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# Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,

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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2014, 09:05
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marine wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

E-gmat gave a great explanation of the problem and I am posting in here.

This is a very good advanced level question. It tests your understanding of modifiers and pronouns. It also tests your understanding of the intended meaning of the sentence.

Since most of you were able to eliminate choices A and D, I will concentrate on Choices B, C, and E.

Lets begin the solution:
Step 1 - Read the original sentence and understand the meaning.

Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worried well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

(Note that even though you were all able to eliminate choice A, we still need to review this choice to understand the meaning that the correct choice is intended to communicate).

1. Sentence talks about an executive who is heavily committed to a course of action
2. This course of action has worked well in the past
3. Because of this heavy commitment, the executive is likely to miss the signs of trouble when they appear.
Step 2 - We will understand the errors in this sentence:

Pronoun Error - ..makes it likely to…- “IT” has no clear antecedent. The sentence must specify clearly that executive is likely to miss the signs…
Thus, choice A is eliminated

Step 3 - Process of Elimination or Choice Analysis

Choice B
An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

This choice changes the intended meaning of the sentence. Here is what this sentence communicates:
1. Executive is heavily committed to a course of action - Same as Intended Meaning
2. Executive makes missing signs of trouble likely - Different from Intended Meaning
Thus, choice B states that executives makes the missing of signs likely, whereas, the intended meaning is that the heavy commitment to the course of action makes missing signs likely.

Choice C

An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
This choice does not distort the original meaning of the sentence. However, from this sentence it is not clear as to what has worked well in the past. Thus, this sentence has pronoun reference error for “it”

Choice E

Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
This choice maintains the intended meaning:
1. Action of being heavily committed to a course of action causes the effect.
2. The effect is that the executive misses signs of trouble
Note here that the phrase “being heavily committed to a course of action” is the subject for the verb “is”.

Let me know if this makes sense to you.

Also, I would like to say that please do not reject a choice just because it has the word “being”. You must do a careful analysis of each choice and pick the choice that communicates the intended meaning without any grammatical errors.

For e-GMAT Users, all Sentence Correction questions are solved using a step by step process. These solutions can be found in the 9 Application Files and UGE. (Total of 150+ questions)
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2014, 19:32
akhil911 wrote:
marine wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

E-gmat gave a great explanation of the problem and I am posting in here.

This is a very good advanced level question. It tests your understanding of modifiers and pronouns. It also tests your understanding of the intended meaning of the sentence.

Since most of you were able to eliminate choices A and D, I will concentrate on Choices B, C, and E.

Lets begin the solution:
Step 1 - Read the original sentence and understand the meaning.

Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worried well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

(Note that even though you were all able to eliminate choice A, we still need to review this choice to understand the meaning that the correct choice is intended to communicate).

1. Sentence talks about an executive who is heavily committed to a course of action
2. This course of action has worked well in the past
3. Because of this heavy commitment, the executive is likely to miss the signs of trouble when they appear.
Step 2 - We will understand the errors in this sentence:

Pronoun Error - ..makes it likely to…- “IT” has no clear antecedent. The sentence must specify clearly that executive is likely to miss the signs…
Thus, choice A is eliminated

Step 3 - Process of Elimination or Choice Analysis

Choice B
An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

This choice changes the intended meaning of the sentence. Here is what this sentence communicates:
1. Executive is heavily committed to a course of action - Same as Intended Meaning
2. Executive makes missing signs of trouble likely - Different from Intended Meaning
Thus, choice B states that executives makes the missing of signs likely, whereas, the intended meaning is that the heavy commitment to the course of action makes missing signs likely.

Choice C

An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
This choice does not distort the original meaning of the sentence. However, from this sentence it is not clear as to what has worked well in the past. Thus, this sentence has pronoun reference error for “it”

Choice E

Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
This choice maintains the intended meaning:
1. Action of being heavily committed to a course of action causes the effect.
2. The effect is that the executive misses signs of trouble
Note here that the phrase “being heavily committed to a course of action” is the subject for the verb “is”.

Let me know if this makes sense to you.

Also, I would like to say that please do not reject a choice just because it has the word “being”. You must do a careful analysis of each choice and pick the choice that communicates the intended meaning without any grammatical errors.

