convey different meaning as the question stem.

q1.Look at the "," after tilting. Does that mean anything? I mean is "A, B and C" different from "A, B, and C". --> Here, "tilting and other deformations " is used as a modifier describing the kind of "sudden fluctuations " present.

q2. The parallel structure can be interpreted in 2 ways. -->

We have warning signs that include
1) sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity
2) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone
3) variations in electrical properties of underground rocks.

The last 2 points are not at all ll to tilting or deformations.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2016, 08:23
abhimahna wrote:
nikitagmat30 wrote:
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.
(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among

q1.Look at the "," after tilting. Does that mean anything? I mean is "A, B and C" different from "A, B, and C".

q2. The parallel structure can be interpreted in 2 ways. First, 3 signs are listed: 1. sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity; 2. tilting 3. other deformations of the Earth's crust. And then 2 things that these signs cause.
Other way of looking at the parallel structure is 4 signs are:
1. sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity
2. tilting and other deformations
3. changes in the measured strain across a fault zone and
4. variations in the electrical properties of underground rocks.

This is the correct one acc to the answer (D). I dont why this is better than the first one.

I have faced similar problems in other questions i.e. how to interpret the logical parallel structure when it can be done in 2 ways. Can you elaborate on this and the meaning of the ",". Would be really helpful!

You have not understood the meaning of the question clearly.

Always remember We should also look for Meaning while solving any question.

There may be multiple options that are Grammatically correct but may convey different meaning as the question stem.

q1.Look at the "," after tilting. Does that mean anything? I mean is "A, B and C" different from "A, B, and C". --> Here, "tilting and other deformations " is used as a modifier describing the kind of "sudden fluctuations " present.

q2. The parallel structure can be interpreted in 2 ways. -->

We have warning signs that include
1) sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity
2) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone
3) variations in electrical properties of underground rocks.

The last 2 points are not at all ll to tilting or deformations.

Well, definitely tilting and other deformations is not a modifier..
Reference:-
e-gmat and OG explanation.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2016, 04:51
noboru wrote:
326. Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among

- Ving should modify the preceding sentence's verb.
- here the use of "changing" does grammatically makes sense with the previous phrase.
=> a/b/c are out.
- Choice E, aside from being very wordy, does not convey the intended meaning. there should be changes in the strains and not in the measurements.
=> choice E is out.

Choice D is correct.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2016, 19:48
Can someone explain why "variations of" is wrong in option C. I understand why "variations among" is wrong but I dont get why "variations of" would be wrong in C. thanks!

Split1) Parellelism. Noun-Gerund- noun form, so you need a noun form to keep parallelism. In A, B and C you see verbs. A, B, and C are out.
Split2) Logic. "Variations Among" is wrong because among means the following words will compare two distinct items.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2017, 03:24
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying - parallelism error
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying - parallelism error
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of - parallelism error
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in - Correct
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among - meaning error - The original sentence (Choice A) states – changes in measured strain – i.e. the actual strain has changed. This choice however states that measurements of strain changed – i.e. measurements change but we do not know if the actual strain changed or not.
Also usage of variations among does not make sense here

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2017, 14:56
I have a big doubt, the Manhattan sc guide at pag 181 says complex gerund ''start'' with an article '' but in this case changing has no article before.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2017, 09:00
1
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

Issue: Parallelism | Meaning

Analysis:
1. The sentence can be broken down as following and the main issue at play here is parallelism. We need to make sure that all the warnings sign should be parallel is form. In the non-underlined part of the sentence, the warning sign are mentioned as noun. Hence, the warning sign in the underlined part should also be noun.

Geologists believe

that

warning signs... include
│
├─ fluctuations...,
│
├─ tilting and other deformations...,
│
├─ changes...
│
and
└─ variations...

(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
- "changing" and "varying" used as a verb here; not parallel with nouns

(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
- "changing" and "varying" used as a verb here; not parallel with nouns

(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
- "changing" used as a verb here; not parallel with nouns

(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in

(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among
- Illogical meaning; "Changes in measurement" is not the warning but rather "change in measured strain" is

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2017, 22:26
parallelism is followed in D as fluctuations,changes,and variations
hence D
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2017, 07:37
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth's crust, changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among

Do "sudden fluctuations..." result in "changing.." and "varying.." -> honestly I don´t know. If it was so: A,B,C stand a chance. But then before the "and varying" there is a "," -> "and varying" -> this implies that this is part of a list of more than 2 items. Therefore A, B, C are out as "changing" and "varying" are not parallel to "fluctuations".. we need "changes" and "variations"
D is even better as "changes in" and "variations in" is parallel to "fluctuations in".

Did I do the analysis correctly? somehow I doubt

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2017, 01:26
changes in "strain", not changes in "measurements of strains" => E is out
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2017, 10:20
2
Sahil01 wrote:
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth's crust, changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.

(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among

Do "sudden fluctuations..." result in "changing.." and "varying.." -> honestly I don´t know. If it was so: A,B,C stand a chance. But then before the "and varying" there is a "," -> "and varying" -> this implies that this is part of a list of more than 2 items. Therefore A, B, C are out as "changing" and "varying" are not parallel to "fluctuations".. we need "changes" and "variations"
D is even better as "changes in" and "variations in" is parallel to "fluctuations in".

