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# Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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12 May 2016, 11:54
In option C, why the use of "it" is incorrect? Course of action is the only logical antecedent to it, replacing it with trouble does not makes sense.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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13 May 2016, 10:43
anuj4012 wrote:
In option C, why the use of "it" is incorrect? Course of action is the only logical antecedent to it, replacing it with trouble does not makes sense.

If there are more than one possible antecedents for a pronoun, the sentence would be generally* considered wrong - even when one of the antecedents does not make a logical sense in real life but is grammatically correct in the sentence.

[*However there is an exception to this - When the pronoun is a subject of a clause in the sentence and one of the antecedents is also a subject of a clause, then the subject pronoun would refer to the subject antecedent by virtue of parallelism. Nonetheless, this example is not such a case.]
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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13 May 2016, 11:54
1
anuj4012 wrote:
In option C, why the use of "it" is incorrect? Course of action is the only logical antecedent to it, replacing it with trouble does not makes sense.

Hi Anuj,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

The reason why the pronoun it appears to be ambiguous in Choice C is that apart from course of action, trouble is another singular pronoun in the sentence even though it is not the logical antecedent of it.

However, this is not the error that makes choice C incorrect. Choice C is incorrect because the modifier especially if it has worked well in the past must be placed next to the a course of action.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2016, 12:10
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. - Correct - Being is used as a noun
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 02 Aug 2016, 22:36
marine wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

OG16 SC110

Ohhh GMAT you beauty, what a devious femme fatale you are !!!
This is what happens when all these shortcut experts tells you to remember that "being" is always incorrect in GMAT. These are the same shortcut experts that also tell when confused you should avoid "due to" and go for "because of".
Many a times - due to is absolutely correct and many a times {as in this case} "being" is absolutely correct on gmat .

THE CORRECT ANSWER IS E which is using the correct placement of modifiers, the correct tenses and conveys the correct meaning.
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Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 28 Jul 2016, 01:23.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 02 Aug 2016, 22:36, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2016, 05:57
vasild wrote:
Ritesh, I actually believe that "Being heavily committed to a course of action" in E serves as a noun phrase and as a subject, not as a modifier.

(The state of) being heavily comitted is likely to cause ...

Its a gerund + prepositional phrase. Object of prepositional phrase has been in turn modified by a non-essential noun modifier (which happens to be the adjectival clause 'one that has worked well in the past')

Using 'if' makes the modifier adverbial, and breaks down.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2016, 12:13
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
I have a question regarding choice c :
c :An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
Typically , pronoun ambiguity error is secondary error on the basis of which any option should be eliminated as GMAT is lenient about usage of pronoun. Moreover, i think there is change in meaning in choice c.According to choice A : being heavily committed to a course of action makes an executive miss signs of incipient trouble.However in choice c there is loss of meaning since main idea was put in subordinate clause ( "who is likely to miss sign of incipient trouble".
Is my analysis correct ?
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2016, 07:36
egmat wrote:
anuj4012 wrote:
In option C, why the use of "it" is incorrect? Course of action is the only logical antecedent to it, replacing it with trouble does not makes sense.

Hi Anuj,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

The reason why the pronoun it appears to be ambiguous in Choice C is that apart from course of action, trouble is another singular pronoun in the sentence even though it is not the logical antecedent of it.

However, this is not the error that makes choice C incorrect. Choice C is incorrect because the modifier especially if it has worked well in the past must be placed next to the a course of action.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

I still don't get why in this answer choice the pronoun "it" may refer to 2 antecedents (course of action and trouble), for me the only logical antecedent is "course of action"... "especially if (incipient) trouble worked well in the past" does not sound right to me

Please let me know if my analysis is correct

Thanks
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2016, 12:48
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. --> Passive form and second 'it' reference is ambiguous
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear. --> "Executive makes missing signs ... likely" changes the meaning
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past. --> 'especially if it has worked' modifier should be placed near the action it modifies. In this case 'course of action'.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear. I can see a parallelism error here, 'to miss' & 'misinterpreting' are not parallel.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. (Y)
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2016, 10:33
If you ask the question "makes whom to miss signs"
The answer is, "an executive to miss signs"

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2016, 07:38
Solution to this question by e-gmat on their blog. I'm not allowed to add the link to the blog post so I copy pasted the answer below..enjoy!

