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# Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of

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Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 16 Jun 2018, 10:45
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Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of stem cell research American companies can conduct. Because of these restrictions, many American scientists who specialize in the field of stem cell research have signed long-term contracts to work for foreign companies. Recently, Congress has proposed lifting all restrictions on stem cell research.

Which of the following conclusions can most properly be inferred from the information above?

A) At least some foreign companies that conduct stem cell research work under fewer restrictions than some American companies do.
B) Because American scientists are under long-term contracts to foreign companies, there will be a significant influx of foreign professionals into the United States.
C) In all parts of the world, stem cell research is dependent on the financial backing of local government.
D) In the near future, American companies will no longer be at the forefront of stem cell research.
e) If restrictions on stem cell research are lifted, many of the American scientists will break their contracts to return to American companies.

Originally posted by GetThisDone on 28 Apr 2012, 19:50.
Last edited by Skywalker18 on 16 Jun 2018, 10:45, edited 1 time in total.
formatted
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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09 May 2012, 15:21
Quote:
Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of stem cell research American
companies can conduct. Because of these restrictions, many American scientists who
specialize in the field of stem cell research have signed long-term contracts to work for
foreign companies. Recently, Congress has proposed lifting all restrictions on stem cell
research. Which of the following conclusions can most properly be inferred from the
information above?
A) At least some foreign companies that conduct stem cell research work under fewer
restrictions than some American companies do.
b) Because American scientists are under long-term contracts to foreign companies, there will
be a significant influx of foreign professionals into the United States.
c) In all parts of the world, stem cell research is dependent on the financial backing of local
government.
d) In the near future, American companies will no longer be at the forefront of stem cell
research.
e) If restrictions on stem cell research are lifted, many of the American scientists will break

The answer should not be C. IMO, it is almost certainly that OA is A. If american scientist signed with foreign companies because of the restrictions in the US, then it is implied that foreign companies have fewer restrictions.

No where does it say anything about backing, let alone financial government backing.
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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11 May 2012, 12:36
1
1
mohankumarbd wrote:
Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of stem cell research American
companies can conduct. Conclusion Because of these restrictions, many American scientists who
specialize in the field of stem cell research have signed long-term contracts to work for
foreign companies.
Conclusion Recently, Congress has proposed lifting all restrictions on stem cell
research.

Which of the following conclusions can most properly be inferred from the
information above?

A) At least some foreign companies that conduct stem cell research work under fewer
restrictions than some American companies do. Relates to conclusion and states facts that we know are true.

b) Because American scientists are under long-term contracts to foreign companies, there will
be a significant influx of foreign professionals into the United States. Deceptive answer, but we do not know this to be true, some could break there contracts.

c) In all parts of the world, stem cell research is dependent on the financial backing of local
government. Nothing to do with financing is stated, irrelevant!

d) In the near future, American companies will no longer be at the forefront of stem cell
research. Does not say this, they could or could not.

e) If restrictions on stem cell research are lifted, many of the American scientists will break
their contracts to return to American companies. Does not say this, could or could not happen.

+1 A.

Please check your source on this one, I have found the answer to be A. http://gmat-cr.blogspot.ca/2009/07/conc ... s-and.html
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2012, 06:49
mohankumarbd wrote:
Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of stem cell research American
companies can conduct. Because of these restrictions, many American scientists who
specialize in the field of stem cell research have signed long-term contracts to work for
foreign companies. Recently, Congress has proposed lifting all restrictions on stem cell
research. Which of the following conclusions can most properly be inferred from the
information above?
A) At least some foreign companies that conduct stem cell research work under fewer
restrictions than some American companies do.
b) Because American scientists are under long-term contracts to foreign companies, there will
be a significant influx of foreign professionals into the United States.
c) In all parts of the world, stem cell research is dependent on the financial backing of local
government.
d) In the near future, American companies will no longer be at the forefront of stem cell
research.
e) If restrictions on stem cell research are lifted, many of the American scientists will break

In GMAT, you always look for the best answer. And the best way to find the best answer is by elimination.

A. There is no mention or reference of "some" companies having restrictions. So this choice is eliminated.
B. Based on the given information, there is no mention of immigration being dependent on research restriction. So B is eliminated.
C. What is the restriction in the form of? It does not look like the companies need permission from the government to continue research. It's only funding that is required. So maybe the American companies depend on government funding to continue research. This looks probable. We'll come back to it.
D. It is not said whether American companies "are" at the forefront of stem cell research.
E. This sounds probable, but not as a conclusion/inference, but an assumption. This is the most probable assumption taken by the government.

Hence the best choice is C.
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2012, 08:43
+1 for A. Please provide OA.