For e-GMAT Users, all Sentence Correction questions are solved using a step by step process. These solutions can be found in the 9 Application Files and UGE. (Total of 150+ questions)

Hi,

My question with "e" is the "being" part. How can you tell that it's the subject and not just a modifier for "executive". I took it as the latter and realized that "being" cannot be used to express identity, hence the conflict. Any help would be appreciated.

Thanks!
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2014, 19:49
akhil911 wrote:
marine wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

E-gmat gave a great explanation of the problem and I am posting in here.

This is a very good advanced level question. It tests your understanding of modifiers and pronouns. It also tests your understanding of the intended meaning of the sentence.

Since most of you were able to eliminate choices A and D, I will concentrate on Choices B, C, and E.

Lets begin the solution:
Step 1 - Read the original sentence and understand the meaning.

Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worried well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

(Note that even though you were all able to eliminate choice A, we still need to review this choice to understand the meaning that the correct choice is intended to communicate).

1. Sentence talks about an executive who is heavily committed to a course of action
2. This course of action has worked well in the past
3. Because of this heavy commitment, the executive is likely to miss the signs of trouble when they appear.
Step 2 - We will understand the errors in this sentence:

Pronoun Error - ..makes it likely to…- “IT” has no clear antecedent. The sentence must specify clearly that executive is likely to miss the signs…
Thus, choice A is eliminated

Step 3 - Process of Elimination or Choice Analysis

Choice B
An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

This choice changes the intended meaning of the sentence. Here is what this sentence communicates:
1. Executive is heavily committed to a course of action - Same as Intended Meaning
2. Executive makes missing signs of trouble likely - Different from Intended Meaning
Thus, choice B states that executives makes the missing of signs likely, whereas, the intended meaning is that the heavy commitment to the course of action makes missing signs likely.

Choice C

An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
This choice does not distort the original meaning of the sentence. However, from this sentence it is not clear as to what has worked well in the past. Thus, this sentence has pronoun reference error for “it”

Choice E

Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
This choice maintains the intended meaning:
1. Action of being heavily committed to a course of action causes the effect.
2. The effect is that the executive misses signs of trouble
Note here that the phrase “being heavily committed to a course of action” is the subject for the verb “is”.

Let me know if this makes sense to you.

Also, I would like to say that please do not reject a choice just because it has the word “being”. You must do a careful analysis of each choice and pick the choice that communicates the intended meaning without any grammatical errors.

For e-GMAT Users, all Sentence Correction questions are solved using a step by step process. These solutions can be found in the 9 Application Files and UGE. (Total of 150+ questions)

What else could 'it' refer to, other than 'action'?
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2015, 06:52
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,(WARM UP)especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. --> 1st "it" in especially if it has .... correct, it refers to a course of action. 2nd "it" in makes it likely to miss is WRONG -> accrording to the meaning, this part should refer to an executive - it can not be the pronoun in this case (ref. a person). The Correct structure could be --> it makes HIM likely to...

B. An executive (WARM UP)who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear. --> An executive doesn't make signs likely... a heavy commitment to a course of action makes it.

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past. --> Antecedent of IT ? Not clear, this senntence is just placed wrongly, it should give additional Information about a course of action, but in this case it fails to do so, bacause of the wrong placement.

D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear. --> possessives are adjectives, not nouns, so executives' is not an appropriate antecedent for a pronoun.

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

By POE - E must be the correct answer. By the way, Being heavily committed to a course of action is a SUBJECT of the verb IS -and NOT as a MODIFIER - one of the wrong cases, in wich wi can eliminate answer choices with "BEING".
Being is used here jus as in this sentence --> Having good friends is important for me.

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Last edited by BrainLab on 29 Mar 2015, 12:24, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2015, 07:01
marine wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

Option E is the best answer choice here .
the use of being is perfectly fine here as it is used a noun here .
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2015, 02:50
Yes. Choice E looks the best here!
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2015, 13:07
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

A.Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

Usage of second "it" is not required

B.An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

Usage of Makes missing signs is wordy

C.An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

Usage of "it" is not required.

D.Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

Usage of "them" is not required

E.Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
Correct

Hence E
Ans

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2015, 12:56
Good explanation from e-gmat. Indeed a tough one !
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2015, 15:53
Well C is wrong basically because the modifier especially if it has worked well in the past has been placed far away from the entity it modifies, course of action and it can have two logical antecedents, 'trouble' and 'action' and its not clear as to which one is 'it' referring to.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2015, 23:30
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of
action, especially if it has worked well in the past,
makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or
misinterpret them when they do appear.