*******************************************************************************************
MEANING ANALYSIS

Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,
especially if it has worked well in the past,
(Cl. 1 Contd.)makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them
when they do appear.
This sentence talks about blind commitment of an executive towards a method or course of action that has worked well in the past. It says that this type of commitment is likely to make the executive miss or misread the signs of small problem, when he encounters these signs.

ERROR ANALYSIS

1) The antecedent for the second ‘it’ is not clear. The placement of ‘it’ is such that it may refer to either “course of action” or “executive”.
2) This ambiguous reference of the pronoun ‘it’ leads to ambiguity in the meaning as well. It is not clear who is likely to miss the signs?

POE

CHOICE A:

Incorrect:

There are a couple of errors as pointed out in error analysis.
CHOICE B:

Incorrect:
1) This choice distorts the meaning by saying that the executive makes “missing signs…” likely. This is certainly not the intended meaning of the sentence.
2) It is not clear what the modifier “when they do appear” refers to. This modifier is certainly misplaced.

CHOICE C:

Incorrect:
The modifier “especially if it has worked well in the past” is intended to modify “a course of action”. This is a noun modifier and hence should be placed closer to that noun entity. Since it is placed closer to “incipient trouble”, the antecedent of the pronoun “it” seems ambiguous.

CHOICE D:

Incorrect:
1) In this sentence, “or” is the parallel marker. So we have a list here. The first entity of this list is “to miss”, which is not parallel to the second entity “misinterpreting”.
2) The phrase “Executives’ being heavily committed” is unnecessarily wordy in comparison to other options.
3) Pronoun “them” should logically refer to plural “executives”, but it cannot do so because “executives’” has been used as an adjective.
CHOICE E:

Correct:
1) This choice correctly uses “Being” as a noun that has the correct verb.
2) All the modifiers are places and worded correctly to convey the intended meaning of the sentence
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2016, 07:41
Solution to this question by e-gmat on their blog. I'm not allowed to add the blog post link, so I copy pasted the answer below..enjoy!

*******************************************************************************************
MEANING ANALYSIS

Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,
especially if it has worked well in the past,
(Cl. 1 Contd.)makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them
when they do appear.
This sentence talks about blind commitment of an executive towards a method or course of action that has worked well in the past. It says that this type of commitment is likely to make the executive miss or misread the signs of small problem, when he encounters these signs.

ERROR ANALYSIS

1) The antecedent for the second ‘it’ is not clear. The placement of ‘it’ is such that it may refer to either “course of action” or “executive”.
2) This ambiguous reference of the pronoun ‘it’ leads to ambiguity in the meaning as well. It is not clear who is likely to miss the signs?

POE

CHOICE A:

Incorrect:

There are a couple of errors as pointed out in error analysis.
CHOICE B:

Incorrect:
1) This choice distorts the meaning by saying that the executive makes “missing signs…” likely. This is certainly not the intended meaning of the sentence.
2) It is not clear what the modifier “when they do appear” refers to. This modifier is certainly misplaced.

CHOICE C:

Incorrect:
The modifier “especially if it has worked well in the past” is intended to modify “a course of action”. This is a noun modifier and hence should be placed closer to that noun entity. Since it is placed closer to “incipient trouble”, the antecedent of the pronoun “it” seems ambiguous.

CHOICE D:

Incorrect:
1) In this sentence, “or” is the parallel marker. So we have a list here. The first entity of this list is “to miss”, which is not parallel to the second entity “misinterpreting”.
2) The phrase “Executives’ being heavily committed” is unnecessarily wordy in comparison to other options.
3) Pronoun “them” should logically refer to plural “executives”, but it cannot do so because “executives’” has been used as an adjective.
CHOICE E:

Correct:
1) This choice correctly uses “Being” as a noun that has the correct verb.
2) All the modifiers are places and worded correctly to convey the intended meaning of the sentence
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2016, 09:15

Argument means that:

- Those executive, who are committed to a course of action....
- ...specially, a course of action that worked in past
- Makes the executive vulnerable and executive would miss signs of trouble or misinterpret the signs, when they appear