A is correct since scientist are making contracts in other countries so there must be some countries which are not restricted to do the research.
E is not mentioned or cannot be deduced from the sentence.
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2012, 09:18
A - Yes, this is somewhat reasonable to infer. It's definitely not perfect, though.
B - Not really. Don't see how this is related at all.
C - Not really. This passage doesn't mention financial backing at all. The only way that this is possible is if the reader is supposed to know that research industries are generally funded largely in part by federal grants. The usage of "restrictions" here certainly implies regulations as opposed to "restrictions [in funding]".
D - Not really. Are they even at the forefront now?
E - Not really. Certainly could be possible, but we can't infer it from the passage.

A it is.

If C is really the OA, then I place my vote in the this-is-a-terrible-question hat. What's the source and real OA?
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2012, 10:10
mohankumarbd wrote:
Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of stem cell research American
companies can conduct. Because of these restrictions, many American scientists who
specialize in the field of stem cell research have signed long-term contracts to work for
foreign companies. Recently, Congress has proposed lifting all restrictions on stem cell
research. Which of the following conclusions can most properly be inferred from the
information above?
A) At least some foreign companies that conduct stem cell research work under fewer
restrictions than some American companies do.
b) Because American scientists are under long-term contracts to foreign companies, there will
be a significant influx of foreign professionals into the United States.
c) In all parts of the world, stem cell research is dependent on the financial backing of local
government.
d) In the near future, American companies will no longer be at the forefront of stem cell
research.
e) If restrictions on stem cell research are lifted, many of the American scientists will break

+1 for A

B, C, D are all out of scope.
E is tempting, but again not certain.
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2012, 00:59
A) At least some foreign companies that conduct stem cell research work under fewer
restrictions than some American companies do.

*SOUNDS GOOD -HOLD

b) Because American scientists are under long-term contracts to foreign companies, there will
be a significant influx of foreign professionals into the United States.

*What if the restriction is in US based company but the research is in other countries?the influx of scientist may go to other countries where the US based companies are located.

* Foreign professionals may or may not come, but the issue raised is for the american scientists only, we can se it in the passage as "......Because of these restrictions, many American scientists who
specialize in the field of stem cell research have signed long-term contracts...."

c) In all parts of the world, stem cell research is dependent on the financial backing of local
government.

*America is not a part of the world?

*Financial backing is not mentioned anywhere, "restrictions"are mentioned that can be for any type, financial or moral or anything else... may be the research is been funded/proposed/encouraged by the Anthropological or pharmaceutical association of a country !!!
Restrictions was there which may be because of the anticipation illegal business involved for a particular time horizon!!

d) In the near future, American companies will no longer be at the forefront of stem cell
research.

*Near future will be bright anyways once the restrictions will be over.

e) If restrictions on stem cell research are lifted, many of the American scientists will break

Sounds a little extreme, but if possible for the scientists they will surely would not mind breaking their agreement because they left US companies ONLY when there were restrictions.

(E) wins.
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2012, 08:17
2
In this argument, a cause-and-effect relationship is presented between American scientists signing long-term contracts with foreign companies and the government's restrictions on stem cell research. This cause-and-effect relationship is the key to the correct answer.

(A) CORRECT. If American scientists signed the contracts because of U.S. restrictions, we can infer that the new companies they signed with were under fewer restrictions. Therefore, at least some foreign companies must work under fewer restrictions than some American companies do.

(B) While it is possible that once the restrictions are banned American companies will want to hire more scientists and will seek them overseas, there are too many unknowns between the premises we have have been given and this conclusion. It is doubtful that an increase in the number of immigrating stem cell research scientists would have a significant impact on the number of foreign professionals overall.

(C) This passage is about government restrictions; we are given no information about financial backing. Beware of extreme statements such as in all parts of the world.

(D) We are not given any information regarding America's current or future position in terms of stem cell research. Though restrictions and scientists switching companies are two issues related to a company's prosperity, we are given no information about how these directly affect America's position.

(E) We are not given any information that will help us predict the behavior of the scientists in the future.
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2012, 08:41
+ 1 A

From all the above options, A is the strongest one but I'm still confused how to eliminate option C.
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2012, 08:41
This is from the Manhattan CR Guide 4th Edition.
Official Answer is A, explanations are the same posted above by santivilla.

A though doesn't make sense to me.

At least some foreign companies that conduct stem cell research work under fewer
restrictions than SOME American companies do.

Why some? The government put a restricition, therefore ALL American companies should be affected by the same exact restrictive measure not just some of them. Otherwise scientists would go to those American companies without said restrictions and not all the way to Europe.

