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# Governments have only one response to public criticism of

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Governments have only one response to public criticism of [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2009, 07:38
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Governments have only one response to public criticism of socially necessary services: regulation of the activity of providing those services. But governments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it, and that is particularly troublesome in these times of strained financial resources. However, since public criticism of child-care services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond.

Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

(A) The quality of child care will improve.
(B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.
(C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care.
(D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.
(E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase.

Source : LSAT PrepTest 2 - October 1991 Q9
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Governments have only one response to public criticism of [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2009, 08:19
LSAT stuff
I tried,took more than 2 mins but got the right answer
later i saw the OE

its a typical If-Then structure
IMO B
public criticism -->more regulation -->More expensive
see Pg 320 below at url.

gurpreet07 wrote:
Governments have only one response to public criticism of socially necessary services: regulation of the activity of providing those services. But governments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it, and that is particularly troublesome in these times of strained financial resources. However, since public criticism of child-care services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond.

Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?
(A) The quality of child care will improve.
(B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.
(C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care.
(D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.
(E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase.

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Re: Governments have only one response to public criticism of [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2009, 19:37
gurpreet07 wrote:
Governments have only one response to public criticism of socially necessary services: regulation of the activity of providing those services. But governments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it, and that is particularly troublesome in these times of strained financial resources. However, since public criticism of child-care services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond.

Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?
(A) The quality of child care will improve.
(B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.
(C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care.
(D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.
(E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase.

B.
G"overnments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it", then childcare cost surely increases.
Then B.
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Governments have only one response to public criticism of [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2011, 12:54
ardk wrote:
Governments have only one response to public criticism of socially necessary services: regulation of the activity of providing those services. But governments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it, and that is particularly troublesome in these times of strained financial resources. However, since public criticism of child-care services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond.
Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

(A) The quality of child care will improve.......No where mentioned in the stimulus that the quality of the service will improve
(B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.......after the government regulation cost of the services increases and in the last few sentences it is mentioned that childcare services are important and government will definitely act therefore this option can be correctly inferred
(C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care......Not at all related to the stimulus
(D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond....not related to the stimulus
(E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase.....not within the scope of the stimulus

Hence B
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Re: Child-care Services (Aristotle CR Question) [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2011, 13:41
ardk wrote:
Governments have only one response to public criticism of socially necessary services: regulation of the activity of providing those services. But governments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it, and that is particularly troublesome in these times of strained financial resources. However, since public criticism of child-care services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond.
Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

(A) The quality of child care will improve.
(B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.
(C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care.
(D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.
(E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase.

Consider this almost analogous scenario:
At dawn, rooster crows. If rooster crows, farmer wakes up.

Same happens here;
If we can prove that there is public criticism of socially necessary services, then government will say let's regulate the service, and the regulation will cost money.

From the passage:
since public criticism of child-care services has undermined all confidence in such services -> Public criticism occurred.
and since such services are socially necessary -> child-care services are socially necessary services. -> Means, a public
criticism on socially necessary services occurred. It must trigger Event B, government response with regulation; Event B will trigger event C, regulation will cause money.

Ans: "B"
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Re: Child-care Services (Aristotle CR Question) [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2011, 23:09
Why is E not the answer , can someone explain ,In E it is mentioned that if no regulation happens then cost willnot increase , which can be inferred from the statement --->Government inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it ..... the government is certain to respond. how do u assume that government response can only be by regulation ???
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Re: Child-care Services (Aristotle CR Question) [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2011, 03:19
Crack HSW...

we know that if the services are regulated, the cost is certain to rise. but we are not told of what will happen if the services are not regulated... the costs may rise for some other reason

if the statement said "may not rise" it would be a good contender.. but by saying will not rise, E falls apart
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Re: Child-care Services (Aristotle CR Question) [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2011, 06:42
crackHSW wrote:
Why is E not the answer , can someone explain ,In E it is mentioned that if no regulation happens then cost willnot increase , which can be inferred from the statement --->Government inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it ..... the government is certain to respond. how do u assume that government response can only be by regulation ???

No assumption:
Governments have only one response to public criticism of socially necessary services: regulation of the activity. Thus, regulation will happen, for the public criticism happened.

"E" can't be inferred properly.
If event A occurs, B occurs.
Does not mean:
If event A does not occur, B will not occur.

If I go to the bar, I'll drink Scotch whiskey.
Does not mean;
If I do not go to the bar, I won't drink Scotch whiskey. I may drink one at home, who knows?

B is correct because of the ripple:
A occurs->B occurs->C occurs
We can infer only the following:
If A occurs, B occurs
If A occurs, C occurs
If B occurs, C occurs.

Rest is written in my earlier post.
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Re: Governments have only one response to public criticism of [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2012, 04:49
Straight B.

The correct answers to inference questions avoid extremes and have no frills: in short, they stick to the script and avoid drawing conclusions for which sufficient info is not provided.

If government is certain to respond to public outcry by regulating day care, then costs will inevitably rise.

