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# Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if

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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 20 Jan 2020, 23:16
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Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

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Originally posted by marine on 23 Sep 2004, 15:48.
Last edited by Bunuel on 20 Jan 2020, 23:16, edited 2 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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14 May 2017, 21:34
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This is one of the OG questions that causes the most trouble, partly because a lot of GMAT test-takers have an (occasionally incorrect) impulse to automatically eliminate any answer choice with the word "being."

But we'll get to that. Let's take these buggers in order:

Quote:
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

That second "it" is the big problem here: "makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble..." I suppose that "it" could refer to "heavy commitment" or "course of action", but neither of those would make any sense. (A) is gone.

Quote:
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

This is fairly subtle, but the subject doesn't make a whole lot of sense with the main verb here. "An executive... makes missing signs of incipient trouble... likely when they do appear." The pronoun "they" is OK, but it doesn't make logical sense to say that "an executive makes missing signs of trouble likely..." Also, I see no good reason use "ones" here -- in theory, "ones" would refer to very specific signs of trouble, and there's no good reason to use "ones" when a simple "them" would work. (B) is gone.

Quote:
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

The "it" is a problem here: "it" generally refers to the nearest singular noun. In this case, "it" would seem to refer to "trouble," and that doesn't make a whole lot of sense. "Course of action" would work, but that's much farther back in the sentence.

To be fair, ambiguous pronouns aren't always wrong on the GMAT, so if you want to be conservative, you could keep (C) for now. But as we'll see in a moment, (E) is a much better option.

Quote:
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

"Them" is trying to refer back to a possessive pronoun, "executives'", and that's wrong on the GMAT. Non-possessive pronouns (they, them, he, she, it) can't refer back to possessive nouns on the GMAT. So (D) is gone.

Quote:
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

There are lots of pronoun issues in the other answer choices, but we're all good with (E): the ambiguous "it" we saw in (C) isn't here at all, and "them" and "they" very clearly refer to "signs of incipient trouble." The subject "being heavily committed to a course of action" works nicely with the main verb phrase ("is likely to make an executive miss signs of trouble..."), so (E) is an upgrade from (B).

That leaves "being" as the only reasonable objection to (E). But "being" is absolutely fine here: it's just a noun, also known as a gerund in this case. "Being" is no different than any other gerund. So (E) is our answer.

Please see last Monday's Topic of the Week for more on gerunds and other "-ing" words on the GMAT: https://gmatclub.com/forum/experts-topi ... 39780.html.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2005, 23:15
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A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
- second 'it' has no clear referent

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
- sentence logically wrong. 'makes missing signs...." is awkward and changes the meaning of the sentence

D. Executivesâ€™ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
- Out. Executives' being --> awkward construction.

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
- 'who' introduces heavily commmitted to a course of action (modifying executive). 'they' modifies signs correctly (plural). But 'it' again has no clear referent (is it pointing to trouble or action)

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

Between C and E I'll pick E.
##### General Discussion
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2005, 11:58
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4
Why did eveybody think E is wrong? - Is that because it uses "being"?

Here "Being heavily committed " is used as a Gerund just as the Gerund Sleeping in the following sentence.

"Sleeping at work is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear."

which is correct.

OA is E
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2004, 23:06
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'especially worked well in the past' is redundant. It's simply there to describe the course of action. So we can narrow down the sentence to:

Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

E seems to be the best of the lot in correcting this sentence. Again, removing 'especialy worked well in the past' gives us

Being heavily committed to a course of action is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. --> 'They' modifies signs of trouble

E for me.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2012, 04:06
6
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
first step is to understand the logical meaning of the sentence, so let's break the sentence
Heavy commitment by an executive to something(a course of action) will make him likely to miss signs of trouble.....thus the state of being heavily committed is causing the individual to miss signs of.... when they do reappear
gmatpunjabi wrote:
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

especially if it has worked well in the past....IT here is an ambiguous pronoun, it mat refer to heavy commitment or executive or course of action

makes it likely....it has ambiguous antecedent, it may refer to executive( being closer than Heavy commitment) or Heavy commitment

gmatpunjabi wrote:
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

awkward( rather qualifies for the example of awkward sentences...

gmatpunjabi wrote:
C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

It's not the executive is likely to miss but it's the heavy commitment which is making him miss( that's what the original sentence meant to say)

gmatpunjabi wrote:
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

them has no antecedent as Executives’ is in possessive form...poorly written

gmatpunjabi wrote:
E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
correct
also one thing to note that being is not always incorrect...