Did I do the analysis correctly? somehow I doubt

Hello Sahil01,

I would be glad to provide my two cents on the analysis that you ave presented.

The comma + verb-ing modifier modifies the preceding action. In this official question, the action that precedes comma + changing and varying is may include. This is for certain that just enumerating signs of something cannot lead to change or variation in anything. Hence, most definitely comma + changing and varying are NOT meant to be modifiers in this official sentence.

Hence, the sentence clearly tests parallelism. Personally, I do not rely on punctuation marks to accept or reject an answer choice.

Now that I am sure that the parallel list contains four elements that need to be parallel, I reject choice A, B, and C.

Between Choice D and E, D is definitely the correct one because the warning sign of a major earthquake will be change in the strain and not the change in the measurements of the strain.

Logic all the way and I get my correct answer.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2017, 18:54
Quote:

The comma + verb-ing modifier modifies the preceding action. In this official question, the action that precedes comma + changing and varying is may include. This is for certain that just enumerating signs of something cannot lead to change or variation in anything. Hence, most definitely comma + changing and varying are NOT meant to be modifiers in this official sentence.
at

Hi egmat

I had a similar query for coma+verb-ing modifiers since I selected OA as A.
I request you to help me with below understanding based on your reply:

Why the first modifier tilting is then used correctly?

The warning signs for a major earthquake include 4 things - a,b,c,& d. In this case - a,b,c,&d need to be parallel.

a - Sudden fluctuations in ..
b - tilting and other deformations of
c - (need to keep the consistency of writing) changes in the measured strain
d - variations in

As per my views, noun phrase (sudden fluctuations in ..) in (a) seems parallel
with verb-ing modifier tilting + of..(b) and nouns phrases changes
in
(c) and variations in (d): which is correct from grammar point of view.

Also variations in rocks and variations among rocks too convey different meaning?

WR,
Arpit
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2017, 20:18
D for logic and parallelism. as an engineer i think changes variations among electrical properties is wrong. fluctuations, changes and variations are parallel

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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2017, 09:30
2

Hi egmat

I had a similar query for coma+verb-ing modifiers since I selected OA as A.
I request you to help me with below understanding based on your reply:

Why the first modifier tilting is then used correctly?

The warning signs for a major earthquake include 4 things - a,b,c,& d. In this case - a,b,c,&d need to be parallel.

a - Sudden fluctuations in ..
b - tilting and other deformations of
c - (need to keep the consistency of writing) changes in the measured strain
d - variations in

As per my views, noun phrase (sudden fluctuations in ..) in (a) seems parallel
with verb-ing modifier tilting + of..(b) and nouns phrases changes
in
(c) and variations in (d): which is correct from grammar point of view.

Also variations in rocks and variations among rocks too convey different meaning?

WR,
Arpit

Thank you for the query.

The word tilting is NOT a modifier. It is the "ing" noun form and hence is parallel to other noun phrases in the list.

Please note that tilting is NOT a gerund - an "ing" noun that denotes action. It is so because in the original sentence, tilting is followed by the preposition of. One of the warning signs includes tilting of the Earth's crust and other deformations of the Earth's crust. Gerunds are never followed by a preposition.

So the noun form tilting is perfectly parallel to the other noun phrases in the list.

And yes, variations in and variations among are not same. They do denote different meanings. quite literally.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2017, 23:15
Posting the OE - This sentence uses four phrases to describe the warning signs for an earthquake. These phrases should be parallel. The first sign is sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity; the second is tilting and other deformations of the Earth's crust. Tilting in this case is used as a noun, just as deformations and fluctuations are nouns. The first two signs are parallel. The third and fourth warning signs resemble tilting in the ing form, but they are not parallel because they are used as verbs rather than as nouns: changing . . . the strain; varying … the properties. To make the latter two signs parallel, nouns must replace verbs: changes in . . . variations in.

'D' is correct.
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Re: Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may i  [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2017, 20:51
nikigmat18 wrote:
Geologists believe that the warning signs for a major earthquake may include sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity, tilting and other deformations of the Earth’s crust, changing the measured stain across a fault zone, and varying the electrical properties of underground rocks.
(A) changing the measured strain across a fault zone, and varying
(B) changing measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and varying
(C) changing the strain as measured across a fault zone, and variations of
(D) changes in the measured strain across a fault zone, and variations in
(E) changes in measurements of the strain across a fault zone, and variations among

q1.Look at the "," after tilting. Does that mean anything? I mean is "A, B and C" different from "A, B, and C".

q2. The parallel structure can be interpreted in 2 ways. First, 3 signs are listed: 1. sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity; 2. tilting 3. other deformations of the Earth's crust. And then 2 things that these signs cause.
Other way of looking at the parallel structure is 4 signs are:
1. sudden fluctuations in local seismic activity
2. tilting and other deformations
3. changes in the measured strain across a fault zone and
4. variations in the electrical properties of underground rocks.

This is the correct one acc to the answer (D). I dont why this is better than the first one.

I have faced similar problems in other questions i.e. how to interpret the logical parallel structure when it can be done in 2 ways. Can you elaborate on this and the meaning of the ",". Would be really helpful!

Can someone please fix this question? It improperly formatted. Thanks!
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10 Mar 2018, 11:43
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