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# GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate

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GMATPREP ChallengeQ -Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2017, 10:37
This topic have been merged with: http://gmatclub.com/forum/topic-220009.html
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2017, 09:38
Can anyone explain that why the answer of question 3 is D..why not A?
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2017, 00:35
The only thing I don't understand about question 3 is that is says "skeptics" rather than "scientists." I narrowed down question 3 to B and D however I felt that skeptics could have referred to a different group of people? Or I suppose with question 3 it would be better to eliminate B because that statement is not necessarily supported by the passage? It doesn't say anywhere that scientists are challenging the lack of fossil lungs.
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2017, 00:41
Lucky2783 wrote:
Although many lines of evidence indicate that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs, some scientists remain unconvinced. They argue that theropods appeared too late to have given rise to birds, noting that Archaeopteryx lithographica—the oldest known bird—appears in the fossil record about 150 million years ago, whereas the fossil remains of various nonavian maniraptor theropods—the closest known relatives of birds—date only to about 115 million years ago. But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx. In any case, failure to find fossils of a predicted kind does not rule out their existence in an undiscovered deposit. Skeptics also argue that the fused clavicles (the "wishbone") of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods. This objection was reasonable when only early theropod clavicles had been discovered, but fossilized theropod clavicles that look just like the wishbone of Archaeopteryx have now been unearthed. Finally, some scientists argue that the complex lungs of birds could not have evolved from theropod lungs, an assertion that cannot be supported or falsified at the moment, because no fossil lungs are preserved in the paleontological record.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare the development of two hypotheses concerning the evolutionary origin of birds
B. suggest revisions to the standard theory of the evolutionary history of birds
C. evaluate the usefulness of fossil evidence in determining the evolutionary history of birds
D. challenge the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs
E. respond to criticisms of the theory that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs

2. In the context of the passage, the phrase "fossils of a predicted kind" most likely refers to which of the following?

A. Theropod fossils with fused clavicles
B. Theropod fossils that are similar in structure to Archaeopteryx fossils
C. Theropod fossils dating back more than 150 million years
D. Fossils indicating the structure of theropod lungs
E. Fossils indicating the structure of Archaeopteryx lungs

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an argument made by scientists who are unconvinced that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs?

A. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period after the time of Archaeopteryx.
B. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils that indicate the structure of those dinosaurs' lungs.
C. Theropod dinosaurs appear in the fossil record about 150 million years ago.
D. Theropod dinosaurs did not have fused clavicles.
E. Theropod dinosaurs had certain bones that look just like those of Archaeopteryx.

You have to really pullback from the passage in order to notice the general structure of it- really there's two traps with structure of the passage question- an answer that's too specific and an answer that's too broad. If you notice my highlights- this passage has this flow " x argues, x argues, x argues" The author then replies to those arguments and explains why they are fallacious.
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2017, 16:43
Nunuboy1994 wrote:
The only thing I don't understand about question 3 is that is says "skeptics" rather than "scientists." I narrowed down question 3 to B and D however I felt that skeptics could have referred to a different group of people? Or I suppose with question 3 it would be better to eliminate B because that statement is not necessarily supported by the passage? It doesn't say anywhere that scientists are challenging the lack of fossil lungs.

sananoor wrote:
Can anyone explain that why the answer of question 3 is D..why not A?

Quote:
3) Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as
an argument made by scientists who are unconvinced
that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs?
A. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period after the time of Archaeopteryx.
B. There are no known theropod dinosaur fossils that indicate the structure of those dinosaurs’ lungs.
C. Theropod dinosaurs appear in the fossil record about 150 million years ago.
D. Theropod dinosaurs did not have fused clavicles.
E. Theropod dinosaurs had certain bones that look just like those of Archaeopteryx

The passage states that "some scientists remain unconvinced." In other words, some scientists are skeptical. Thus, those scientists are the skeptics.

The author presents three arguments made by scientists who are unconvinced that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs:

1) Theropods appeared too late to have given rise to birds.
2) The fused clavicles (the “wishbone”) of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods.
3) The complex lungs of birds could not have evolved from theropod lungs.

Choice (D) specifically refers to the second item in the list.

Choice (B) is not an argument made by the skeptics. Rather, it is a statement made by the author to show that #3 in the list cannot be supported or falsified at the moment.

As for choice (A), notice the word "after". There ARE certainly theropod fossils dating from after the time of the Archaeopteryx. The passage tells us that 150 million-year-old Archaeopteryx fossils have been found and that 115 million-year-old theropod fossils have been found. The problem, according to the skeptics, is that there are no known theropod dinosaur fossils dating from a period BEFORE the time of the Archaeopteryx.

Choice (D) is the best answer.
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2018, 11:31
Skywalker18 wrote:
-The author presents a point of debate
- The author then points out the challenges presented by scientists on a certain topic
- The author then responds to the challenges presented by the scientists

Took 5 mins 40 seconds in total , including 2 mins to read

1. The author clearly states the criticisms of scientists and responds to each one of those criticisms. Hence option (E) is the best answer choice.

2. "noting that Archaeopteryx lithographica—the oldest known bird—appears in the fossil record about 150 million years ago, whereas the fossil remains of various nonavian maniraptor theropods—the closest known relatives of birds—date only to about 115 million years ago. But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx. In any case, failure to find fossils of a predicted kind does not rule out their existence in an undiscovered deposit."

The fossils dating back to 150 years ago are what are being referred to and hence option (C ) is the right answer.

3. "Skeptics also argue that the fused clavicles (the "wishbone") of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods"

For Q.No2. C and B look so similar. Can you explain how you eliminated B??
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2018, 13:32
Prateek176 wrote:

For Q.No2. C and B look so similar. Can you explain how you eliminated B??

Answered in this post above: https://gmatclub.com/forum/gmat-prep-rc ... l#p1767742. Let us know if that doesn't clear things up?
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2019, 18:47
jennpt question 3: 'Skeptics also argue that the fused clavicles (the “wishbone”) of birds differ from the unfused clavicles of theropods' imply that 'Theropod dinosaurs did not have fused clavicles.'?
choice C :Looks like a very close choice in this one-->
Theropod dinosaurs appear in the fossil record about 150 million years ago.
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate  [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2019, 13:54
1
Hi gmat8998

Thanks for the tag. For this question, it could help to first get very clear about what the question is asking you to find.
Quote:
Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an argument made by scientists who are unconvinced that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs?
(bolding is mine)

OK, so we want a piece of evidence brought up by the people who DO NOT think that the therapods were the ancestors of birds. Or to put it another way, evidence raised to suggest that therapods COULD NOT BE the ancestors of birds.

Answer choice C actually does the opposite of what you are looking for, so it can't possibly be our answer.

When does the author discuss the age of the therapod fossils? Twice.
The first time, he brings up that we had only found therapod fossils that are 115 million years old. Why does he bring this up? To explain one argument of the skeptics, who say that therapods could not have been the ancestor of birds (which first started appearing 150 million years ago.)
The second time, he says "But investigators have now uncovered bones that evidently belong to nonavian maniraptors dating to the time of Archaeopteryx." Why does he bring up this fact? To argue against the skeptics, and say that now we have fossils old enough to suggest that therapods are at least as old as the oldest bird - both now 150 million years old.

Answer choice C is describing the second piece of evidence, which is the one that argues AGAINST the critics and is used to say that therapods actually COULD have been the ancestors of birds.

Let me know if this helps, and also if you can determine where the error was in your thinking.
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Re: GMAT Prep RC: Although many lines of evidence indicate   [#permalink] 16 Apr 2019, 13:54

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