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2005, 05:45
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Ritesh, I actually believe that "Being heavily committed to a course of action" in E serves as a noun phrase and as a subject, not as a modifier.

(The state of) being heavily comitted is likely to cause ...
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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13 May 2017, 14:51
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souvik101990 wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 776
Page: 704

Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

First Glance

The entire sentence is underlined. Keep an eye out for Structure, Meaning, Modifier, Parallelism.

Issues

(1) Pronoun: it; them; ones

The original sentence uses the pronoun it (twice!). Check the antecedents for the pronouns found throughout the answers.

In answer (A), the first it refers to the course of action. The second it, though, is a dummy pronoun; it doesn't refer to any particular noun in the sentence. While a dummy pronoun is acceptable in general, the two instances of it don't refer to the same thing. This is considered ambiguous. Likewise, in answer (D), the first instance of them refers to the executives; the second refers to the signs. Eliminate answers (A) and (D) for ambiguity.

Answer (B) changes them to ones. The pronoun ones does still refer to signs, but it refers to different signs. For example: Ava likes most cats, but she finds the ones owned by her next-door neighbour annoying.

The ones are still cats, but they are not the same cats mentioned in the first half of the sentence. The original sentence talks about the same signs, so the meaning in answer (B) is illogical.

Further, in (B), the modifier following ones (likely when they do appear) now applies only to the second set of signs, in the same way that the modifier in Ava's sentence (owned by her next-door neighbour) applies only to the second set of cats. Eliminate answer (B).

In answer (C), the pronoun it seems refer to the closest preceding singular noun, trouble. The trouble has worked well in the past? That's illogical. Because the pronoun it is acting as a subject, the next logical place to check is the subject of the preceding clause: an executive. An executive, though, can't be an it. the logical noun, course of action, is so buried in the early part of the sentence that you may actually have to re-read the sentence in order to find the right noun. Another ambiguous pronoun! Eliminate answer (C).

Meaning

The original sentence conveys a certain meaning: when someone commits heavily to a certain course of action, that person might then overlook signs that this course of action isn't a good idea after all. Check the sentence core:

(A) Heavy commitment makes it likely to miss
(B) An executive makes missing signs likely
(C) An executive is likely to miss signs
(D) Being heavily committed makes them likely to miss signs
(E) Being heavily committed is likely to make an executive miss signs

Answers (A), (C), (D), and (E) all contain logical meanings. Answers (B), though, is problematic. The executive doesn't make this phenomenon likely to happen; rather, heavy commitment to a course of action makes it likely that the executive will miss something. Eliminate answer (B).

(3) Parallelism: X or Y

The sentence contains the parallelism marker or. Check for the correct X or Y parallel structure.

In answer (D), the sentence says makes them likely to miss signs or misinterpreting them. The X form is in the infinitive; the Y form is a participle. Eliminate answer (D) for lack of parallelism.

Correct answer (E) conveys an unambiguous meaning (The act of being heavily committed makes an executive likely to miss certain signs) and does not contain any ambiguous pronouns.

Note: The correct answer ends up using the oft-maligned word being. Don't cross off an answer simply because it contains the word being!
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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25 Apr 2013, 06:20
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A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. ---- Especially if it--- What does - it - denote? Commitment or action? Ambiguity –Antecedent and meaning of second - it - is also suspect. What does it likely make to miss signs?

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear. ---- How to make missing signs – really funny.

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past. --- The choice first says – signs and they – a plural noun and pronoun and in the next breath calls it in the singular- it -

D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear. ---Executives’ being – rather awkward; No proper antecedent for them; first them must refer to executives, which is not there and the second – them- by logic should refer to the signs. A pronoun having two referents is ungrammatical

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. __- being as part of a subject phrase is acceptable since we cannot form the subject without the being. Being is taboo, only when it is superfluous and dispensable.

