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# Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish

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Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2009, 20:39
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49% (01:43) correct 51% (01:55) wrong based on 1299 sessions

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Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish that gather beneath thin sheets of floating ice, and they nest on nearby lands. Guillemots need 80 consecutive snow free days in a year to raise their chicks, so until avrage temperature in arctic began to rise recently, the guillemots' range was limited to the southernmost arctic coast. Therefore, if the warming continues, the guillemots' range will probably be enlarged by being extended northward along the coast...

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the the argument?

A. Even if the warming trend continues, there will still be years in which guillemots chicks are killed by an unusually early snow.
B. If Arctic warming continues, guillemots' current predators are likely to succeed in extending their own range farther north
C. Guillemots nest in coastal areas, where tempratures are generally higher than inland areas.
D. If the Arctic warming continues much of the thin ice in southern arctic will disappear.
E. The fish that guillemots eat are currently preyed on by wider variety of predators in southernmost arctic regions than they are farther north.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by GODSPEED on 31 Jul 2012, 00:34, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2011, 06:42
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Lets analyze the answer choices and see which one stands scrutiny. To find the choice which weakens the argument, we need to select the choice that provides evidence that the birds' range will not be extended.

(A): The keyword here is 'still'. If there are years now when the chicks are being killed by early snow, has it wiped out the birds? No. Therefore if conditions are favorable it cannot act as an impediment to their range expansion. Incorrect.
(B): Guillemots have been co-existing with their predators where they currently live. If the predators migrate northwards, why will this stop the birds from doing so too? Incorrect.
(C): If temperatures are rising then they will be higher than they are now in inland areas too, possibly allowing the birds to live there. Incorrect.
(D): CORRECT. If the ice in the southern arctic disappears, the birds will be forced to move northwards. However, their RANGE will not be extended as they will just shift from a more southern to a more northern point. There is no evidence that says that they will live over longer stretches of land.
(E): This means there will be more fish for the birds to eat in the North. This supports the conclusion that they will move north and extend their range.
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2013, 06:04
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an explanation could be since the premise says "Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish that gather beneath thin sheets of floating ice, and they nest on nearby lands." --> D suggests that if this ice has melted, it becomes easier to feed on fishes hence no reason to move northward

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2009, 18:41
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I would go with D.

If warming continues and thin ice in southern arctic disappears, birds would be displaced from south to north. So range is not extended.

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2009, 10:02
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GODSPEED wrote:
OA is D.....

Why not E? Can anybody explain? I do have my reasons......but want to be doubly sure.

Cheers!

In the weaken type of question it is important to correctly identify a conclusion and then attack it. It is a mistake to attack premises of the argument (at least for GMAT). in our question the conclusion is:

Therefore, if the warming continues, the guillemots' range will probably be enlarged by being extended northward along the coast...

So the correct answer would be undermining that "the birds' range will be enlarged"
Try to read E. Does the fact that the fish eaten by guillemots is also eaten by other predators in the southernmost (where the bird live now) threaten their existense/spread to the north? NO. Instead it highlights that there more predators in the southernmost and states that the birds will have more food ie less competition in the north. So it sounds more like a supporting answer to me rather than a weakening one.

E. The fish that guillemots eat are currently preyed on by wider variety of predators in southernmost arctic regions than they are farther north.

Hope my clarification was coherent.

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2013, 20:34
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I choose D.
First, I will break down the stimulus.
Premise 1: Guillemots feed on fish beneath thin sheets of floating ice, and nest on nearby lands.
Premise 2: Guillemots need 80 consecutive snow free days to raise their chicks, presently, the guillemots' range was limited to the southernmost arctic coast.
Conclusion: if the warming continues, the guillemots' range will probably be enlarged by being extended northward along the coast.
We can see that this is a Cause n Effect reasoning. The warming => the guillemots' range will probably be enlarged by being extended northward

This is a weaken question type and we must identify an answer which shows that when the cause occurs, the effect doesnt occur or reversely or find an alternative cause for the effect...just as the method of CR Bible.
A) Even if the warming trend continues, there will still be years in which guillemots chicks are killed by an unusually early snow.
=> This doesnt effect the conclusion much because the conclusion tells us the guillemots come to grow in the northward.
B) If Arctic warming continues, guillemots' current predators are likely to succeed in extending their own range farther north
=> It is too far if we infer that guillemots' current predators succeeded in moving farther north and control the population of the guillemots there. And in this answer, the word is "likely" not "surely".
C) Guillemots nest in coastal areas, where tempratures are generally higher than inland areas.
=> OOS. The argument makes no statement about inland areas or any comparision between inland n costal areas.
D) If the Arctic warming continues much of the thin ice in southern arctic will disappear.
=> Thin ice disappear => birth moves from south to north, So, the guillemots' range wont be enlarged. This shows that when the cause occurs the effect doesnot occur. So it is a Contender.
E) The fish that guillemots eat are currently preyed on by wider variety of predators in southernmost arctic regions than they are farther north.
=> This actually strengthens the argument. Because the fish is more abundant in the north. if the birds move to the north, they will surely enlarge their range.

