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# Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both

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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2012, 10:33
revanth4gmat wrote:

yeah E is the OA

can you provide some explanation
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2012, 11:17
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-increased per capita meat consumption
-several pounds of grains-->one pound of meat
(a hen eats 8 kg of grains in its lifetime and then only we can get a Kg of meat from it)
-production of grain is constant

City will suffer shortage of meat and grains so import will fulfill the demand of the people.

Assumption should be something which can provide us the link which should state that meat is getting consumed more and more, also the grain is getting consumed more than before or atleast same as before.

(E) wins.
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2012, 13:26
I chosed C but now I see the mistake. I guess this is one defender assumption question. The assumption helps to defend the conclusion by eliminating events which migth affect the ocurrence of the conclusion. See more on the topic in the CR Bible

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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2012, 22:01
The answer seems to be E

However, my understanding is that, if meat consumption increases and grain consumption decreases(negating E), it shouldn't affect the conclusion because the conclusion says " Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both" .. this is a either, or, both statement.. so why wouldn't gortland import meat alone even if the grain consumption decreases. it still doesn't hurt the conclusion?

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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2012, 12:05
option e looks like a good choice
because if people start eating meat their grain consumption ll decrease
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2012, 23:41
(A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortlnad will not decrease substantially
Even if it is not the case,Gortland will still need to import.

(B) The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the countryâ€™s years of growing prosperity
Doesnt matter even if it increses or remains constant. (reduction I am not sure of)

(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels
No mention of income level required.

(D) In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls
Out of scope.

(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain
Kind of fits in.

Can anyone help me how to think on each line?I kind of just eleminate the choices.

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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2012, 03:11
Yes, E should be the answer. If the consumption of meat is increasing and at the same time the consumption of grain is decreasing proportionately then Gortland will not import.

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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2012, 03:43
E was my answer, however at first I coudn't choose between E and B, then I realised why B doesn't work:

The reason I worked out that B doesn't work is that the conclusion DOES rely on the population not DECREASING but because growing population (thus population not stable) would support the conclusion, this option isn't right.

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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2012, 04:00
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Hang Tuah wrote:
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grains to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both. -->Conclusion

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortlnad will not decrease substantially
(B) The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the countryâ€™s years of growing prosperity
(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels
(D) In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls
(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain-->CORRECT

Remember to identify the conclusion whenever you do an CR question. Now use the Negate approach with answer E:

Let's say: Normally Gortland consumes: 1000 Grain and 1000 Meat, equal to what the country can produce; and the exchange rate is 4G --> 1M

If now the consumption is: 800G and 1100M --> Gortland can exchange extra 200G to 50M, so it actually produces 1050M, still need to import another 50M
If now the consumption is: 700G and 1100M --> exchange extra 300G to 75M, so still need to import another 25M
If now the consumption is: 600G and 1100M --> exchange extra 400G to 100M and Tah-da! Gotrland does not have to import anything at all --> against the conclusion

That's why we need to assume the consumption of grain will not decrease radically. The OA is E
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2013, 23:50
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will not decrease substantially.
(B) The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the countryâ€™s years of growing prosperity.
(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels.
(D) In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls.
(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain.

A. the argument states that the consumption is increasing and in the future, grain production will not increase... the argument assumes that the supply will not be able to keep up with the consumption in the future without importing.. the acreage doesn't have to decrease... even if it is the same acreage, the current supply will be outstrip by the demand...

B. the issue is Per Capita Consumption which means Total Consumption divided by number of population... since the issue is average... the total population is irrelevant... knowing the average is enough...

C. whether it be not uniform across income levels, still the issue holds that increasing per capita consumption must be met by importing... just like B this is irrelevant to average...

D. price controls.. new topic.. hence, out of scope

E. E is an assumption that you will not usually get to prethink BUT if the demand for grain decreases RADICALLY then there might not be a need to import... Then this is one assumption the author makes

Note: That one trap in the GMAT is confusing Average with Total. Another also is confusing Percent with Concrete Number.
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2013, 01:41
i've a simple question:
the existence of a positive correlation between growth of per capita income and meat consumption is a valid assumption?

because this reasoning brings me to chose option C

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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2013, 01:50
lucasITA wrote:
i've a simple question:
the existence of a positive correlation between growth of per capita income and meat consumption is a valid assumption?

because this reasoning brings me to chose option C

We know that both the income and the meat consumption are rising, we can say that with an higher income their have more money to spend on meat as well. But this could be an inference, not an assumption.

Option C
(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels

is not an assumption (hence something necessary for the argument to be valid); the conclusion is "Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both" and even if we negate C "the per capita cons is NOT the same" the argument still holds true.

