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# Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many

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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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21 Dec 2010, 10:02
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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

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21 Dec 2010, 10:13
IMO, it is B.
"including the following" seems wordy.
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21 Dec 2010, 10:48
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I'd go with A

Thoughts:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
I thought the shorter version was correct as well at first glance. However, the use of colon requires that the first clause is indepedent.

A slight modification,
"Heightened land erosion has many negative effects including."

Compare with

"Heightened land erosion has many negative effects including the following."

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21 Dec 2010, 11:17
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The basic essence of the use of colon is that the preceding clause lying before the mark, should not leave an inkling of incompleteness. It should stand by itself but more importantly should not tend to end abruptly in meaning before the colon and should not lean on the list for completing the meaning. Thus it becomes essential, wordy though, to use the word 'following'. B and C therefore fall by the wayside.

Among A, D and E, D breaks the sense of llism by using an absolute phrase ‘ harmful chemicals entering’ in the fourth arm of the list.
E distorts the meaning in trying to define imbalance of fish population in a weird way.

Maintaining perfect llism, A stands out as the eligible choice, IMO.
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21 Dec 2010, 12:11
A... OA pls ? , but this usage of following after colon is really offering new prespective
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21 Dec 2010, 19:34
Thanks Daagh and Mackieman. New insights with just a couple of Days left for my D-Day.

Now i have to look into punctuations once again

hirendhanak - What they both said is the OE and the OA is A
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21 Dec 2010, 19:36
metallicafan wrote:
IMO, it is B.
"including the following" seems wordy.

Thought the same and was surprised when I knew the OA
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03 Jan 2011, 21:44
OA says: The construction of the list in this sentence is incorrect. In a list, the word immediately preceding the colon should rename the items found in the list. Including does not rename the items in the list.

What is the sentence supposed to mean? Pardon, me but I am clueless.
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21 Mar 2011, 12:14
Garimavyas, A and C are almost equal. Why is "the following" necessary?

garimavyas wrote:
mailnavin1 wrote:
Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

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a is error free

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03 Apr 2011, 19:50
Could someone kindly confirm why C is incorrect ?

garimavyas wrote:
mailnavin1 wrote:
Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

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a is error free
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03 Apr 2011, 20:51
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All the options have colons. A colon is typically used to introduce something that follows, such as a list or a quotation.
A colon marks a discontinuity in a sentence with more force than a comma or semicolon.
In C lets say the colon was not there- the sentence would still have been perfect. I have 5 friends including X Y Z A and B.
Use of 'the following' makes the 1st part of the sentence a complete construction gramatically, hence preparing for the discontinuity introduced in the sentence by the use of the colon subsequently.
Also, it prepares the reader that a list is about to be given, which is the indication of the use of colon.
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04 Apr 2011, 00:35
A conveys the same meaning as C with two more words. Still not convinced. Is there any explanation from Ron?
The common sense says use less words when both the options convey same meaning.

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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2012, 13:15
Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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13 May 2012, 23:28
mailnavin1 wrote:
Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

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Can someone help on the usage of "including:" / "including the following:" ... I though A is wordy
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2012, 04:36
Great Explanation Daagh! I was breaking my head what was the difference! Thank U
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2013, 15:06
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2014, 03:05
If the sentence does not contain ':' colon would it be correct to omit the ' the following' then ... I mean including will makes complete sense in that case .. please suggest
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2014, 05:22
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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment - parallellism issue.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment

"including the following: " wrng semi colon usage issue - Source MGMAT - Sentence Correction - Ed . 5 - Chapter 10 and also refer http://academics.smcvt.edu/writingctr/semicolons.htm
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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2015, 23:48
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2015, 10:14
i am still unsure of the additional phrase here "following". It only gets more difficult when you try to make sure that you are not redundant, and then this happens.

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Re: Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many   [#permalink] 20 Aug 2015, 10:14
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