GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 20 Nov 2019, 05:24

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
Math Expert
User avatar
V
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 59180
Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 10 Oct 2018, 03:49
1
6
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  15% (low)

Question Stats:

82% (02:02) correct 18% (02:29) wrong based on 380 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any user) would always be used less carefully than private grazing land. Each rancher would be tempted to overuse common land because the benefits would accrue to the individuals, while the costs of reduced land quality that results from overuse would be spread among all users. But a study comparing 217 million acres of common grazing land with 433 million acres of private grazing land showed that the common land was in better condition.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the significance, in relation to Hardin's claim, of the study described above?


(A) Did any of the ranchers whose land was studied use both common and private land?

(B) Did the ranchers whose land was studied tend to prefer using common land over using private land for grazing?

(C) Was the private land that was studied of comparable quality to the common land before either was used for grazing?

(D) Were the users of the common land that was studied at least as prosperous as the users of the private land?

(E) Were there any owners of herds who used only common land, and no private land, for grazing?

"Hardin" Resolve Paradox Question

_________________
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
User avatar
D
Status: GMAT and GRE tutor
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Posts: 2922
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170
Re: Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 05 Jul 2019, 19:42
1
rish2708 wrote:
Hi nightblade354 / GMATNinja / VeritasKarishma ma'am,
Can you please help me to opt out option B?

Option B says that the ranchers might prefer to use common land and study has studied their lands. Since, we know that the ranchers would prefer common land, there is an indication that they might use the common land for grazing and YET the study reports that the common lands are in better condition. Doesn't this weaken Hardin's claim?


If such is the case, doesn't knowing this information help the study to weaken the Hardin's claim?
Then how does the OG says that the PREFERENCE of the ranchers is irrelevant? Please help me understand this?

Regards,
Rishav

According to Hardin, common land would always be used less carefully than private grazing land. Note that Hardin does not say anything about the ranchers' preferences. Maybe the ranchers do prefer common land. Hardin would say, "I don't care how often ranchers choose common land over private land -- my point is that when they DO choose common land (for whatever reason), that common land is used less carefully than private grazing land."

Now we have a study comparing (A) 217 million acres of common grazing land to (B) 433 million acres of private grazing land. Again, the ranchers' preferences are not important. All that matters is that we have some lands that are used for common grazing (A) and some lands that are used for private grazing (B).

If ranchers treat all grazing land the same, regardless of whether it is common or private, then, all else equal, we would expect NO difference in the condition of the two types of lands. If Hardin is right and common grazing land is used less carefully than private grazing land, we would expect (again, all else equal) the private land to be in better condition than the public land. But the study shows that the COMMON land was in better condition... how do we explain that?

Quote:
(B) Did the ranchers whose land was studied tend to prefer using common land over using private land for grazing?


Sure, it is POSSIBLE that the ranchers' preferences impact how they treat the land (MAYBE they treat common land better if they prefer common land?). But we have no idea whether that's the case. Answering (B) may or may not help us evaluate the significance of the study in relation to Hardin's claim.

Quote:
(C) Was the private land that was studied of comparable quality to the common land before either was used for grazing?

Choice (C), on the other hand, will DEFINITELY help us evaluate the significance of the study. If, for example, the private land was in terrible shape prior to grazing while the common land was in great shape, then we could argue that the study does not necessarily go against Hardin's claim. On the other hand, if both private and common lands were in great shape prior to grazing, then we could argue that the study DOES go against Hardin's claim.

The answer to the question posed in choice (C) -- regardless of what the answer is -- will surely be relevant to the significance of the study in relation to Hardin's claim. The answer to the question in (B), however, MIGHT be relevant... depending on what the answer is and what kinds of assumptions we make. That makes (C) a much better choice.