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Re: Governments have only one response to public criticism of [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2012, 07:44
That was an easy take but my question is why "however" has been used in the stimulus. However introduces a contrast but there is no need for it. I chose B under 40 secs but was wondering about the usage of "however", and wasted some time. I will highly appreciate if anyone explains its usage.
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Re: Governments have only one response to public criticism of [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2013, 00:48
smartmanav wrote:
Why E can't be answer ?

It cannot be E because the stimulus did not say: It is ONLY through regulation that the cost will increase. There could be external factors that could also cause the cost to increase. Even if regulation does not happen, cost may still increase for other reasons.
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Re: Governments have only one response to public criticism of [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2013, 13:14
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gurpreet07 wrote:
Governments have only one response to public criticism of socially necessary services: regulation of the activity of providing those services. But governments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it, and that is particularly troublesome in these times of strained financial resources. However, since public criticism of child-care services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond.

Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?
(A) The quality of child care will improve.
(B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.
(C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care.
(D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.
(E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase
.

The LSAT arguments are typically harder than GMAT CR arguments, so if you have run out of challenging GMAT CR practice questions, the LSAT questions can be an excellent source of further practice.

This argument is a complex syllogism.
General case: public complains --- government forced to regulate ---- more money spent on the necessary social service.
Then, we apply this general case scenario the specific example of child care
folks are complaining about child care --- the government will have to regulate it --- then it will cost more money to run the child care programs

Now, let's look at the answers:
(A) The quality of child care will improve.
We know that it's quite likely that the government will spend more money on child care to regulate it. Does this necessarily mean that the quality of the child care programs will improve. Perhaps in a magical fairyland, anything at which the government throws money automatically improves, but in the real world, there are oh-so-many examples of the best intentions of government spending going astray, and programs not improving despite increased spending. It's very helpful to have a real world sense of these things ---- both GMAT CR and LSAT argument questions are consistent with the push & pull of real world forces.
(A) is incorrect.

(B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.
This is the direct result of the parallel logic. Notice --- we don't know to whom the costs increase: will that increased cost be paid by the parents who want childcare, or by the government (i.e. by all taxpayers)? We don't know, but this is irrelevant. Regardless of who pays, the cost will be increased. (B) is a promising and plausible answer.

(C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care.
Similar to (A). Yes, the government is going to through money at the programs in the form of regulating it, but will these regulations produce radically improved programs? Of course, that's the idealized hope, but there's no guarantee that this will be the outcome.
(D) is incorrect.

(D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.
Very tricky. This passage is very specifically about "socially necessary services". The government funds a whole bunch of things that are not in the category of socially necessary services (the arts, environmental protection, diplomacy & foreign aid, etc. etc.) Will the government respond to strong criticism about any of these? We don't know. It's well outside the scope of this argument.
(D) is incorrect.

(E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase
This is the one about which smartmanav asked. Technically, this answer choice is relying on a logical mistake known as the equivalence of a conditional statement and its inverse. In formal language, the mistake is
Starting with (if P, then Q), we conclude (if not P, then not Q).
This is a logical fallacy.
Consider these examples:
Original: If I am in the SF Bay Area, then I am in California. True
Inverse: If I am not in the SF Bay Area, then I am not in California. False --- I could be in LA or San Diego or Tahoe or Yosemite or etc. California is a big state!

Original: If a shape is a square, then it is a quadrilateral. True
Inverse: If a shape is not a square, then it is not a quadrilateral. False --- it could be a trapezoid, a slanted rhombus, an elongated rectangle, etc. etc.

The argument makes the case that
If government regulates, then costs increase.
For the purposes of this question, we have to accept the prompt evidence as true.
Essentially, answer choice (E) leaps from here to the inverse:
If government does not regulate, then costs will not increase.
If the government does not regular child care, that particular source of cost increase is eliminated, but that is certainly not a guarantee that nothing else at all will cause the price to increase. There could be a labor dispute, lawsuits from parents, insurance increases, etc. etc. --- any one of a thousand other things that could cause the price of child care to increase. We don't have a guarantee that the cost of child care will increase, but we certainly can't conclude definitively that the cost won't increase. The truth is: if the government does not regular child care, we have absolutely no idea whether the cost of child care will increase or not. We can draw no conclusion. We have absolutely no grounds for concluding the inverse from the original conditional statement ---- this is a fundamental logical fallacy.
(E) is incorrect.

The only possible answer is (B).

Does all of this make sense?

Mike
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Re: Governments have only one response to public criticism of [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2014, 06:46
gurpreet07 wrote:
Governments have only one response to public criticism of socially necessary services: regulation of the activity of providing those services. But governments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it, and that is particularly troublesome in these times of strained financial resources. However, since public criticism of child-care services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond.

Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?
(A) The quality of child care will improve.
(B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.
(C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care.
(D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.
(E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase.