E is the king.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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13 May 2017, 14:50
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souvik101990 wrote:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

D. Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

From Ron (Manhattan GMAT Instructor)

Quote:
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

* "heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action" is awkward and difficult to read. (You may have to be a native speaker to pick up on this, though)

Much more importantly:

* makes it likely to miss...* (This doesn't work.)

Technically, this would mean that "it" - an unspecified entity - is likely to miss the signs.

If you use the "it is ADJ..." construction, and the verb has a specific subject, you MUST include that subject in the construction. It is likely that the executive will miss...

Quote:
B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action ... makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

I've eliminated the modifier in this sentence, simplifying its structure a bit.

Once that modifier is eliminated, notice that you have a sentence that says that the executive him/herself makes missing the signs likely.

"misinterpreting ones" is also wrong. this should be "them", not "ones".

"an executive ... makes xxxx unlikely". That's nonsense; it's the exective's excessive commitment that makes certain undesirable things likely.

"Them" = the same things/people that were mentioned previously. I.e., the use of them specifically indicates that you are NOT further narrowing the group.

"Ones" = used ONLY with a modifier/description that further narrows the group.

E.g., All of the houses were damaged, except the ones farthest from the shoreline.

In most of these cases, "those" can be used instead of "the ones", so, honestly, you won't see "the ones" very often. You'll only see it if it would be impossible (or extremely awkward) to use "those"

e.g., Leather jackets are expensive in general, but the most expensive ones can cost as much as new cars.

"being" is a gerund (= NOUN type -ing form).
In fact, "being committed" is the subject of this sentence!

i.e., here "being heavily committed" is like Swimming is fun.

That's a complete sentence -- "swimming" is a noun (gerund). Since it's a noun, it's not modifying anything.

You should avoid "being" when expressing the IDENTITY or CHARACTERISTICS of some individual or thing.

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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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14 May 2017, 10:00
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A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. 'it' is not referring to anything.

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear. It changes the meaning. It is trying to say that executive makes missing sign, but as per the meaning it is teh commitment, which is making him miss signs.

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past. This modifier is too far from commitment or course of action. Hence, not a strong answer choice. We will keep this if we donot find anything better.

D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear. Blunder. Such constructions are almost always incorrect on GMAT.

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. Correct answer choice.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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24 May 2010, 05:12
3
1
I think I have seen it before. IMO E.

Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

(A) Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
It - no clear referrent (commitment or action)
Similarly for THEM. After removing the middleman, sentence looks awkward:
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
Who is to miss the signs? Incorrect.

(B) An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

Similar to A. No clear referrent for ONE. Remove the middleman:
An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

Exec misses the signs or makes missing signs. Meaning is modified. Incorrect.

(C) An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

especially if it has worked well in the past is misplaced modifier. It should be adjacent to the action, the noun being modified. Incorrect.

(D) Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

Executives’ being - incorrect usage.
THEM is incorrectly used for possesive [i]Executives’ being
. Incorrect.[/i]

(E) Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

Though, we have BEING used here, but still rest of the part are correct as per usage. Let's remove the middleman:
Being heavily committed to a course of action is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

Correct.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2005, 16:53
2
4
Agree with (C)..

An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

who is heavily commited to a course of action --> executive
to miss or misinterpret --> parallel structure
signs --> they
course (of action) --> it

(A): suffers from 3 problems::
1. first "it" has 2 referrent a) Heavy Commitment b) course of action
2. second "it" has same problem. Two referrent.
3. Passive construction:: "Heavy commitment by executives"

(B): An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

one --> course of action

(B) also have multiple problems:
(B) conveys:: 1. executive makes missing signs or 2) executive makes misinterpreting course of action.

(D): 3 problems:
1. "it" refers to --> "being heavily commited to a course of action" instead of course of action.
2. to miss sign or misinterpreting (Not Parallel)
3. "being" is not prefered.

(E):
1. Passive construction
2. being is used.

I have a question here:
Is especially used here to introduce a Non-restrictive clause? Means is it used as a conjunction here? Am I correct??

