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# Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,

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Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 12 Dec 2018, 07:08
9
59
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Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

38% (01:52) correct 62% (01:50) wrong based on 1384 sessions

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Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find, document, and conserve artifacts when melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielding them from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.

A. shielding them from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe

B. shielding them from decay because of changing climatic conditions, and saving them

C. shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe

D. shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and saving them

E. shielded from decay because of changing climatic conditions, and safe

Day 10 Question of the Verbal Contest: Race Against the GMAT Club Timer

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Originally posted by souvik101990 on 24 Jul 2015, 12:13.
Last edited by Bunuel on 12 Dec 2018, 07:08, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2015, 06:58
6
7
souvik101990 wrote:

Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find, document, and conserve artifacts when melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielding them from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.

A. shielding them from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe

B. shielding them from decay because of changing climatic conditions, and saving them

C. shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe

D. shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and saving them

E. shielded from decay because of changing climatic conditions, and safe

Day 10 Question of the Verbal Contest: Race Against the GMAT Club Timer

split "due to' vs 'because of'. We can test 'due to' by substitute it with 'caused by' if it make sense then we should use 'due to':
"shielding them from decay due to caused by changing climatic conditions"
'caused by' makes sense, because 'decay caused by changing climatic conditions', so we should use 'due to'
B and E out.

Structure of sentence:
Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges
....to find,
....[to] document,
....and [to] conserve artifacts
when melting ice fails to keep them
....undetected,
....shielding them from decay due to changing climatic conditions,
....and safe from misappropriation.

'undected', 'shielding' and 'safe' - three elements that should be parallel because they describe in which condition melting ice fails to keep them
(we can't use 'shielding' because it will be modify previous clause 'fails to keep' so we need to use 'shielded')

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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2015, 19:21
4
2
Shielding, looks like modify the previous clause.
But it is not a cause and effect, it looks wrong modifying entire thing, .
shileding must refer to melting ice. so option A and B wrong.
so shielded is correct in this usage.
here parallesim shielded from and safe from is correct.
so D wrong.
In between C and E , due to vs because of.
Because of prefered more than due to.
Because of must follow noun or noun phrase. in Option E is correct
.
But if we look meaning wise, due to used for caused by it means, shileded from caused by climatic changing condition.
Even though Option E looks correct grammatically, Option C wins by meaning.

So option C is correct.
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2015, 23:11
3
IMO, parallelism, idiom usage and pronoun ambiguity are the main issues here. The underlined portion with the parallelism marker ‘and” lacks symmetry with a participle phrase on the left and an adjectival phrase on the right. There should be another patricipial phrase on the right side too. Any choice containing ““and safe” is incorrect. Dump A, C and E. In addition in A, the pronoun ‘them” is ambiguous without required clarity whether it refers to archeologists or the artifacts.

Between B and D, the correct idiom to use will be ‘due to” since the decay is caused by climatic changes and B can be dropped. Further, B uses the dubious pronoun “them”.

One might now construe the correct choice.
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2015, 11:44
2
issamL wrote:
Heey, please is the use of '' due to '' appropriate in the sentence (C) ? because, as far as i know, "due to" must follow a form of the verb ''to be '' ..

Hello issamL

"due to" in C is correct:
We can test 'due to' by substitute it with 'caused by' and if it make sense then we should use 'due to':
"shielding them from decay due to caused by changing climatic conditions"
'caused by' makes sense, because 'decay caused by changing climatic conditions', so we should use 'due to'

If 'due to' does not make sense we should use 'because of'
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2016, 06:22
2
2
"Due to" is an adjective and correctly refers to "decay". "Because of" is an adverb and should be used to refer to a verb. Eliminate B and E.

Present participle "shielding.." should refer to the previous clause or the subject of the previous clause - incorrect. Eliminate A.

Present participle "saving.." should refer to the previous clause or the subject of the previous clause - incorrect. Moreover "saving" is not parallel with "shielded" and "undetected". Eliminate D.

