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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2013, 04:49
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Pull up the answer choices as you read this
POE and lets see if we can "50/50" this

Easy eliminations
A-although you shouldn't really look at pronoun ambiguity as one of the first things (it shoul be one of the last in my experience) for me pronoun ambiguity is really blatant especially after 'it' is reused multiple times with multiple singular nouns that could take 'its' place. Also the clause ‘makes it likely to miss signs of incipient’ implies that an action is something sentient (which it isn't) makes it (the action) unlikely to see ‘trouble and misintepret’. The executive should be doing this. A person sees, a dog sees, actions definitely do NOT see and they don't miss seeing something either. So original sentence is wrong in meaning and grammar

B-makes signs likely (opposite of meaning) also ‘likely’ is modifying a noun ‘missing’. Noun modifiers, unlike verb modifiers should be closer to what they are modifying (‘missing’)

D- ‘executives’ being heavily committed’ is a noun…’makes them likely’. Commitment dosn't make anything likely or unlikely, an executive/his actions do. Wrong

Now C vs E:

C- What is that final hanging modifier modifying. What is the especially modifying? It is an adverbial modifier, modifying 'something'= the entire clause before it. This means that the final 'especially' clause incorrectly implies the missing signs and intepretations have 'worked well in the past'


E nothing wrong gramatically, a little wordy, but doesn't have any meaning or modifier errors

Hoped it helped

Key takeaways: Look at the meaning of the sentence. What is the pronoun and demonstrative in a sentence (that, which, it) referring firstly in meaning and then in grammar. What are modifiers such as 'likely' 'especially' modifying, and what type of modifiers are they (since this dictates how close they should be to the modified). Always start big and go small. Look at the meaning of the sentence first THEN work out kinks and ambiguities with the grammar

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2013, 14:29
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marine wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.


HI,...this is really a good one,
i will share how i approached this one.
normally i used to do i used to keep aside the options having being assuming that 90% of times they are wrong (dont take it as a fact ,its just my experience),but never completely avoid those but if yu find no error in any of the other option you can neglect the option having "being"
so lets start now.

MEANING:
When a executive is heavily commited to a course of action
this action has worked well in the past
then in this situation EXECUTIVE is likely to miss...A and B.

SOME THEORY TO MUG UP:
whenever a phrase acts as a subject of a clause then it can be singular or plural, and to identify this just ask WHETHER I CAN DO THIS?
If ANSWER comes YES then VERB is SINGULAR.
If ANSWER comes NO then VERB is PLURAL.
now lets try on some example.
EXAMPLE
Growing children need extra energy.
(Ask can i grow children ===>NO hence plural verb "need".

Planting trees is a good idea.
(Ask can i plant trees =====> YES Hence Singular verb "is".

Stunning shots were played.
(ask can i stun shots====>NO hence plural verb "were".
Having good friends is a wonderful thing.
(ask can i have good friends====>YES hence singular verb "is".

Now come to the options:

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.( As per the meaning executives is likely to miss ...but here "it" is likely to miss....which can refer to an executive hence INCORRECT.)
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.(Here again the meaning is changed as it is saying that executive makes missing siggn....which is wrong plus the structure is awkward hence INCORRECT.)
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.(In this there is a modifier error===>especially if it has worked well in the past ====> this is supposed to modify " action" and ACTION is a noun so modifier should touch the modifying noung,hence INCORRECT)
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.(In this "Them " as per the meaning is refering to executives but it is in the possesive case "executives' hence this wrong. plus there is a parallelism error too hence INCORRECT.)
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.(correct )

hope it helps

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New post 28 Apr 2013, 00:11
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This is a great (and rare) case of 'being' used correctly in a GMAT sentence. It can happen...

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New post 11 Sep 2013, 23:24
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I myself not favor rejection of 'being' just like that.

BEING is VERBING of the verb BE.

My query pertains to FACT that although option (C). as unclear pronoun antecedent for "IT", I found (E). not interesting either because 'BEING' is an INITIAL MODIFIER and should modify the following subject , but the sentence doesn't have a following subject.

Being heavily committed to a course of action,is likely to make an

Who is BEING HEAVILY COMMITTED ???

I know we have to take best option in SC. However, a discussion will enhance our knowledge and what GMAC thinks :)

Plz advise !!

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New post 14 Sep 2013, 09:53
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HarishLearner wrote:
I chose E, and it is the correct one.

By the way, in D, is there an apostrophe in the word "Executives"?

C should be rejected because of "it" being ambiguous.

D has no ambiguity problem, but the construction is so awkward.


There is an apostrophe on Executives' in answer choice D. 'Being heavily committed to a course of action' is a noun phrase and it is the executives who are heavily committed so we use the possessive form of executives - 'Executive's being heavily committed'. This is probably more easily seen if we use a simpler construction - "Executives' heavy commitment". The 'heavy commitment' is the noun and executives needs the possessive.

