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# GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better

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GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2014, 09:43
5
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NEW PROJECT!: Back to basic => Give your explanation- Get Kudos Point for best explanation

Passage-28 [url=http://gmatclub.com/forum/all-gmat-prep-rcs-collection-176232.html]GMATPrep RCs-Collection(Main article)[/url]
The view has prevailed for the better part of the twentieth century that small firms do not perform an important role in Western economies. Official policies in many countries have favored large units of production because there were strong reasons to believe that large firms were superior to small firms in virtually every aspect of economic performance--productivity, technological progress, and job security and compensation. However, in the 1970s, evidence began to suggest that small firms in some countries were outperforming their larger counterparts. Perhaps the best example of this trend was in the steel industry, where new firms entered the market in the form of "mini-mills," and small-firm employment expanded, while many large companies shut down plants and reduced employment. Although no systematic evidence exists to determine unequivocally whether smaller units of production are as efficient as large firms or are, in fact, more efficient, some researchers have concluded that the accumulated evidence to date indicates that small firms are at least not burdened with an inherent size disadvantage.

Thus, an alternative view has emerged in the economics literature, arguing that small firms make several important contributions to industrial markets. First, small firms are often the source of the kind of innovative activity that leads to technological change. Small firms generate market turbulence that creates additional dimensions of competition, and they also promote international competition through newly created niches. Finally, small firms in recent years have generated the preponderant share of new jobs.

However, empirical knowledge about the relative roles of large and small firms is generally based upon anecdotal evidence and case studies, and such evidence has proved inadequate to answer major questions concerning the role of small firms across various industries and nations. An additional difficulty is that it is not obvious what criteria one should use to distinguish small firms from large ones. While a "small firm" is often defined as an enterprise with fewer than 500 employees, research studies of small firms use a wide variety of definitions.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A dismissing a challenge to a traditional viewpoint
B suggesting a new solution to a long-standing problem
C resolving a conflict between two competing viewpoints
D discussing the emergence of an alternative viewpoint
E defending an alternative viewpoint against possible counter evidence

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

2. The passage suggests which of the following about the empirical study of small firms' role?
A. Anecdotal evidence does not support the theory that small firms' role is significant.
B. Degrees of market turbulence are the primary indicator of small firms' role.
C. An examination of new niches created by small firms has provided important data for the analysis of such firms' role.
D. Case studies have provided reliable evidence to answer major questions concerning small firms' role.
E. A more precise definition of the term "small firm" is crucial to making a conclusive analysis about small firms' role.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

3. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the passage?
A. A viewpoint is introduced, counter evidence is presented, and a new perspective is suggested.
B. Opposing viewpoints are discussed, and evidence is provided that refutes both of those viewpoints.
C. A hypothesis is described, supported with specific evidence, and then reaffirmed.
D. An alternative viewpoint is presented, criticized, and dismissed in light of new evidence.
E. Opposing viewpoints are presented, discussed, and then found to be more similar than previously supposed.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

4. According to the passage, an important contribution of small firms to industrial markets is that small firms
A. operate more efficiently than large firms
B. offer high job security and compensation
C. cause international competition to decrease
D. help prevent market turbulence from affecting competition
E. frequently undertake activities that result in technological change

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA

_________________

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Last edited by PiyushK on 21 Aug 2014, 08:36, edited 1 time in total.
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GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2014, 03:23

Time taken 8 mins
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
D discussing the emergence of an alternative viewpoint
"Author is neutral in the argument.First a traditional view point is presented and then and then counterview evidences are presented.The discussion is continued in the second para by mentioning the pros of small firms.In last para, the author mentions why the the new evidences are inadequate to answer major questions concerning the role of small firms."
So overal Para is discussing the counter evidences.

2. The passage suggests which of the following about the empirical study of small firms' role?
E. A more precise definition of the term "small firm" is crucial to making a conclusive analysis about small firms' role.
"An additional difficulty is that it is not obvious what criteria one should use to distinguish small firms from large ones. While a "small firm" is often defined as an enterprise with fewer than 500 employees, research studies of small firms use a wide variety of definitions."

3. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the passage?
A. A viewpoint is introduced, counter evidence is presented, and a new perspective is suggested.
"The view has prevailed for the better....
blah blah
However, in the 1970s, evidence began to suggest that small firms in some countries were outperforming their larger counterparts.
blah blah
Although no systematic evidence exists to determine unequivocally whether smaller units of production are as efficient as large firms or are, in fact, more efficient, some researchers have concluded that the accumulated evidence to date indicates that small firms are at least not burdened with an inherent size disadvantage.
"

4. According to the passage, an important contribution of small firms to industrial markets is that small firms
E. frequently undertake activities that result in technological change
"small firms are often the source of the kind of innovative activity that leads to technological change"
_________________

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Regards

Last edited by JarvisR on 15 Aug 2016, 05:14, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2014, 07:02
my take in 8 min 51 sec
1 D
2 C
3 A
4 E
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2014, 07:55
1 - D
2 - E
3 - C
4 - E

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2014, 12:02
1
KUDOS
First of all, kudos to Piyush for this amazing effort!
6 mins 53 secs.
1 - D
2 - E
3 - A
4 - E

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2014, 08:43
1
KUDOS
maggie27 wrote:
First of all, kudos to Piyush for this amazing effort!
6 mins 53 secs.
1 - D
2 - E
3 - A
4 - E

Thanks Maggie, You got all right. Your speed is also good. +1 Kudos to you.
_________________

Piyush K
-----------------------
Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is to try just one more time. ― Thomas A. Edison
Don't forget to press--> Kudos
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2014, 23:59
9 mins
All correct
Medium difficulty pasage
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S

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GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2015, 16:08
04:59 all correct. Wish this happens to me on the real exam though hahah

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2015, 11:30
PiyushK wrote:
NEW PROJECT!: Back to basic => Give your explanation- Get Kudos Point for best explanation

Passage-28 GMATPrep RCs-Collection(Main article)
The view has prevailed for the better part of the twentieth century that small firms do not perform an important role in Western economies. Official policies in many countries have favored large units of production because there were strong reasons to believe that large firms were superior to small firms in virtually every aspect of economic performance--productivity, technological progress, and job security and compensation. However, in the 1970s, evidence began to suggest that small firms in some countries were outperforming their larger counterparts. Perhaps the best example of this trend was in the steel industry, where new firms entered the market in the form of "mini-mills," and small-firm employment expanded, while many large companies shut down plants and reduced employment. Although no systematic evidence exists to determine unequivocally whether smaller units of production are as efficient as large firms or are, in fact, more efficient, some researchers have concluded that the accumulated evidence to date indicates that small firms are at least not burdened with an inherent size disadvantage.

Thus, an alternative view has emerged in the economics literature, arguing that small firms make several important contributions to industrial markets. First, small firms are often the source of the kind of innovative activity that leads to technological change. Small firms generate market turbulence that creates additional dimensions of competition, and they also promote international competition through newly created niches. Finally, small firms in recent years have generated the preponderant share of new jobs.

However, empirical knowledge about the relative roles of large and small firms is generally based upon anecdotal evidence and case studies, and such evidence has proved inadequate to answer major questions concerning the role of small firms across various industries and nations. An additional difficulty is that it is not obvious what criteria one should use to distinguish small firms from large ones. While a "small firm" is often defined as an enterprise with fewer than 500 employees, research studies of small firms use a wide variety of definitions.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A dismissing a challenge to a traditional viewpoint
B suggesting a new solution to a long-standing problem
C resolving a conflict between two competing viewpoints
D discussing the emergence of an alternative viewpoint
E defending an alternative viewpoint against possible counter evidence
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

2. The passage suggests which of the following about the empirical study of small firms' role?
A. Anecdotal evidence does not support the theory that small firms' role is significant.
B. Degrees of market turbulence are the primary indicator of small firms' role.
C. An examination of new niches created by small firms has provided important data for the analysis of such firms' role.
D. Case studies have provided reliable evidence to answer major questions concerning small firms' role.
E. A more precise definition of the term "small firm" is crucial to making a conclusive analysis about small firms' role.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

3. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the passage?
A. A viewpoint is introduced, counter evidence is presented, and a new perspective is suggested.
B. Opposing viewpoints are discussed, and evidence is provided that refutes both of those viewpoints.
C. A hypothesis is described, supported with specific evidence, and then reaffirmed.
D. An alternative viewpoint is presented, criticized, and dismissed in light of new evidence.
E. Opposing viewpoints are presented, discussed, and then found to be more similar than previously supposed.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

4. According to the passage, an important contribution of small firms to industrial markets is that small firms
A. operate more efficiently than large firms
B. offer high job security and compensation
C. cause international competition to decrease
D. help prevent market turbulence from affecting competition
E. frequently undertake activities that result in technological change
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

Piyush,

first of all My Sincere thanks to you for putting up these passages on gmatclub .
Could you please tell me why A is wrong for this question ?
2. The passage suggests which of the following about the empirical study of small firms' role?
A. Anecdotal evidence does not support the theory that small firms' role is significant.
B. Degrees of market turbulence are the primary indicator of small firms' role.
C. An examination of new niches created by small firms has provided important data for the analysis of such firms' role.
D. Case studies have provided reliable evidence to answer major questions concerning small firms' role.
E. A more precise definition of the term "small firm" is crucial to making a conclusive analysis about small firms' role.