C is the correct answer. Parallelism between "undetected", "shielded" and "safe" is alright. A past participle used as an adjective can be parallel to another adjective.
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2015, 00:31
1
daagh wrote:
IMO, parallelism, idiom usage and pronoun ambiguity are the main issues here. The underlined portion with the parallelism marker ‘and” lacks symmetry with a participle phrase on the left and an adjectival phrase on the right. There should be another patricipial phrase on the right side too. Any choice containing ““and safe” is incorrect. Dump A, C and E. In addition in A, the pronoun ‘them” is ambiguous without required clarity whether it refers to archeologists or the artifacts.

Between B and D, the correct idiom to use will be ‘due to” since the decay is caused by climatic changes and B can be dropped. Further, B uses the dubious pronoun “them”.

One might now construe the correct choice.

Hi,
Although you have been associated with Kaplan and been in this field for some time, and so you should be on the correct lines, i have few observations..
1)Any choice containing ““and safe” is incorrect.... agreed..
2) the pronoun ‘them” is ambiguous without required clarity whether it refers to archeologists or the artifacts. ... agreed 'them ' is ambiguous but them is already used in non underlined portion and 'them' is referring to the same thing on every occasion as the structure of sentence states ... so B cannot be eliminated on this ground..
3) the correct idiom to use will be ‘due to” since the decay is caused by climatic changes and B can be dropped. As per various other institutes and few examples in OG, 'due to' should be preceded by 'to be' verb. so here because of should be correct

shielding ... and saving.. are basically effects of the melting ice fails to keep them undetected
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2015, 02:08
1
daagh wrote:
chetan
Hi
Thank you for your instant response. On the points, which seem to have some disagreement-

1, Admittedly, the pronoun ‘them’ is vulnerable to ambiguity in the underlined portion. Well, that should be sufficient cause to dump it, even though in an another place, the same pronoun may mean definitely the artifacts. The idea on the D-day is to quickly reach the correct choice, rather than getting stuck unduly on some factor; but more importantly, the ambiguity was only an additional point.

Coming to the use of idiom, it is my perception that ‘due to’ is used to modify a noun, ‘the decay’ as in this case and it rightly replaces the idiom “caused by”

IMO, ‘because of’ is used when a verb precedes it and therefore, the idiom modifies the verb. In the context, there is only a decay that is due to or caused by climatic conditions; Let me keep my fingers crossed until the OA is out; In any case, since you seem to have different ideas, may I have privilege of asking you what your call is

Hi daagh,
we both have homed on to two final choices as B and D..
I have gone with B for following reasons..
a) I think 'them is correctly referring back to artifacts as artifacts are the object here and archeologists are the subject here and 'them' should be referring to object, when we have two nouns to refer to and the meaning conveys to that end.
b) shielding ... and saving.. are basically effects of the melting ice fails to keep them undetected, so both shielding and saving should be parallel, which is missing in D..
c) D omits them in one clause but keeps it in the second part, so it is not following parallelism.
d) i believe decay is due to changing climatic conditions would have been correct..

But again as you have said, we all have our own perceptions depending on the experiences with the type of Qs we have had earlier. and with so much of material floating around, difficult to home on to something that has not been clearly spelt out by the official GMAC. lets wait for OA. if otherwise, it will teach a new thing.
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2015, 04:26
1
Option C. Melting ice fails to keep them undetected..sheilded...and safe... are parallel. Due to changing...is correct as changing climate condition is cause.
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Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 20:12
1
Quote:

warrior1991 wrote:
generis

Need your help in option B. A lot of contention between B and C.

Hi warrior1991 - sorry for the slight delay.

Bottom line: The contest between option B and option C is not even close.
Option C wins.

People who are objecting to DUE TO are using a rule that does not exist.

Option B is a disaster.

Would you like to know what I really think?

*********************
Let's strip this sentence just a little and diagram it.

Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find, document, and conserve artifacts when melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielding them from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.

• Original, slightly stripped:
Archaeologists face challenges to find, document, and conserve artifacts when melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielding[?] them from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe [?] from misappropriation.

Archaeologists face challenges
-- to find,
-- [to] document, and
-- [to] conserve artifacts
WHEN melting ice fails to keep [artifacts]
-- undetected
-- shielding? them? from decay, and
-- safe from misappropriation

• Option B in the sentence

(B) Archaeologists face challenges to find, document, and conserve artifacts when melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielding them from decay because of changing climatic conditions, and saving them from misappropriation.