The real problem with D is the antecedent shift with "them". The first "them" refers back to executives but the second "them" refers to signs. You can't shift antecedents with pronouns in the same sentence.

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New post 13 May 2016, 11:54
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anuj4012 wrote:
In option C, why the use of "it" is incorrect? Course of action is the only logical antecedent to it, replacing it with trouble does not makes sense.


Hi Anuj,

Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

The reason why the pronoun it appears to be ambiguous in Choice C is that apart from course of action, trouble is another singular pronoun in the sentence even though it is not the logical antecedent of it.

However, this is not the error that makes choice C incorrect. Choice C is incorrect because the modifier especially if it has worked well in the past must be placed next to the a course of action.

Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: QOTD: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action  [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2017, 20:16
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Another example for the correct usage of "being" from GMATPrep.

https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-survival-of-coral-colonies-which-are-composed-of-135059.html#p330537

The survival of coral colonies, which are composed of innumerable tiny polyps living in a symbiotic relationship with brilliantly colored algae, is being threatened, experts say, not only by pollutants such as agricultural runoff, oil slicks, and trash, but also by dropped anchors, probing divers, and global warming.
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Re: QOTD: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2017, 15:04
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Quote:
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

Also to note: miss signs and misinterpreting them are terribly unparallel - this is also an example of how GMAT pushes multiple errors in long complicated sentences such as these.


Yes! Totally with you on this, souvik101990 -- and actually, I'm a wee bit embarrassed that I didn't mention it in my explanation. Always grateful for these additions and clarifications. :-D

Quote:
Does the construction 'An executive.......makes misinterpreting ones/them' work? please ignore the problem of 'ones'. I find the construction somehow strange.

I think it could be

'An executive.......makes misinterpretation of ones/them'

What do you think


I think that construction would still have some logical problems. I think we'd have to be clear about who, exactly, is misinterpreting those signs. If we say "An executive who is committed to a course of action makes misinterpretation of signs likely when they do appear", the meaning still isn't great. Who is doing the misinterpreting here? It's not grammatically wrong, exactly, but something like answer choice (E) makes more sense, since it clarifies that the executive is the one missing the signs.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2017, 09:48
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Harshani wrote:
Can we reject A, C, D on the basis of incorrect usage of if, then conditional verb?
I mean, don't we have to have a then clause for every "if" clause?

In this sentence, it is written as
"especially if it has worked well". There is no "then clause" after it.

Please advise on this point.



Hello Harshani,

I would be glad to help you with this query. :-)

We need a then clause with an if clause when the intended meaning is to say If A happens, then B happens.

However, the context of this sentence is slightly different from what I have mentioned above.

In a way the main clause acts as the then clause for the if clause mentioned in this official sentence. Simple put, the sentence says that if a course of action has worked well for someone in the past, then heavy commitment towards the same makes the person miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

Hence, there is no error in the usage of if clause in Choices A, C, and D.


Hope this helps. :-)
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Video explanation :

https://gmat.magoosh.com/forum/3495-hea ... utive-to-a
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2019, 13:08
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Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one problem at at time, and narrow it down to the correct choice! To begin, let's take a closer look at the original question, and highlight any major differences we spot in orange:

Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

After a quick glance over the options, we have a few areas we can focus on. However, this is a question where the entire sentence is underlined, so we need to treat this differently than we do other questions! Whenever you see a question with the entire sentence underlined, there are a few areas you should pay attention to first to narrow down your options:

1. Modifiers
2. Parallelism
3. Meaning
4. Structure


Let's start with #3 on our list: meaning. There is also another glaring difference we see throughout each of the options: PRONOUNS! There are a LOT of pronouns in these sentences, so let's do a quick check to make sure all the pronouns have clear antecedents, and rule out any that don't:

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

first "it" = refers to "course of action" --> OK
second "it" = doesn't refer to anything, so we call this a "dummy pronoun" --> WRONG
"them" = refers to "signs of incipient trouble" --> OK

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

"one" = unclear; could refer to either "An executive" or "a course of action" --> WRONG
"ones" = misleading; changes meaning from referring to "signs of incipient trouble" to some other signs we haven't mentioned yet --> WRONG

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

"they" = unclear; could refer to "An executive," "a course of action," or "signs of incipient trouble" --> WRONG
"it" = refers back to "a course of action" --> OK

D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

"it" = refers to "a course of action" --> OK
first "them" = refers to "Executives" --> WRONG (see below)
second "them" = refers to "signs" --> WRONG (see below)

So why are both "them" pronouns wrong? Because placing two of the same pronoun so close together is confusing to readers. It's too ambiguous which "them" is referring to which antecedent. Yes, you could do the hard work and figure it out, but reading shouldn't require the reader to do the heavy lifting.