Please feel free to correct me...
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2009, 18:12
2
Dear All,

This question is #101 of the 12th ed OG, and the official explanation can be found at page 736.

This sentence explains that an executive who is blindly committed to a proven course of action is likely to overlook or misinterpret indicators that the plan may no longer be working. The sentence needs to make clear who may misinterpret these indicators.

(A) The passive construction causes the sentence to be wordy and confusing; the reference for it is ambiguous, leaving hte reader with questions about who or what is likely to miss these signs.

(B) The sentence structure indicates that the executive,not his or her strategy, causes signs to be overlooked; the modifier when they do appear is misplaced.

(C) The reference for the pronoun it is unclear because many nouns have intervened between the appearance of the logical referent (course of action) and it.

(D) Misinterpreting should be an infinitive verb form to parallel miss; the phrasing throughout the sentence is wordy and akward.

(E) Correct. The grammatical structure of this sentence and the appropriate palcement of modifiers expreses the meaning clearly and concisely.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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24 Jan 2010, 14:26
2
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of
action, especially if it has worked well in the past,
makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or
misinterpret them when they do appear.
(A) Heavy commitment by an executive to a course
of action, especially if it has worked well in the
past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient
trouble or misinterpret them when they do
appear.
pronoun it is ambigious... INCORRECT

(B) An executive who is heavily committed to a
course of action, especially one that worked well
in the past, makes missing signs of incipient
trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they
do appear.
'makes missing signs of incipient trouble'..... not correct...

(C) An executive who is heavily committed to a
course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret
signs of incipient trouble when they do appear,
especially if it has worked well in the past.
again.... it is not clear... executive or action....

(D) Executives’ being heavily committed to a course
of action, especially if it has worked well in the
past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient
trouble or misinterpreting them when they do
appear.
Executives...... the question was for an executive....

(E) Being heavily committed to a course of action,
especially one that has worked well in the past,
'one that' refers to action correctly

is likely to make an executive miss signs of
incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they
do appear
'they refers to signs correctly
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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26 May 2010, 07:20
2
(C) An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.

My 2 cents:
1. especially if it has worked well in the past is misplaced modifier. It should be adjacent to the action, the noun being modified.

2. There is no clear referrent for it: incipient trouble OR a course of action

3. If you read closely, you will find that the meaning comes out as:
A heavily commited executive will miss the signs of trouble. This is not the stated meaning of original sentence. The original sentence shows that the heavy commitment makes an exec to miss signs...

So, C is Incorrect. Hope you get these concepts.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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01 May 2015, 23:24
2
A. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
Unclear whether 'It' refers to Commitment or Action
Also doesn't mention who is likely to miss signs.

B. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
Ambiguous & change of menaing conveyed by original sentence

C. An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
Unclear whether 'It' refers to Trouble or Action

D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
Incorrect construction

E. Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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13 May 2017, 17:33
2
The subject of the action "makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear" is the "Executive". Hence looking at the answer choices we can narrow down to C and E (as in the rest of the options the sentence illogically refers to entities other than the executive or the structure changes the meaning). In option C there is a misplaced modifier as "especially if it has worked well in the past" should be placed close to "course of action". Hence the best bet is option E (However I am not a fan of the Being... construction since i thought it was almost always wrong on the GMAT)
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16 May 2017, 02:24
2
D. Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.

Also to note: miss signs and misinterpreting them are terribly unparallel - this is also an example of how GMAT pushes multiple errors in long complicated sentences such as these.
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Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if  [#permalink]

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28 May 2010, 09:03
1
Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
(A) Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. - 'it' has no referent.

(B) An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear. - 'makes missing' is totally awkward. The sentence as a whole makes no sense.

(C) An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past. - The clause after the comma seems hanging.....cant figure out what it is referring to.

(D) Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear. - 'being is a problem here'. 'them' has no referent. "Executives’" is possessive and 'them' is incorrect here.

(E) Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. - Though the word 'Being' is used, the sentence as a whole makes sense. "especially one that has worked well in the past" correctly describes "course of action". executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them (signs) when they (signs) do appear (correct)
Re: Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if   [#permalink] 28 May 2010, 09:03

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