thanks
Lucky
_________________

Thanks,
Lucky

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2015, 20:08
1D 2E 3A 4E
3 Minutes 31 seconds

Regards,
Manish Khare
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Manish Khare
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2015, 20:17
1
KUDOS
Hello Lucky2783 ,

Question 2: The passage suggests which of the following about the empirical study of small firms' role?
Look at the last passage ,which talks about how empirical knowledge about small firms has been generated .

the conclusion of the third paragraph :
"An additional difficulty is that it is not obvious what criteria one should use to distinguish small firms from large ones. While a "small firm" is often defined as an enterprise with fewer than 500 employees, research studies of small firms use a wide variety of definitions."

So having a precise definition of small firm will help in identifying the role played by small firms .
E answers this and hence is the right choice.

A talks about the problem whereas E talks about the solution for the problem.

Regards,
Manish Khare

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2015, 23:12
Can someone please explain why A is wrong for the first question? I chose A because of the following reason.

1. The first paragraph talks about the traditional view - large firm performs a more important role. Then a new viewpoint is brought up.
2. The second paragraph talks about some of the contributions small firms make.
3. The third paragraph talks about the downside of the empirical study and a major problem of in the anecdotal studies.

What it seems to me is that the 3rd paragraph dismisses the new viewpoint brought up in the 1st paragraph. Where did my reasoning go wrong?

Thanks,
Frank
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2015, 10:59
6 min 18 sec. Passage was right up my alley, making it easy to read and grasp. Anyone care to give an idea of what level this passage might fall under? Under 650. above 650?

1.D
2.E
3.C
4.E
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2015, 02:22
Hi Experts

How to interpret Option E of Question 1
" defending an alternative viewpoint against possible counter evidence"

Confused here , what is alternate view point refers and what counter evidence?
If alternate view point is about small industries being better than large than passage correctly defends it against counter view(large industries being better)

What am I missing here
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2015, 08:59
a little more that 6 min !
all are correct :D
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2016, 11:20
Lucky2783 wrote:
PiyushK wrote:
NEW PROJECT!: Back to basic => Give your explanation- Get Kudos Point for best explanation

Passage-28 GMATPrep RCs-Collection(Main article)
The view has prevailed for the better part of the twentieth century that small firms do not perform an important role in Western economies. Official policies in many countries have favored large units of production because there were strong reasons to believe that large firms were superior to small firms in virtually every aspect of economic performance--productivity, technological progress, and job security and compensation. However, in the 1970s, evidence began to suggest that small firms in some countries were outperforming their larger counterparts. Perhaps the best example of this trend was in the steel industry, where new firms entered the market in the form of "mini-mills," and small-firm employment expanded, while many large companies shut down plants and reduced employment. Although no systematic evidence exists to determine unequivocally whether smaller units of production are as efficient as large firms or are, in fact, more efficient, some researchers have concluded that the accumulated evidence to date indicates that small firms are at least not burdened with an inherent size disadvantage.

Thus, an alternative view has emerged in the economics literature, arguing that small firms make several important contributions to industrial markets. First, small firms are often the source of the kind of innovative activity that leads to technological change. Small firms generate market turbulence that creates additional dimensions of competition, and they also promote international competition through newly created niches. Finally, small firms in recent years have generated the preponderant share of new jobs.

However, empirical knowledge about the relative roles of large and small firms is generally based upon anecdotal evidence and case studies, and such evidence has proved inadequate to answer major questions concerning the role of small firms across various industries and nations. An additional difficulty is that it is not obvious what criteria one should use to distinguish small firms from large ones. While a "small firm" is often defined as an enterprise with fewer than 500 employees, research studies of small firms use a wide variety of definitions.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A dismissing a challenge to a traditional viewpoint
B suggesting a new solution to a long-standing problem
C resolving a conflict between two competing viewpoints
D discussing the emergence of an alternative viewpoint
E defending an alternative viewpoint against possible counter evidence
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

2. The passage suggests which of the following about the empirical study of small firms' role?
A. Anecdotal evidence does not support the theory that small firms' role is significant.
B. Degrees of market turbulence are the primary indicator of small firms' role.
C. An examination of new niches created by small firms has provided important data for the analysis of such firms' role.
D. Case studies have provided reliable evidence to answer major questions concerning small firms' role.
E. A more precise definition of the term "small firm" is crucial to making a conclusive analysis about small firms' role.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

3. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the passage?
A. A viewpoint is introduced, counter evidence is presented, and a new perspective is suggested.
B. Opposing viewpoints are discussed, and evidence is provided that refutes both of those viewpoints.
C. A hypothesis is described, supported with specific evidence, and then reaffirmed.
D. An alternative viewpoint is presented, criticized, and dismissed in light of new evidence.
E. Opposing viewpoints are presented, discussed, and then found to be more similar than previously supposed.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

4. According to the passage, an important contribution of small firms to industrial markets is that small firms
A. operate more efficiently than large firms
B. offer high job security and compensation
C. cause international competition to decrease
D. help prevent market turbulence from affecting competition
E. frequently undertake activities that result in technological change
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

Piyush,

first of all My Sincere thanks to you for putting up these passages on gmatclub .
Could you please tell me why A is wrong for this question ?
2. The passage suggests which of the following about the empirical study of small firms' role?
A. Anecdotal evidence does not support the theory that small firms' role is significant.
B. Degrees of market turbulence are the primary indicator of small firms' role.
C. An examination of new niches created by small firms has provided important data for the analysis of such firms' role.
D. Case studies have provided reliable evidence to answer major questions concerning small firms' role.
E. A more precise definition of the term "small firm" is crucial to making a conclusive analysis about small firms' role.

thanks
Lucky

Lucky,
Here A is out as in third passage author says that "Anecdotal evidences were inadequate". It doesn't mean it was not supportive at all.So more appropriate answer will be option E.
_________________

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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11 May 2016, 07:03
JarvisR wrote:

Time taken 10 mins
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
D discussing the emergence of an alternative viewpoint
"Author is neutral in the argument.First a traditional view point is presented and then and then counterview evidences are presented.The discussion is continued in the second para by mentioning the pros of small firms.In last para, the author mentions why the the new evidences are inadequate to answer major questions concerning the role of small firms."
So overal Para is discussing the counter evidences.

2. The passage suggests which of the following about the empirical study of small firms' role?
E. A more precise definition of the term "small firm" is crucial to making a conclusive analysis about small firms' role.
"An additional difficulty is that it is not obvious what criteria one should use to distinguish small firms from large ones. While a "small firm" is often defined as an enterprise with fewer than 500 employees, research studies of small firms use a wide variety of definitions."

3. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the passage?
A. A viewpoint is introduced, counter evidence is presented, and a new perspective is suggested.
"The view has prevailed for the better....
blah blah
However, in the 1970s, evidence began to suggest that small firms in some countries were outperforming their larger counterparts.
blah blah
Although no systematic evidence exists to determine unequivocally whether smaller units of production are as efficient as large firms or are, in fact, more efficient, some researchers have concluded that the accumulated evidence to date indicates that small firms are at least not burdened with an inherent size disadvantage.
"

4. According to the passage, an important contribution of small firms to industrial markets is that small firms
E. frequently undertake activities that result in technological change
"small firms are often the source of the kind of innovative activity that leads to technological change"

Hi,

Thanks for your explanation however I have certain doubts on how 1A and 3B are incorrect choice for 1st and 3rd question . As per my reasoning author raised a viewpoint then raised opposite view point and den in 2nd para pros of small firm and 3rd para how we cannot conclude anything and evidence is inadequate , so cant see where the author raised an alternative viewpoint or suggested a new perspective as mentioned in 1 and 3 OA choices .

Regards
Megha
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2016, 14:37
6:30
all correct DEAE
The passage was in my zone.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2016, 00:10
Took 7 mins and 50 seconds , including 2 mins 10 seconds to read
-The author does not state an opinion
- The author talks about a view point , provides a new perspective and then discusses the new perspective

1.
Option D – Correct – The author is discussing a new view point/alternative

2.
"An additional difficulty is that it is not obvious what criteria one should use to distinguish small firms from large ones. While a "small firm" is often defined as an enterprise with fewer than 500 employees, research studies of small firms use a wide variety of definitions."
The above excerpt suggests that the difficulty with the empirical study is that the definition of a ―small firm‖ has not been established. Hence option (E).

3.
"The view has prevailed for the better part of the twentieth century that small firms do not perform an important role in Western economies." - View point

"However, in the 1970s, evidence began to suggest that small firms in some countries were outperforming their larger counterparts. Perhaps the best example of this trend was in the steel industry, where new firms entered the market in the form of "mini-mills," and small-firm employment expanded, while many large companies shut down plants and reduced employment." - Counter Evidence

"some researchers have concluded that the accumulated evidence to date indicates that small firms are at least not burdened with an inherent size disadvantage."- New perspective

4.
"First, small firms are often the source of the kind of innovative activity that leads to technological change."
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2017, 06:06
4 min 23 seconds All correct
Wow.
New approach created.
.
which works wonders for me.
Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -The view has prevailed for the better   [#permalink] 11 Apr 2017, 06:06

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