In A, the word 'it' in especially if it has worked well in the pas is not making clear what it refers to. Is it Executive or course of action
In B, the part makes missing signs of incipient trouble says that the executive commits an action (and that action is missing signs)
In C, the part especially if it has worked well in the past, it logically refers to signs. Wrong because of logical error and also plurality i.e signs (plural) and it (singular)
In D, the part makes them likely to has no referrant. Executives' is not the referrant as, the word is Executives' and not Executives
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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04 Nov 2016, 02:29
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

In A, after come we have 'makes it likely..... 'it' refers to 'heavy commitment'.....'heavy commitment' can not miss sign.....Subject-verb mismatch.... out
In B, after comma we have 'makes missing signs.....'An executive' 'makes missing signs'.........A person misses signs not makes missing signs.......out
In D, after comma we have 'makes them likely......'Executives' being heavily committed' the subject is 'being heavily committed' (for example: 'Ram's umbrella', the subject is 'umbrella')
'them' cannot refer to 'being heavily committed'....out

In C, An executive...............is likely..............do appear, (so far good)
but, in the next part, what does 'it' refers to?
'it' does not refers to any of the nouns. Out

So, E is correct

'Being' is considered highly avoidable, but when ' being' is an integral part of noun phrase, it is good.

In A, 'it' refers to
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2017, 06:44
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

A
- "makes it likely..": what is it referring to? No clear antecedent.

B
An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear

- An executive does not make any missing sign: Meaning distorted.
- makes is not parallel with misinterpreting

C
- "..especially if it has worked well in the past." : This modifier is incorrectly modifying appear; it should try to modify course of action - we need to look for an option where this modifier is next to course of action.

D
- "Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, <modifier>, makes them likely to miss.." What is them referring to? Executives? Executives' is a possessive noun, which is in fact not a noun.

E
- Modifier "especially one that has worked well in the past" correctly appears next to course of action, which it is modifying
- miss || misinterpret: correct parallelism
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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02 May 2017, 21:26
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
--> correct.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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12 May 2017, 09:45
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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear---- 1. if it …. it may refer to heavy commitment or the course 2. makes it … it refers perhaps to commitment or course or action -- no clear referent for 'it'.

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear. --- unparallel around the fanboy 'or'

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past. --- if it has …it may refer to course or action or trouble. No clarity.

D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear. -- 1. no clear referent for 'it' as usual 2. makes them-- 'them' refers to executives but there is no 'executives', only 'executives' is there 3. 'misinterpreting is unparallel with 'miss'. misinterpreting "them" -- them refers to signs - error of one pronoun referring to two different nouns in one clause.

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. ----- Correct choice. Being as part of a substantive noun is acceptable. 'them' refers to signs.

A nice question on pronoun reference; also brings out a rare instance in which 'being' is accepted as a correct expression in GMAT

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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12 May 2017, 10:31
I go with E.

Strangely enough, I always make a note of "being", and more often than not, I find A/C that contain that word are wrong. However, this is why I selected "E" here:

E. [Being heavily committed to a course of action = modifier], [especially one that has worked well in the past = modifier], is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
- Note: the EXECUTIVE is clearly either (a) missing signs of something; or (b) misinterpreting something. Both are in the same tense, and obviously linked to the Executive.

I was only considering "B" or "C" in addition to "E"

B: An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
-- Does the course of action make missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely OR is it the executive who does these verbs?

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
-- "it" is singular but the A/C is talking about two things: either "miss signs of incipient trouble" or "misinterpret signs of incipient trouble"
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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12 May 2017, 23:55
souvik101990 wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 776
Page: 704

Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

First Glance

The entire sentence is underlined. Keep an eye out for Structure, Meaning, Modifier, Parallelism.

Issues

(1) Pronoun: it; them; ones

The original sentence uses the pronoun it (twice!). Check the antecedents for the pronouns found throughout the answers.

In answer (A), the first it refers to the course of action. The second it, though, is a dummy pronoun; it doesn't refer to any particular noun in the sentence. While a dummy pronoun is acceptable in general, the two instances of it don't refer to the same thing. This is considered ambiguous. Likewise, in answer (D), the first instance of them refers to the executives; the second refers to the signs. Eliminate answers (A) and (D) for ambiguity.