My answer would be D but it's deeply flawed too. Definitely an horrible question.
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10 Sep 2012, 21:40
IMO A

As the foreign companies are the ones hiring long term, they must have some sort of advantage Vs local companies.
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2012, 23:11
+1 A

If the foreign companies have the same number of restrictions, or less, the scientis wouldn't want to work in those companies. Those companies wouldn't have something attractive for the scientists.
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11 Sep 2012, 03:57
Why A? In the text it is stated, that all restrictions were left so they work under the same conditions.
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2012, 07:46
1
The answer is clearly A. It still leaves some probability by using 'some'.

c is wrong as it uses 'all countries', which is a very strong statement.
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2012, 11:15
so when the argument says " Recently, Congress has proposed lifting all restrictions on stem cell research."
it now means there are no restrictions on American companies and thus how can foreign companies have lower restrictions than no restrictions

this is one thing which i think went against A.
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2013, 20:53
GetThisDone wrote:
Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of stem cell research American
companies can conduct. Because of these restrictions, many American scientists who
specialize in the field of stem cell research have signed long-term contracts to work for
foreign companies. Recently, Congress has proposed lifting all restrictions on stem cell
research. Which of the following conclusions can most properly be inferred from the
information above?
A) At least some foreign companies that conduct stem cell research work under fewer
restrictions than some American companies do.
b) Because American scientists are under long-term contracts to foreign companies, there will
be a significant influx of foreign professionals into the United States.
c) In all parts of the world, stem cell research is dependent on the financial backing of local
government.
d) In the near future, American companies will no longer be at the forefront of stem cell
research.
e) If restrictions on stem cell research are lifted, many of the American scientists will break

The only thing wrong with this question is the given OA. Otherwise the question is very clear cut.

You need to find the conclusion. Look at the first two sentences of the argument:

Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of stem cell research American
companies can conduct. Because of these restrictions, many American scientists who
specialize in the field of stem cell research have signed long-term contracts to work for
foreign companies.

American companies have severe restrictions. Because of these restrictions, American scientists are signing contracts with foreign companies. We can conclude that some foreign companies do not have such severe limitations otherwise it doesn't make sense that american scientists are signing contracts with foreign companies because of these restrictions. Note that right now, congress has only proposed lifting all restrictions. The restrictions haven't been lifted yet and we don't know whether they will be lifted. It's just a proposal. Hence we cannot say that there are no restrictions in America. Still there are severe restrictions as mentioned in the
first sentence.

(C) - Financial backing is not even mentioned in the argument. 'Severe restrictions' could be any kind of restrictions - laws not allowing certain experiments etc. Also, where does the argument tell us that it is dependent on financial backing of local govt in ALL parts of the world?

(D) - We cannot conclude what will happen in the future. Since congress has proposed lifting all restrictions, if these restrictions do get lifted, American companies could still be at the forefront. Perhaps enough number of scientists have not left for foreign companies yet and the situation can be salvaged. We don't know. Also, American companies may still be at the forefront while some foreign companies come to the forefront too. The point is, we certainly cannot conclude this from the limited info.

(E) - We cannot conclude that American scientists will break their contracts. Perhaps the restrictions are being lifted so that more scientists do not sign contracts with foreign companies.
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2013, 13:45
I edited the question at the head of this post, correcting the OA. Clearly (A) is the correct OA, so I made that change.
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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of  [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2019, 07:26
Official Explanation

Step 1: Identify the Question Type

The word “inferred” indicates that this is a Draw a Conclusion/Inference question type. There won't be a conclusion in the argument.

Step 2: Deconstruct the Argument

Two things have already occurred: the U.S. government has restricted stem cell research for companies in the U.S. As a result, U.S.-based scientists in this field have chosen to work instead for foreign-based companies. One thing has been proposed: the U.S. government is considering lifting the restrictions on this type of research.

(A) CORRECT. If U.S.-based scientists signed contracts with foreign-based companies specifically because of government restrictions in the U.S., then the new companies with which these scientists signed must operate under fewer restrictions. Therefore, at least some foreign companies must work under fewer restrictions than some American companies do.

(B) Under the current terms, stem cell research is restricted for everybody in the U.S., so foreign professionals in this field would not necessarily want to come to the U.S. While it is possible thatonce the restrictions are lifted, American companies will want to hire more scientists and will seek them overseas, the government has only proposed to lift the restrictions; it hasn't actually done so.

(C) This passage is about government restrictions in the U.S.; financial backing in particular is out of the scope of the argument.

(D) You are not given any information regarding America's current or future position in terms of stem cell research. Though government restrictions and scientists switching companies could be issues related to a company's prosperity, you are given no information about how these directly affect America's position.

(E) Though this could happen, it is impossible to conclude for certain that it will happen.

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Re: Government restrictions have severely limited the amount of   [#permalink] 11 Nov 2019, 07:26
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