(B) Archaeologists face challenges
-- to find,
-- [to] document, and
-- [to] conserve artifacts
WHEN melting ice fails to keep [artifacts]
-- undetected
-- shielding? them from decay because of [?] changing climatic conditions, and
-- saving them from misappropriation

• Parallelism

How could (B) possibly be parallel?
-- undetected is in the non-underlined portion of the prompt.
-- undetected and shielding are not parallel
-- undetected and saving are not parallel

It's not impossible for a sentence to contain both past and present participles, but if another option offers a past participle and a inoffensive adjective, why on earth would we choose this option B with TWO present participles? [quite aside from participial modifier errors and the incorrect "because of" ]

• modifier error

(B) has some weird stuff going on.
-- comma + present participle (verbING) modifies the preceding clause (or its subject, or the immediately preceding noun, although the last case is very rare)

-- in what way, at all, does shielding modify WHEN melting ice fails to keep [artifacts] undetected
Is shielding a contemporaneous event?
Ridiculous. The melting ice that is failing to cover the artifacts cannot also be shielding the artifacts.

Is shielding a result of when melting ice fails to keep artifacts undetected?
Ridiculous. Melting ice cannot both fail to keep artifacts covered and result in the shielding of those artifacts.
The artifacts are shielded because they are detectable? No. All kinds of wrong.

Does shielding modify the verb phrase "fail to keep?" Or the verb "fail"?
Does "shielding" tell us in what way the melting ice fails to keep the artifacts undetected?
(No. Artifacts that are shielded have no logical relation to artifacts that are now detectable.)
Is shielding connected to fail or fail to keep in any logical way? No.
The word shielding is the opposite of the verb to fail to keep [undetected].

How about saving? Saving cannot sensibly modify the clause WHEN melting ice fails to keep [artifacts] undetected.

WHEN melting ice fails to keep artifacts undetected, then the artifacts are VISIBLE
So . . . saving them from expropriation (being stolen) somehow fits with the fact that melting ice makes the artifacts visible?
Because the artifacts are visible, they are safe from being stolen?

Both shielding and saving are nonsensical.

Compare B, for example, to tthis official question, here (tropical bats), SPOILER ALERT
in which all three present participles (verbINGs) modify the main clause.

• BECAUSE OF and DUE TO? Stand by

• Option C is parallel and sensible

(C) Archaeologists face challenges to find, document, and conserve artifacts when melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.

(C) Archaeologists face challenges
-- to find,
-- [to] document, and
-- [to] conserve artifacts
WHEN melting ice fails to keep [artifacts]
-- undetected
-- shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and
-- safe from misappropriation

Melting ice fails to keep artifacts:
(1) undetected;
(2) shielded from decay [that is CAUSED BY and due to climatic changes], and
(3) safe from expropriation.

All three of those adjectives are logical.
Modifiers? Undetected, shielded, and safe all refer to THEM, which in turn refers to artifacts. The modifiers are fine.

• DUE TO and BECAUSE OF

because of is an adverb that should modify a verb. I don't see any verb that "because of" could be modifying.
-- we have plenty to eliminate B if we are not sure about because of.
Option B is neither parallel nor logical. Its participial modifiers, shielding and saving, are nonsensical.

One last issue: is DUE TO correct in option C? Yes.

There is no such rule as "due to must be preceded by a TO BE or linking verb."

Due to is an adjective. "Due to" is a weird adjective, I grant you that much. It's idiomatic.
But it's an adjective. It modifies a noun.
I can use DUE TO in two ways.

(1) I can put due to right next to the noun that it modifies, this way:
Inner city deterioration due to political and social neglect is appalling in a country this wealthy.
What caused the deterioration? Political and social neglect.

(2) I can place "due to" after a TO BE verb. (This construction is much more common but certainly not the only construction!)

Substitute any one of the following three phrases in the sentence that contains DUE TO.
Does the sentence make sense? If so, then due to is correct.

caused by
resulting from
attributable to

• Answer C is superior to answer B with respect to parallelism and modifiers: check DUE TO

Archaeologists face challenges to ... conserve artifacts
when melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.