Answer (B) changes them to ones. The pronoun ones does still refer to signs, but it refers to different signs. For example: Ava likes most cats, but she finds the ones owned by her next-door neighbour annoying.

The ones are still cats, but they are not the same cats mentioned in the first half of the sentence. The original sentence talks about the same signs, so the meaning in answer (B) is illogical.

Further, in (B), the modifier following ones (likely when they do appear) now applies only to the second set of signs, in the same way that the modifier in Ava's sentence (owned by her next-door neighbour) applies only to the second set of cats. Eliminate answer (B).

In answer (C), the pronoun it seems refer to the closest preceding singular noun, trouble. The trouble has worked well in the past? That's illogical. Because the pronoun it is acting as a subject, the next logical place to check is the subject of the preceding clause: an executive. An executive, though, can't be an it. the logical noun, course of action, is so buried in the early part of the sentence that you may actually have to re-read the sentence in order to find the right noun. Another ambiguous pronoun! Eliminate answer (C).

Meaning

The original sentence conveys a certain meaning: when someone commits heavily to a certain course of action, that person might then overlook signs that this course of action isn't a good idea after all. Check the sentence core:

(A) Heavy commitment makes it likely to miss
(B) An executive makes missing signs likely
(C) An executive is likely to miss signs
(D) Being heavily committed makes them likely to miss signs
(E) Being heavily committed is likely to make an executive miss signs

Answers (A), (C), (D), and (E) all contain logical meanings. Answers (B), though, is problematic. The executive doesn't make this phenomenon likely to happen; rather, heavy commitment to a course of action makes it likely that the executive will miss something. Eliminate answer (B).

(3) Parallelism: X or Y

The sentence contains the parallelism marker or. Check for the correct X or Y parallel structure.

In answer (D), the sentence says makes them likely to miss signs or misinterpreting them. The X form is in the infinitive; the Y form is a participle. Eliminate answer (D) for lack of parallelism.

Correct answer (E) conveys an unambiguous meaning (The act of being heavily committed makes an executive likely to miss certain signs) and does not contain any ambiguous pronouns.

Note: The correct answer ends up using the oft-maligned word being. Don't cross off an answer simply because it contains the word being!
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action,  [#permalink]

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13 May 2017, 02:00
souvik101990 wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

From Ron (Manhattan GMAT Instructor)

Quote:
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

* "heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action" is awkward and difficult to read. (You may have to be a native speaker to pick up on this, though)

Much more importantly:

* makes it likely to miss...* (This doesn't work.)

Technically, this would mean that "it" - an unspecified entity - is likely to miss the signs.

If you use the "it is ADJ..." construction, and the verb has a specific subject, you MUST include that subject in the construction. It is likely that the executive will miss...

Quote:
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action ... makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

I've eliminated the modifier in this sentence, simplifying its structure a bit.

Once that modifier is eliminated, notice that you have a sentence that says that the executive him/herself makes missing the signs likely.

"misinterpreting ones" is also wrong. this should be "them", not "ones".

"an executive ... makes xxxx unlikely". That's nonsense; it's the exective's excessive commitment that makes certain undesirable things likely.

"Them" = the same things/people that were mentioned previously. I.e., the use of them specifically indicates that you are NOT further narrowing the group.

"Ones" = used ONLY with a modifier/description that further narrows the group.

E.g., All of the houses were damaged, except the ones farthest from the shoreline.

In most of these cases, "those" can be used instead of "the ones", so, honestly, you won't see "the ones" very often. You'll only see it if it would be impossible (or extremely awkward) to use "those"

e.g., Leather jackets are expensive in general, but the most expensive ones can cost as much as new cars.

"being" is a gerund (= NOUN type -ing form).
In fact, "being committed" is the subject of this sentence!

i.e., here "being heavily committed" is like Swimming is fun.

That's a complete sentence -- "swimming" is a noun (gerund). Since it's a noun, it's not modifying anything.

You should avoid "being" when expressing the IDENTITY or CHARACTERISTICS of some individual or thing.

_________________

"Be challenged at EVERY MOMENT."

“Strength doesn’t come from what you can do. It comes from overcoming the things you once thought you couldn’t.”

"Each stage of the journey is crucial to attaining new heights of knowledge."

Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, &nbs [#permalink] 13 May 2017, 02:00

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