(A) Heavy commitment by an executive to a course
of action, especially if it has worked well in the
past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient
trouble or misinterpret them when they do
appear.
(B) An executive who is heavily committed to a
course of action, especially one that worked well
in the past, makes missing signs of incipient
trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they
do appear.
(C) An executive who is heavily committed to a
course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret
signs of incipient trouble when they do appear,
especially if it has worked well in the past.
(D) Executives’ being heavily committed to a course
of action, especially if it has worked well in the
past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient
trouble or misinterpreting them when they do
appear.
(E) Being heavily committed to a course of action,
especially one that has worked well in the past,
is likely to make an executive miss signs of
incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they
do appear.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2015, 05:03
marine wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

"Being heavily committed to a course of action", ..........fluff.................., is likely to make an.................
just like

"Swimming daily",.......fluff............., is likely to make a person fit or .....
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2015, 06:02
marine wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

In this...we have two antecedents for first "IT" but egmat solution does not point this error. Please somebody explain.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2015, 08:37
sach24x7 wrote:

In this...we have two antecedents for first "IT" but egmat solution does not point this error. Please somebody explain.

On the GMAT these days you may seen problems that have ambiguous antecedents (i.e. multiple potential antecedents). What the GMAT does consistently point to as an error is when the antecedent shifts within the sentence.

Example: I lost my bike this morning but I later found it, but it made me late for work.
Here the first "it" relates to my bike, but the second "it" is a generalization for losing my bike, not the bike itself. That shifting is incorrect on the GMAT.

KW
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2016, 13:31
Good point, but I have two doubts -
1- "signs of incipient trouble" is similar to "flowers of rose" and we can not refer this phrase (flowers of rose) with "it" - similarly, can we refer "trouble" with "it"??
2- What function " miss signs of incipient trouble" serves in the correct answer option - Adjective or Adverb? And what does this phrase modify or limit?

KyleWiddison wrote:
sach24x7 wrote:

In this...we have two antecedents for first "IT" but egmat solution does not point this error. Please somebody explain.

On the GMAT these days you may seen problems that have ambiguous antecedents (i.e. multiple potential antecedents). What the GMAT does consistently point to as an error is when the antecedent shifts within the sentence.

Example: I lost my bike this morning but I later found it, but it made me late for work.
Here the first "it" relates to my bike, but the second "it" is a generalization for losing my bike, not the bike itself. That shifting is incorrect on the GMAT.

KW

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2016, 06:50
DAakash7 wrote:
Good point, but I have two doubts -
1- "signs of incipient trouble" is similar to "flowers of rose" and we can not refer this phrase (flowers of rose) with "it" - similarly, can we refer "trouble" with "it"??
2- What function " miss signs of incipient trouble" serves in the correct answer option - Adjective or Adverb? And what does this phrase modify or limit?

KyleWiddison wrote:
sach24x7 wrote:

In this...we have two antecedents for first "IT" but egmat solution does not point this error. Please somebody explain.

On the GMAT these days you may seen problems that have ambiguous antecedents (i.e. multiple potential antecedents). What the GMAT does consistently point to as an error is when the antecedent shifts within the sentence.

Example: I lost my bike this morning but I later found it, but it made me late for work.
Here the first "it" relates to my bike, but the second "it" is a generalization for losing my bike, not the bike itself. That shifting is incorrect on the GMAT.

KW

Following is my response to your question 2:

The phrase " miss signs of incipient trouble" functions somewhat similar to that of direct object of a verb (in this case the verb "make") rather than that of an adverb modifying the verb. "An executive" is the indirect object for the verb.

Compare with the following example:

him = indirect object
president = direct object.

Could you please elaborate further on your query 1 ? The pronoun "it" can refer to "trouble", but not "signs of trouble", since the latter is plural.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2016, 07:15
Thanks for asnwering my queries Sayantan; however, I have a follow-up question -

1- Clarification of the first query -
Can a Pronoun refer to a Noun that is a part of a prepositional phrase that acts as an Adjective?

Official example -
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
Choice C -
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

Official explanation of answer choice C - "The reference of preposition 'it' is unclear because many nouns have intervened between the appearance of the logical referent(course of action) and 'it' ".