I hope this helps!
_________________
GMAT/GRE tutor @ www.gmatninja.com (we're hiring!) | GMAT Club Verbal Expert | Instagram | Blog | Bad at PMs

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal: RC | CR | SC

YouTube LIVE verbal webinars: all videos by topic

SC articles & resources: How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

RC, CR, and other articles & resources: All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for $29.99 | Time management on verbal

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations: All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply? Hit the request verbal experts' reply button; be specific about your question, and tag @GMATNinja. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
G
Joined: 10 Jan 2013
Posts: 305
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
GPA: 3.95
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge
Re: Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 10 Oct 2018, 07:00
I marked C because i felt that quality should be considered.

Posted from my mobile device
Manager
Manager
User avatar
G
Joined: 01 Apr 2018
Posts: 124
Location: India
Schools: INSEAD Jan '20
GMAT 1: 650 Q49 V30
GPA: 3.9
Re: Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 10 Oct 2018, 10:37
Bunuel wrote:
Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any user) would always be used less carefully than private grazing land. Each rancher would be tempted to overuse common land because the benefits would accrue to the individuals, while the costs of reduced land quality that results from overuse would be spread among all users. But a study comparing 217 million acres of common grazing land with 433 million acres of private grazing land showed that the common land was in better condition.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the significance, in relation to Hardin's claim, of the study described above?


(A) Did any of the ranchers whose land was studied use both common and private land?

(B) Did the ranchers whose land was studied tend to prefer using common land over using private land for grazing?

(C) Was the private land that was studied of comparable quality to the common land before either was used for grazing?

(D) Were the users of the common land that was studied at least as prosperous as the users of the private land?

(E) Were there any owners of herds who used only common land, and no private land, for grazing?

"Hardin" Resolve Paradox Question


IMO C.

Hardin's claim: Common land condition tends to be worse than the private land condition because of over usage of common lands.
Paradox: A study shows that common land was in better condition than private land.

Option C resolves this paradox by asking the right question that whether the condition of common and private land was comparable enough before the start of the study. It is possible that private lands studied were in lot worse condition than the common lands to start with and hence the study's result will bear no implication on the Hardin's claim. Hence option C is the correct choice.
_________________
Kindly click on +1Kudos if my post helps you...
Board of Directors
User avatar
D
Status: QA & VA Forum Moderator
Joined: 11 Jun 2011
Posts: 4835
Location: India
GPA: 3.5
WE: Business Development (Commercial Banking)
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 10 Oct 2018, 11:21
Bunuel wrote:
Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any user) would always be used less carefully than private grazing land. Each rancher would be tempted to overuse common land because the benefits would accrue to the individuals, while the costs of reduced land quality that results from overuse would be spread among all users. But a study comparing 217 million acres of common grazing land with 433 million acres of private grazing land showed that the common land was in better condition.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the significance, in relation to Hardin's claim, of the study described above?


(A) Did any of the ranchers whose land was studied use both common and private land?

(B) Did the ranchers whose land was studied tend to prefer using common land over using private land for grazing?

(C) Was the private land that was studied of comparable quality to the common land before either was used for grazing?

(D) Were the users of the common land that was studied at least as prosperous as the users of the private land?

(E) Were there any owners of herds who used only common land, and no private land, for grazing?

"Hardin" Resolve Paradox Question


Certainly (C), we are presented with a fact about Survey without stating the Condition of the land before and after its use....

The best way to tackle survey questions might be questioning the method of the survey / sample etc.....
_________________
Thanks and Regards

Abhishek....

PLEASE FOLLOW THE RULES FOR POSTING IN QA AND VA FORUM AND USE SEARCH FUNCTION BEFORE POSTING NEW QUESTIONS

How to use Search Function in GMAT Club | Rules for Posting in QA forum | Writing Mathematical Formulas |Rules for Posting in VA forum | Request Expert's Reply ( VA Forum Only )
Manager
Manager
avatar
G
Joined: 12 Jul 2017
Posts: 214
GMAT 1: 570 Q43 V26
GMAT 2: 660 Q48 V34
Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 04 Jul 2019, 22:18
Hi nightblade354 / GMATNinja / VeritasKarishma ma'am,
Can you please help me to opt out option B?