. . . when melting ice fails to keep them . . . shielded from decay ATTRIBUTABLE TO changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.
. . . when melting ice fails to keep them . . . shielded from decay CAUSED BY changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.
. . . when melting ice fails to keep them . . . shielded from decay RESULTING FROM changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.

This is my first case scenario, the rarer of the two, in which DUE TO is placed right next to the noun it refers to.
Is decay attributable to, caused by, and resulting from changing climatic conditions? YEP.

DUE TO in this sentence has nothing to do with the previous clause and does not need a TO BE verb.

This contest between B and C is not even a close call.

C wins.

( warrior1991 , I really hope that this analysis helps, because this thread is kinda all over the place. Whew. )
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 10:10
1
generis wrote:
Quote:

warrior1991 wrote:
generis

Need your help in option B. A lot of contention between B and C.

Hi warrior1991 - sorry for the slight delay.

Bottom line: The contest between option B and option C is not even close.
Option C wins.

People who are objecting to DUE TO are using a rule that does not exist.

Option B is a disaster.

Would you like to know what I really think?

*********************
Let's strip this sentence just a little and diagram it.

Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find, document, and conserve artifacts when melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielding them from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.

• Original, slightly stripped:
Archaeologists face challenges to find, document, and conserve artifacts when melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielding[?] them from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe [?] from misappropriation.

Archaeologists face challenges
-- to find,
-- [to] document, and
-- [to] conserve artifacts
WHEN melting ice fails to keep [artifacts]
-- undetected
-- shielding? them? from decay, and
-- safe from misappropriation

• Option B in the sentence

(B) Archaeologists face challenges to find, document, and conserve artifacts when melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielding them from decay because of changing climatic conditions, and saving them from misappropriation.

(B) Archaeologists face challenges
-- to find,
-- [to] document, and
-- [to] conserve artifacts
WHEN melting ice fails to keep [artifacts]
-- undetected
-- shielding? them from decay because of [?] changing climatic conditions, and
-- saving them from misappropriation

• Parallelism

How could (B) possibly be parallel?
-- undetected is in the non-underlined portion of the prompt.
-- undetected and shielding are not parallel
-- undetected and saving are not parallel

It's not impossible for a sentence to contain both past and present participles, but if another option offers a past participle and a non-offensive adjective, why on earth would we choose this option B with TWO present participles? [quite aside from participial modifier errors and the incorrect "because of" ]

• modifier error

(B) has some weird stuff going on.
-- comma + present participle (verbING) modifies the preceding clause (or its subject, or the immediately preceding noun, although the last case is very rare)

-- in what way, at all, does shielding modify WHEN melting ice fails to keep [artifacts] undetected
Is shielding a contemporaneous event?
Ridiculous. The melting ice that is failing to cover the artifacts cannot also be shielding the artifacts.

Is shielding a result of when melting ice fails to keep artifacts undetected?
Ridiculous. Melting ice cannot both fail to keep artifacts covered and result in the shielding of those artifacts.
The artifacts are shielded because they are detectable? No. All kinds of wrong.

Does shielding modify the verb phrase "fail to keep?" Or the verb "fail"?
Does "shielding" tell us in what way the melting ice fails to keep the artifacts undetected?
(No. Artifacts that are shielded have no logical relation to artifacts that are now detectable.)
Is shielding connected to fail or fail to keep in any logical way? No.
The word shielding is the opposite of the verb to fail to keep [undetected].

How about saving? Saving cannot sensibly modify the clause WHEN melting ice fails to keep [artifacts] undetected.

WHEN melting ice fails to keep artifacts undetected, then the artifacts are VISIBLE
So . . . saving them from expropriation (being stolen) somehow fits with the fact that melting ice makes the artifacts visible?
Because the artifacts are visible, they are safe from being stolen?

Both shielding and saving are nonsensical.

Compare B, for example, to tthis official question, here (tropical bats), SPOILER ALERT
in which all three present participles (verbINGs) modify the main clause.

• BECAUSE OF and DUE TO? Stand by

• Option C is parallel and sensible

(C) Archaeologists face challenges to find, document, and conserve artifacts when melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.