My Doubt - How "it" can refer to "trouble" because "trouble" is a part of a prepositional phrase whose "head" is "signs". And, if "it" can not refer to "trouble", then there is no ambiguity. Why official explanation describes this usage as ambiguous?

2- The direct object of a verb is mostly a Noun phrase, but the phrase " miss signs of incipient trouble" doesn't seem a Noun phrase to me. Could you please help me understand this usage.

sayantanc2k wrote:
DAakash7 wrote:
Good point, but I have two doubts -
1- "signs of incipient trouble" is similar to "flowers of rose" and we can not refer this phrase (flowers of rose) with "it" - similarly, can we refer "trouble" with "it"??
2- What function " miss signs of incipient trouble" serves in the correct answer option - Adjective or Adverb? And what does this phrase modify or limit?

Following is my response to your question 2:

The phrase " miss signs of incipient trouble" functions somewhat similar to that of direct object of a verb (in this case the verb "make") rather than that of an adverb modifying the verb. "An executive" is the indirect object for the verb.

Compare with the following example:

him = indirect object
president = direct object.

Could you please elaborate further on your query 1 ? The pronoun "it" can refer to "trouble", but not "signs of trouble", since the latter is plural.

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2016, 11:26
Query 1:
There isn't probably any official rule that an object of preposition cannot be referred to by a pronoun. Rather I would cite an example in the contrary:

I was sitting on the top of the table before it broke.

I do not see any problem with the above example in which the pronoun ( blue font) refers to a noun within a prepositional phrase.

(From the official explanation, it can be concluded that GMAT allows the use of pronoun to refer to a noun within a prepositional phrase.)

Query 2:
In option E, "miss" is a verbal and the closest verbal that I can think of is an infinitive. In my opinion this phrase "miss signs of incipient trouble" comes closest to a nominal infinitive phrase used as an object.

DAakash7 wrote:
Thanks for asnwering my queries Sayantan; however, I have a follow-up question -

1- Clarification of the first query -
Can a Pronoun refer to a Noun that is a part of a prepositional phrase that acts as an Adjective?

Official example -
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
Choice C -
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

Official explanation of answer choice C - "The reference of preposition 'it' is unclear because many nouns have intervened between the appearance of the logical referent(course of action) and 'it' ".

My Doubt - How "it" can refer to "trouble" because "trouble" is a part of a prepositional phrase whose "head" is "signs". And, if "it" can not refer to "trouble", then there is no ambiguity. Why official explanation describes this usage as ambiguous?

2- The direct object of a verb is mostly a Noun phrase, but the phrase " miss signs of incipient trouble" doesn't seem a Noun phrase to me. Could you please help me understand this usage.

sayantanc2k wrote:
DAakash7 wrote:
Good point, but I have two doubts -
1- "signs of incipient trouble" is similar to "flowers of rose" and we can not refer this phrase (flowers of rose) with "it" - similarly, can we refer "trouble" with "it"??
2- What function " miss signs of incipient trouble" serves in the correct answer option - Adjective or Adverb? And what does this phrase modify or limit?

Following is my response to your question 2:

The phrase " miss signs of incipient trouble" functions somewhat similar to that of direct object of a verb (in this case the verb "make") rather than that of an adverb modifying the verb. "An executive" is the indirect object for the verb.

Compare with the following example:

him = indirect object
president = direct object.

Could you please elaborate further on your query 1 ? The pronoun "it" can refer to "trouble", but not "signs of trouble", since the latter is plural.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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12 May 2016, 11:51
In option C, why the use of "it" is incorrect. Course of action is the only logical antecedent to it, replacing it with trouble does not makes sense.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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12 May 2016, 11:54
In option C, why the use of "it" is incorrect? Course of action is the only logical antecedent to it, replacing it with trouble does not makes sense.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, [#permalink]

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13 May 2016, 10:43
anuj4012 wrote:
In option C, why the use of "it" is incorrect? Course of action is the only logical antecedent to it, replacing it with trouble does not makes sense.

If there are more than one possible antecedents for a pronoun, the sentence would be generally* considered wrong - even when one of the antecedents does not make a logical sense in real life but is grammatically correct in the sentence.

[*However there is an exception to this - When the pronoun is a subject of a clause in the sentence and one of the antecedents is also a subject of a clause, then the subject pronoun would refer to the subject antecedent by virtue of parallelism. Nonetheless, this example is not such a case.]
Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,   [#permalink] 13 May 2016, 10:43

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