Even if the richest consume more meat than the others (for example), still Gortland will have to import one thing or both. Keep in mind that the assumption is something necessary, so if you negate an option and still the conclusion is valid=>the option is not the assumption we're looking for.
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2013, 19:07
This assumption question asks you to bridge the gap between the conclusion that garland will have to import meat or grain based and the premise that Meat consumption is increasing and meat uses lots of grain. Thus we will have to assume that the increase in meat consumption will mean that grain consumption either remains the same or also increases.
Hang Tuah wrote:
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grains to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortlnad will not decrease substantially acreage is out of scope because we don't have a connection between grain production and acreage
(B) The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the countryâ€™s years of growing prosperityYou do not have to assume a constant population for the income level to affect the meat consumption
(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levelsas long as it is increasing, it doesn't matter which demographic increases more or less
(D) In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controlsprice controls are out of scope - as the argument makes it clear meat consumption is increasing with or without the prices
(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain[color=#2e3192]This is the assumption because if there were a dramatic decrease in grain then that could make up for the increase in meat consumption and therefore you have to assume this will not happen in order to come to the stated conclusion[/color]

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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2013, 20:46
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grains to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortlnad will not decrease substantially
it does not help to prove that the domestic grain production will not increase which is a premise the argument is based on

(B) The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the countryâ€™s years of growing prosperity
the argument mentions about per capital consumption of meat or grain, not the whole population's consumption of meat or grain

(C) The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels
the argument does not mention about per capital consumption for specific income levels, so this is not relevant

(D) In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls
out of scope

(E) People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain
Correct. the argument is based on the assumption that grain consumption will not decrease as the meat consumption increase, therefore, as the domestic production of grain will not increase, it will have to import more grain or meat or both
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Classify this CR question ? [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2013, 08:41
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will not decrease substantially.
B. The population of Gortland has remained relatively constant during the country’s years of growing prosperity.
C. The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is roughly the same across all income levels.
D. In Gortland, neither meat nor grain is subject to government price controls.
E. People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain.

Can anyone tell me, whether this question is harder/medium/low ? I took 5 mins to solve this question

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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2013, 09:17
Merged topic.

Please use the search button before to post a question.

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Last edited by Narenn on 07 Oct 2013, 09:20, edited 1 time in total.
All similar threads have been merged.

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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2014, 18:14
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Hi,

I agree that if consumption of grain decrease, there is no need for Gortland to import grain! But I still don't understand why there is no need of importing meat in Gortland if consumption of grain decrease and consumption of meat increase?
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2014, 11:41
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LucyDang wrote:
Hi,

I agree that if consumption of grain decrease, there is no need for Gortland to import grain! But I still don't understand why there is no need of importing meat in Gortland if consumption of grain decrease and consumption of meat increase?

The argument clearly says that the production of meat depends on the amount of grain available. That means, if the consumption of grain decreases and thereby increasing the amount of grain available for meat production, meat production will ultimately increase. Hence, no need to import either grain or meat.

Hope it makes sense

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Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2014, 13:26
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Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will soon decrease.
B. Importing either grain or meat will not result in a significantly higher percentage of Gortlanders' incomes being spent on food than is currently the case.
C. The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is increasing at roughly the same rate across all income levels.
D. The per capita income of meat producers in Gortland is rising faster than the per capita income of grain producers.
E. People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain.
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2014, 23:50
souvik101990 wrote:
Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient in both grain and meat. However, as per capita income in Gortland has risen toward the world average, per capita consumption of meat has also risen toward the world average, and it takes several pounds of grain to produce one pound of meat. Therefore, since per capita income continues to rise, whereas domestic grain production will not increase, Gortland will soon have to import either grain or meat or both.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. The total acreage devoted to grain production in Gortland will soon decrease.
B. Importing either grain or meat will not result in a significantly higher percentage of Gortlanders' incomes being spent on food than is currently the case.
C. The per capita consumption of meat in Gortland is increasing at roughly the same rate across all income levels.
D. The per capita income of meat producers in Gortland is rising faster than the per capita income of grain producers.
E. People in Gortland who increase their consumption of meat will not radically decrease their consumption of grain.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA: 24 hours

Points to consider: Gortland has long been "narrowly self-sufficient" in both grain and meat. If people keep in consuming both at the same rate then import is not required. Significant amount of Grain is required to produce small amount of meat. So, to increase the meat production along with no import, rice consumption has to be decreased significantly.
A: Wrong because even if the production of grian does not decease, condition for import may arise.
B: People are earning more, so its not an issue.
C: Per-Capita income is the average income of the city. So, variance of income is also inferred from it. Not an assumption.
D: "Income of Grain producers" !!! Out of scope.
E: Correct: As mentioned above in the discussion.
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Re: Gortland has long been narrowly self-sufficient   [#permalink] 25 Aug 2014, 23:50

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