(C) Archaeologists face challenges
-- to find,
-- [to] document, and
-- [to] conserve artifacts
WHEN melting ice fails to keep [artifacts]
-- undetected
-- shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and
-- safe from misappropriation

Melting ice fails to keep artifacts:
(1) undetected;
(2) shielded from decay [that is CAUSED BY and due to climatic changes], and
(3) safe from expropriation.

All three of those adjectives are logical.
Modifiers? Undetected, shielded, and safe all refer to THEM, which in turn refers to artifacts. The modifiers are fine.

• DUE TO and BECAUSE OF

because of is an adverb that should modify a verb. I don't see any verb that "because of" could be modifying.
-- we have plenty to eliminate B if we are not sure about because of.
Option B is neither parallel nor logical. Its participial modifiers, shielding and saving, are nonsensical.

One last issue: is DUE TO correct in option C? Yes.

There is no such rule as "due to must be preceded by a TO BE or linking verb."

Due to is an adjective. "Due to" is a weird adjective, I grant you that much. It's idiomatic.
But it's an adjective. It modifies a noun.
I can use DUE TO in two ways.

(1) I can put due to right next to the noun that it modifies, this way:
Inner city deterioration due to political and social neglect is appalling in a country this wealthy.
What caused the deterioration? Political and social neglect.

(2) I can place "due to" after a TO BE verb. (This construction is much more common but certainly not the only construction!)

Substitute any one of the following three phrases in the sentence that contains DUE TO.
Does the sentence make sense? If so, then due to is correct.

caused by
resulting from
attributable to

• Answer C is superior to answer B with respect to parallelism and modifiers: check DUE TO

Archaeologists face challenges to ... conserve artifacts
when melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.

. . . when melting ice fails to keep them . . . shielded from decay ATTRIBUTABLE TO changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.
. . . when melting ice fails to keep them . . . shielded from decay CAUSED BY changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.
. . . when melting ice fails to keep them . . . shielded from decay RESULTING FROM changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.

This is my first case scenario, the rarer of the two, in which DUE TO is placed right next to the noun it refers to.
Is decay attributable to, caused by, and resulting from changing climatic conditions? YEP.

DUE TO in this sentence has nothing to do with the previous clause and does not need a TO BE verb.

This contest between B and C is not even a close call.

C wins.

( warrior1991 , I really hope that this analysis helps, because this thread is kinda all over the place. Whew. )

Could not have asked for a better explanation. Had there been a liberty to award as many kudos,I would have showered a lot on this post. :> :>

Thank you yet again.
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2015, 01:05
daagh wrote:
IMO, parallelism, idiom usage and pronoun ambiguity are the main issues here. The underlined portion with the parallelism marker ‘and” lacks symmetry with a participle phrase on the left and an adjectival phrase on the right. There should be another patricipial phrase on the right side too. Any choice containing ““and safe” is incorrect. Dump A, C and E. In addition in A, the pronoun ‘them” is ambiguous without required clarity whether it refers to archeologists or the artifacts.

Between B and D, the correct idiom to use will be ‘due to” since the decay is caused by climatic changes and B can be dropped. Further, B uses the dubious pronoun “them”.

One might now construe the correct choice.

Hi daagh, i think , logically them has only 1 antecedent imo, which is artifacts ,logically . it doesn't make sense 'them' referring to archaeologists. Even D has pronoun them in the choice. pls clarify
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2015, 01:49
chetan
Hi
Thank you for your instant response. On the points, which seem to have some disagreement-

1, Admittedly, the pronoun ‘them’ is vulnerable to ambiguity in the underlined portion. Well, that should be sufficient cause to dump it, even though in an another place, the same pronoun may mean definitely the artifacts. The idea on the D-day is to quickly reach the correct choice, rather than getting stuck unduly on some factor; but more importantly, the ambiguity was only an additional point.