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

"one" = refers to "a course of action" --> OK
"them" = refers to "signs of incipient trouble" --> OK

Well there you have it - option E is the correct choice! It's the only sentence that used clear pronouns.


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New post 15 Apr 2019, 08:21
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Any verb+ing such as 'singing or 'sleeping' that starts a sentence and followed by its doer and its subject is indeed proper modification and is accepted as grammatical except in the case of 'being'. In the case of 'being' that is used as a participle and modifier, the usage is said to be bad in style, redundant and taboo.

However, 'being' used as a part of progressive tense along with another helping verb such as 'is being', or 'are being' is ok. In addition, 'being' used as a gerund in a subject phrase and immediately followed by its verb is also ok.

The takeaway: 'Being' used as part of 'a subject' or ' a verb' is ok, but as a 'participle' or ' modifier' it is not okay.
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New post 15 Apr 2019, 08:37
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susmitha2110 wrote:
i eliminated E , based on comma-subject rule. "Being heavily committed to a course of action, executives......" isn't this the correct form?

Can anyone please shed some light on this.
I'm not sure what the "comma-subject rule" is, but here the being is actually the subject of the sentence.

Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
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New post 07 May 2019, 19:56
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Raxit85 wrote:
Thanks for prompt response.

But how can one easily identify that -ing form (at the very beginning of the sentence) works as a gerund or modifier??
We could identify the main verb and then take a call on what its subject is. Some patterns we could watch out for:

1. Being, clause ← This being could be the type of modifier (participle) at the very beginning of the sentence that needs the logical noun after the comma.

2. Being verb ← But if we don't have a comma, the being could be the subject of the sentence.

3. Being, modifier, verb ← When we have a modifier in between two commas, those commas don't exist as far as the being and the verb are concerned (Being, modifier, verb), so (3) is just a variation of (2).
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New post 18 Aug 2005, 01:24
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okdongdong wrote:
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.


This is the first post I've seen with so many different member answers. I wanna be part of the madness, so I pick E :-D
===============
(A) "Heavy commitment" is the subject, so it sounds as if the "commitment" has worked well in the past, and not the "course of action". The last part of the sentence is impersonal, so it not clear that the executive is the one who misses and misinterpets signs - rather it sounds as if the "heavy commitment" (the subject) misses signs.

(B) It is not clear whether the executive or the course of action has been successful in the past. The excetutive is the subject, so it sounds as if she is the one who "makes missing signs...". This choice is completely messed up as a whole.

(C) A very nasty split... The executive is the subject and I'm left with the impression that the final part of the sentence refers to her. The "do" in "when they do appear" is out of place.

(D) Just plain wrong. The most obvious problem is that there is no parallelism between "to miss signs" and "misinterpreting them". "They" at the end of the sentence doesn't have a clear referent.

(E) I think it's the best statement. "Being" is a kinda bad start, but everything has a clear referent and we know who's doing the action.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2005, 05:15
E, Are you guys kidding me..

You have a participle phrase, modifying a noun One.......

What is "Being heavily committed to a course of action", is it modifying. Nearest noun, Which is "One "....
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New post 25 Mar 2013, 15:08
You can see a video explanation here: http://www.gmatpill.com/gmat-practice-t ... stion/2177

Note that usage of "who" in B and C is OK - the issue lies more in the structure of the remaining sentence.

(B) says that "an executive" makes "missing signs of incipient trouble" - which doesn't make sense.

With (C) - the phrase

"especially if it has worked well in the past."

We don't know what "it" refers to here. If anything - "it" should "they" - but even so the meaning of what follows doesn't make sense with the first half of (C).
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New post 30 Aug 2013, 10:08
vasild wrote:
Ritesh, I actually believe that "Being heavily committed to a course of action" in E serves as a noun phrase and as a subject, not as a modifier.

(The state of) being heavily comitted is likely to cause ...


Yes - that's the way to think about the usage of "being" - add the words "the state of" or "the act of" in front of it and see if it makes sense.

This is a good example of when the usage of the word "being" is actually used in the correct answer of a GMAT question. Most of the time, we call it a "red flag" word - it's not necessarily wrong, but you should look elsewhere first.

But this question fits the rare situation that would allow the usage of "being" to be correct.

You can see more details about "being" as a red flag word - and specific situations in which it is actually correct by looking at this PDF: http://www.gmatpill.com/ebook/GMATPill- ... atclub.pdf

Also, we've posted a video explanation for this question here (click show answer): http://www.gmatpill.com/gmat-practice-t ... stion/2177
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2013, 23:37
I chose E, and it is the correct one.

By the way, in D, is there an apostrophe in the word "Executives"?

C should be rejected because of "it" being ambiguous.

D has no ambiguity problem, but the construction is so awkward.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if   [#permalink] 11 Sep 2013, 23:37

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