Hope it helps.

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Guillemots are birds for arctic regions. They feed on fish [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2016, 08:12
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Expert's post
kzivrev wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
kzivrev wrote:

Ok so you need an extra assumption that fish needs ice to survive, or that ice is needed to suppport life for the birds or birds dont like easy catch without ice and so on ...... etc.

on the same lines we can argue that we need extra assumtpion that since on the south the birds have more predators to compete with so they will stay away from the south, there you go another reason to stay north, the range didnt increase, they stayed away from the south.
In either case you need axtra assumption to get to the answer, depending which way you take

And this question is the ones that GMAC can use to manipulate with the answer choice, it is like philosphy everybody are right and wrong depending from what perspective you are approaching the question. verbal part is not transparaent section and very very debatable on many questions.
as a matter of fact there are many questions like this, good luck to us to think what they want you to tink

The argument states that ice free days should increase the range of the Guillemots because they are beneficial for the birds in some way X. Option D shows another way X', a disadvantage of ice free days to the birds and thereby opposes the conclusion.

The disadvantage X': The second sentence states that the Guillemots feed on fish that gather below the ice. If the ice no longer exists, fish would not gather below ice (because there is no ice !) and the Guillemots would not be able to get their feed.

Two assupmtion need to be made, 1. that fish needs this ice to hide from predators from example and fish must move north with the ice and with the fish the bird need to move north and 2. that the birds dont have any other source of food except this fish.
for E says that this fish is also source of food for other predators, thay aslo eat this fish under the ice, so birds have competiton on the south. Hard to exclude E as well,. either way you need extra assumtion to arrive at the answer, so it is not fair to consider only D but not E.
I understand your point but E is close contender and on test conditions very easy to get your attention.

Your understanding that the ice is needed by fishes to "hide" is not required at all. The point is that ice is beneficial for the Guillemots (not to fishes as you have assumed), hence melting of ice will NOT help Guillemot enlarge it's range.

Option E: other predators prey currently - Guillemots also prey now competing with them. If the warming continues, it is not known what these other predators would do. Thus option E does not play any role in weakening the argument.

Reading your response to LogicGuru1, it seems that you have been over-thinking on this particular question, leading to many assumptions or external information getting into your thought process and making the solution unnecessarily complex. I would suggest that you let go of this question for the time being and come back to it after a few wees and see how you think - try to get rid of your pre-conditioned thoughts and think fresh when you come back. If you have a query then, please post back.

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2009, 04:27
D for me.
If the warming continues, the range of the birds will either decrease or remain constant and NOT increase.

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2009, 07:41
IMO B

D actually strengthens the argument.
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2009, 21:46
Debated over D & E....E seems to be a strong contender....why not E?

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2009, 23:11
D for me as well

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2009, 00:00
B for me!
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2009, 02:30
B for me.

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2009, 02:51
i think (a).
the argument depends on the assumption that as warming continues, there will be more 80 conseutive snow-free days which will increase the population. however, going from 40 snow days and 40 snow-free days to 79 snow-free days and 1 snow day is still considered warming, but the chicks won't survive because of that 1 snow day.

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2009, 03:05
i think there is too much assumption with this one. Also it is talking about range expansion. The population need not expand for the range to expand.

seongbae wrote:
i think (a).
the argument depends on the assumption that as warming continues, there will be more 80 conseutive snow-free days which will increase the population. however, going from 40 snow days and 40 snow-free days to 79 snow-free days and 1 snow day is still considered warming, but the chicks won't survive because of that 1 snow day.

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2009, 08:27
OA is D.....

Why not E? Can anybody explain? I do have my reasons......but want to be doubly sure.

Cheers!

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2011, 22:11
Trickiest question ever..
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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2011, 05:47
The keyword here is snow free not snow filled.. Haha

Posted from my mobile device

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2011, 06:15
E) actually strengthens right? It says in the southernmost region there are more predators than in north. All the more reason to move north for the guillemots as is put forward by the claim.

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26] [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2011, 03:19
go with D

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Re: Guillemots are birds for arctic regions - OG11E [Diag 26]   [#permalink] 07 Aug 2011, 03:19

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