Coming to the use of idiom, it is my perception that ‘due to’ is used to modify a noun, ‘the decay’ as in this case and it rightly replaces the idiom “caused by”

IMO, ‘because of’ is used when a verb precedes it and therefore, the idiom modifies the verb. In the context, there is only a decay that is due to or caused by climatic conditions; Let me keep my fingers crossed until the OA is out; In any case, since you seem to have different ideas, may I have privilege of asking you what your call is
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2015, 02:09
12Sums
This discussion is getting more interesting; In D, you do have ‘ them” but it is not vulnerable to ambiguity, as it is pointless to think that it may refer to saving architects from misappropriation. The question of vulnerability is there in B' only in the first underlined pronoun and not in the second. At least that is what my perception is since I believe, the choice can be dumped more importantly for using a wrong idiom ‘because of’. Have I made myself clear?
But still, why don’t you post your choice also to make the topic more revealing
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2015, 04:18
daagh wrote:
12Sums
This discussion is getting more interesting; In D, you do have ‘ them” but it is not vulnerable to ambiguity, as it is pointless to think that it may refer to saving architects from misappropriation. The question of vulnerability is there in B' only in the first underlined pronoun and not in the second. At least that is what my perception is since I believe, the choice can be dumped more importantly for using a wrong idiom ‘because of’. Have I made myself clear?
But still, why don’t you post your choice also to make the topic more revealing

hi daagh,

i do agree that due to is appropriate here. so not going with B. i am also going with D. But I didn't understand how you rejected B because of 'them'

its intense now. battle between two heavyweights (chetan and daagh)

after reading the question again, cant the parallelism be in this way...

fails to keep them undetected ............ and (fails to keep them) safe .... ??
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2015, 04:16
1
The melting ice fails to keep them (the artifacts) undetected, shielded from decay and safe from XXX. So narrowed down to choice C and E. I chose C but did a littl more study on the use of "due to" Vs "because of".

"Due to" typically modifies a noun which is closest to the modifier. A quick check is to replace "due to" with "caused by" and see if it makes sense.
"Because of" modifies a verb or a phrase.

Now putting this logic back in the sentence.
" .... melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielding them from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe..."

The noun nearest to "due to" is decay. Is the the decay decay caused by changing climatic conditions? No.

Instead, it modifies the verb "fails" or the phrase the "The melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielded, .." It answers the questions "why does the ice fail to keep them undetected, shielded, and safe?" because of changing climatic conditions.

Thus, "because of" seems to be the correct usage as in choice E.

Reference articles
https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... 23966.html
https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... t3081.html
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2015, 06:29
Heey, please is the use of '' due to '' appropriate in the sentence (C) ? because, as far as i know, "due to" must follow a form of the verb ''to be '' ..
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2018, 01:19
Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find, document, and conserve artifacts when melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielding them from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.

A. shielding them from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe

B. shielding them from decay because of changing climatic conditions, and saving them

C. shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe

D. shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and saving them

E. shielded from decay because of changing climatic conditions, and safe
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2018, 17:38
In first look, I find it hard to understand whats going on here. Let me dissect in a normal pace.

Meaning & error Analysis:
Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find, document, and conserve artifacts
when melting ice fails to keep them
----undetected, >>>> till ice is not melted they were hidden, now exposed.
----shielding them from decay due to changing climatic conditions >>>>> ice is still shielding them from decay[wrong for sure, As I am not able to form write sentence. more over it should be starting with shielded.]
----safe from misappropriation. >>>> seems write. [when melting ice fails to keep them safe from misappropriation.]

Always use run-on sentences to find such parallelism errors. for now all shielding once are wrong.

C. shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe --- correct choice.

D. shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and saving them --- make the run on sentence . keep them saving them . too awkword to even consider correct.

E. shielded from decay because of changing climatic conditions, and safe ---- due to vs because of --- due to used to modify noun, because of for verb. ok this is not helpful. lets use caused by test replace due to with caused by if it make sense then due to else because of. I would go with Due to.
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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,  [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2019, 05:40
souvik101990 wrote:
Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find, document, and conserve artifacts when melting ice fails to keep them undetected, shielding them from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe from misappropriation.

A. shielding them from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe

B. shielding them from decay because of changing climatic conditions, and saving them

C. shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and safe

D. shielded from decay due to changing climatic conditions, and saving them

E. shielded from decay because of changing climatic conditions, and safe

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Re: Glacier and ice patch archaeologists face extreme challenges to find,   [#permalink] 12 Jul 2019, 05:40

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