Option B says that the ranchers might prefer to use common land and study has studied their lands. Since, we know that the ranchers would prefer common land, there is an indication that they might use the common land for grazing and YET the study reports that the common lands are in better condition. Doesn't this weaken Hardin's claim?


If such is the case, doesn't knowing this information help the study to weaken the Hardin's claim?
Then how does the OG says that the PREFERENCE of the ranchers is irrelevant? Please help me understand this?

Regards,
Rishav
Manager
Manager
avatar
G
Joined: 12 Jul 2017
Posts: 214
GMAT 1: 570 Q43 V26
GMAT 2: 660 Q48 V34
Re: Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 06 Jul 2019, 04:50
GMATNinja wrote:
rish2708 wrote:
Hi nightblade354 / GMATNinja / VeritasKarishma ma'am,
Can you please help me to opt out option B?

Option B says that the ranchers might prefer to use common land and study has studied their lands. Since, we know that the ranchers would prefer common land, there is an indication that they might use the common land for grazing and YET the study reports that the common lands are in better condition. Doesn't this weaken Hardin's claim?


If such is the case, doesn't knowing this information help the study to weaken the Hardin's claim?
Then how does the OG says that the PREFERENCE of the ranchers is irrelevant? Please help me understand this?

Regards,
Rishav

According to Hardin, common land would always be used less carefully than private grazing land. Note that Hardin does not say anything about the ranchers' preferences. Maybe the ranchers do prefer common land. Hardin would say, "I don't care how often ranchers choose common land over private land -- my point is that when they DO choose common land (for whatever reason), that common land is used less carefully than private grazing land."

Now we have a study comparing (A) 217 million acres of common grazing land to (B) 433 million acres of private grazing land. Again, the ranchers' preferences are not important. All that matters is that we have some lands that are used for common grazing (A) and some lands that are used for private grazing (B).

If ranchers treat all grazing land the same, regardless of whether it is common or private, then, all else equal, we would expect NO difference in the condition of the two types of lands. If Hardin is right and common grazing land is used less carefully than private grazing land, we would expect (again, all else equal) the private land to be in better condition than the public land. But the study shows that the COMMON land was in better condition... how do we explain that?

Quote:
(B) Did the ranchers whose land was studied tend to prefer using common land over using private land for grazing?


Sure, it is POSSIBLE that the ranchers' preferences impact how they treat the land (MAYBE they treat common land better if they prefer common land?). But we have no idea whether that's the case. Answering (B) may or may not help us evaluate the significance of the study in relation to Hardin's claim.

Quote:
(C) Was the private land that was studied of comparable quality to the common land before either was used for grazing?

Choice (C), on the other hand, will DEFINITELY help us evaluate the significance of the study. If, for example, the private land was in terrible shape prior to grazing while the common land was in great shape, then we could argue that the study does not necessarily go against Hardin's claim. On the other hand, if both private and common lands were in great shape prior to grazing, then we could argue that the study DOES go against Hardin's claim.

The answer to the question posed in choice (C) -- regardless of what the answer is -- will surely be relevant to the significance of the study in relation to Hardin's claim. The answer to the question in (B), however, MIGHT be relevant... depending on what the answer is and what kinds of assumptions we make. That makes (C) a much better choice.

I hope this helps!



Thank you!! It helped a lot!! :)

Regards,
Rishav
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
G
Joined: 10 Aug 2018
Posts: 339
Location: India
Concentration: Strategy, Operations
WE: Operations (Energy and Utilities)
Reviews Badge
Re: Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 15 Jul 2019, 00:00
if both the lands were not of same condition before the study then the results will not be correct.

C has to be the right answer.
_________________
On the way to get into the B-school and I will not leave it until I win. WHATEVER IT TAKES.

" I CAN AND I WILL"

GMAT:[640 Q44, V34, IR4, AWA5]
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any   [#permalink] 15 Jul 2019, 00:00
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Hardin argued that grazing land held in common (that is, open to any

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne