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# GMAT Grammar Book: Coordinating Conjunctions: Part II

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03 Aug 2010, 12:40
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 Coordinating Conjunctions: Part II

This post is a part of [GMAT GRAMMAR BOOK]

created by: bb
edited by: dzyubam

Coordinating conjunctions are words which link, or coordinate, two or more similar words, phrases, or clauses together into one fluid idea. Words that are considered coordinating conjunctions are and, but, or and nor.

Correlative (Paired) Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions (also called paired conjunctions) are as follows: both…and; not only…but also; either…or; neither…nor.

When using the both…and conjunctions with two subjects, the plural form of the verb is used because you are speaking of the two subjects together.

Both my shirt and my pants are brand new.

When two subjects are connected by not only…but also; either…or, or neither…nor, the subject which is closer to the verb determines whether the verb is singular or plural.

Not only Susie but also her friend is coming to dinner.
Not only Susie but also her friends are coming to dinner.
Neither Susie nor her friend is coming to dinner.
Neither Susie nor her friends are coming to dinner.

Examples of correlative conjunctions that occur after the subject:

The trip will require both a visa and tickets. connected nouns
Yesterday, it not only rained but also snowed. connected verbs
The soup in the cafeteria is either too hot or too cold. connected adjectives
The band played neither harmoniously nor rhythmically. connected adverbs

Combining Independent Clauses with Coordinating Conjunctions

Two or more independent clauses (ie. complete sentences) can be combined by using a coordinating conjunction. If the combined sentences are long, a comma is normally used before the conjunction. However, the comma is usually omitted if the combined sentence is short. (See more about comma usage on page _____.)

The sun was shining. The birds were singing.
The sun was shining and the birds were singing.

Sometimes, in informal writing, a conjunction can begin a sentence.

The sun was shining. And the birds were singing.

The conjunctions so (meaning “therefore”, “as a result of”), for (meaning “because”) and yet (meaning “but”, “nevertheless”) are also used to connect independent clauses. A comma is almost always used before these words when they are used as coordinating conjunctions.

She was angry, so she yelled at her brother.
The basketball player was tall, yet quick.

However, take care in identifying these words as they have other meanings in other structures.

So is also used in comparisons (She is not so old as her sister.), or as an adjective that means “very” (Angela is so sweet!).

For is also used as a preposition (She waited for her friend.).

Yet is also used as an adverb, meaning “up to this time” (Her friend hasn’t arrived yet.).

Subordinating Conjunctions (Which Connect Adverb Clauses)

Subordinating conjunctions are words that are used to introduce adverb clauses. Adverb clauses provide more information to the initial verb action relative to time, cause and effect, contrast, direct contrast, or condition. In the below sentence, because he was sleepy is the cause of John going to bed.

John went to bed because he was sleepy.

An adverb clause will often begin a sentence. When this occurs, a comma is used to separate it from the main clause. (See more about comma use on [highlight]page ____[/highlight].)

Because he was sleepy, John went to bed.

Adverb clauses are dependent clauses and cannot stand alone as a complete sentence.

INCORRECT: John went to bed. Because he was sleepy.

Below is a list of subordinating conjunctions used to introduce adverb clauses.

TIME

after
as
once
every time (that)
before
as soon as
as/so long as
the first time (that)
when since
whenever
the last time (that)
while until
by the time (that)
the next time (that)

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This post is a part of [GMAT GRAMMAR BOOK]
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Kudos [?]: 989 [4], given: 334

GMAT Grammar Book: Coordinating Conjunctions: Part II   [#permalink] 03 Aug 2010, 12:40
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