I got the question wrong at first too, however, I realized where I went wrong. Here's why B should be the answer:

1. Governments, when called into action regarding any public criticism, they enforce regulation
2. Government regulations make the activity more expensive
3. Child-care services has received public criticism
4. Therefore, government will respond by enforcing regulation (as this is the "Only" thing they do according to the argument)
5. Since whenever government regulates, the service gets more expensive, it is expected that the cost of providing child-care service will increase as well.
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*70* Governments have only one response to public criticism [#permalink]

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01 May 2015, 12:10
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(A) The quality of child care will improve.
INCORRECT - The passage only talks about governments response. The outcome of the response is not discussed

(B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.
CORRECT. This is in line with the second sentence of the passage

(C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care.
INCORRECT. Advancement of child care is no where discussed in the passage

(D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.
INCORRECT. "policy" is not same as "social necessity"

(E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase
INCORRECT. What will happen without regulation is not in scope of this passage
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Re: *70* Governments have only one response to public criticism [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2016, 00:24
My 2 cents:

(A) The quality of child care will improve.

Quality is not mentioned in the argument. We don't know if the services provided will improve the quality.

(B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.

Correct. Since the services are now regulated which increases the cost, makes it more expensive, the cost will increase.

(C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care.

Out of Scope.

(D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.

Govt. gave a standard response to all. But since public lost confidence and service is necessary, govt. will respond. Statement is not completely true.

(E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase.

It is not stated that Regulation is the only factor which contributes to the increase in cost. Incorrect
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Re: Governments have only one response to public [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2017, 22:49
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Simplify the argument -

Governments : Public Criticism of Socially necessary services --> regulation of those activities

Regulating Activities --> makes them more expensive.

Combing the two statements we get -
Public Criticism of socially necessary services --> regulation of those services --> services become more expensive

Childcare services = socially necessary services.

Public Criticism of childcare services --> government is certain to respond --> regulation of childcare services (Note that this is the only response governments have) --> childcare services become more expensive.

Which answer option states this? Option B.

Option A - Incorrect.
We cannot infer anything about "quality" as it is not mentioned in the argument.

Option C - Incorrect.
We have no idea whether the government will do this or not as there is no mention of "funding" or "fostering advances".

Option D - Incorrect.
We cannot make this generalization. We know only about childcare services -
"since public criticism of childcare services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond."
Also, here we need the service to be "socially necessary", not just the criticism to be "strongly voiced".

Option E - Incorrect.
We cannot make this inference. We know that "regulating it" will increase the cost; we do not what effects not regulating such services will have.
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Re: Governments have only one response to public criticism of [#permalink]

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04 May 2017, 18:40
gurpreet07 wrote:
Governments have only one response to public criticism of socially necessary services: regulation of the activity of providing those services. But governments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it, and that is particularly troublesome in these times of strained financial resources. However, since public criticism of child-care services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond.

Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

(A) The quality of child care will improve.
(B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.
(C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care.
(D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.
(E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase.

Source : LSAT PrepTest 2 - October 1991 Q9

Quote:
Public criticism of service --> regulation --> increased cost

Child care is publicly criticized --> there will be regulation

OKAY. So we can feel pretty confident that the correct answer is going to say something about cost.

(A) This is actually a pretty tricky answer, because the whole point of regulation is to improve the service. But we can't definitively say it'll happen.

(B) CORRECT. Yep. We know regulation leads to increased cost, and we know there will be regulation.

(C) This comes totally out of nowhere. Wuzzah?

(D) We don't have to infer this, because it's basically been stated already.

(E) This is what we call "reversed logic". Remember if A-->B, that doesn't mean -A-->-B (the correct contrapositive would be -B-->-A, the meaning of which would be "If the cost of a service hasn't gone up, it hasn't been subjected to regulation.")

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Re: Governments have only one response to public criticism of [#permalink]

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04 May 2017, 18:42
gurpreet07 wrote:
Governments have only one response to public criticism of socially necessary services: regulation of the activity of providing those services. But governments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it, and that is particularly troublesome in these times of strained financial resources. However, since public criticism of child-care services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond.

Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

(A) The quality of child care will improve.
(B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.
(C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care.
(D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.
(E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase.

Source : LSAT PrepTest 2 - October 1991 Q9

Must Be True-SN. The correct answer choice is (B)

This stimulus contains several statements that invite inferences. In the first sentence, we see that public criticism of a socially necessary service leads to government regulation. The third sentence just applies this to child care services: because child care services are a socially necessary service and are publicly criticized, they will be regulated.

Answer Choices (A) is wrong because nothing in the stimulus addresses improving the quality of services. (A) assume that government intervention improves the quality. This may or may not be true.

Answer Choice (B): This is the correct answer choice. The second sentence in the stimulus contains a broad statement: when an activity is regulated by the government, it becomes more expensive. We can apply this principle to what we learned from the third statement and determine that childcare services will become more expensive.

Answer choice (C) is wrong because nothing in the stimulus addresses improving the quality of services. This answer choice assumes that government intervention improves the quality. This may or may not be true.

Answer Choice (D), at first glance, seems like a good answer choice because it is consistent with the first sentence. However, the first sentence only talks about socially necessary services, not policy in general. (D), then, goes too far.

Answer Choice (E) makes a logical error, a mistaken negation: we know that if child-care services are regulated, the cost will increase. But, we do not know anything if they are not regulated. Child care costs might increase anyway for some reason completely unrelated to regulation.
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Re: Governments have only one response to public criticism of   [#permalink] 04 May 2017, 18:42
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