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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many

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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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New post 21 Dec 2010, 10:13
IMO, it is B.
"including the following" seems wordy.
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New post 21 Dec 2010, 10:48
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I'd go with A

Thoughts:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
I thought the shorter version was correct as well at first glance. However, the use of colon requires that the first clause is indepedent.

A slight modification,
"Heightened land erosion has many negative effects including."

Compare with

"Heightened land erosion has many negative effects including the following."

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Re: Heightened land erosion [#permalink]

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New post 21 Dec 2010, 11:17
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The basic essence of the use of colon is that the preceding clause lying before the mark, should not leave an inkling of incompleteness. It should stand by itself but more importantly should not tend to end abruptly in meaning before the colon and should not lean on the list for completing the meaning. Thus it becomes essential, wordy though, to use the word 'following'. B and C therefore fall by the wayside.

Among A, D and E, D breaks the sense of llism by using an absolute phrase ‘ harmful chemicals entering’ in the fourth arm of the list.
E distorts the meaning in trying to define imbalance of fish population in a weird way.

Maintaining perfect llism, A stands out as the eligible choice, IMO.
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New post 21 Dec 2010, 12:11
A... OA pls ? , but this usage of following after colon is really offering new prespective
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New post 21 Dec 2010, 19:34
Thanks Daagh and Mackieman. New insights with just a couple of Days left for my D-Day.

Now i have to look into punctuations once again :-(

hirendhanak - What they both said is the OE and the OA is A
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New post 21 Dec 2010, 19:36
metallicafan wrote:
IMO, it is B.
"including the following" seems wordy.



Thought the same and was surprised when I knew the OA
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Re: Heightened land erosion [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2011, 21:44
OA says: The construction of the list in this sentence is incorrect. In a list, the word immediately preceding the colon should rename the items found in the list. Including does not rename the items in the list.

What is the sentence supposed to mean? Pardon, me but I am clueless.

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New post 21 Mar 2011, 12:14
Garimavyas, A and C are almost equal. Why is "the following" necessary?

garimavyas wrote:
mailnavin1 wrote:
Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

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a is error free

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Re: Heightened land erosion [#permalink]

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New post 03 Apr 2011, 19:50
Could someone kindly confirm why C is incorrect ?

garimavyas wrote:
mailnavin1 wrote:
Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

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a is error free

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Re: Heightened land erosion [#permalink]

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All the options have colons. A colon is typically used to introduce something that follows, such as a list or a quotation.
A colon marks a discontinuity in a sentence with more force than a comma or semicolon.
In C lets say the colon was not there- the sentence would still have been perfect. I have 5 friends including X Y Z A and B.
Use of 'the following' makes the 1st part of the sentence a complete construction gramatically, hence preparing for the discontinuity introduced in the sentence by the use of the colon subsequently.
Also, it prepares the reader that a list is about to be given, which is the indication of the use of colon.

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Re: Heightened land erosion [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2011, 00:35
A conveys the same meaning as C with two more words. Still not convinced. Is there any explanation from Ron?
The common sense says use less words when both the options convey same meaning.

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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.
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Last edited by fameatop on 29 Jul 2013, 09:26, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: erosion SC! [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2011, 23:34
IMO, B.

"including the following" is redundant.
B is more concise. It is better an adjective ("entering") than a noun (introduction).
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New post 25 Jul 2011, 00:17
I will also go with B. What is the OA?

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When you are introducing a list with a :you have to use following, in B and C, what is the need of the colon? you can simply say harmful effects including X, Y, Z. Thus B and C are clearly wrong. E needlessly and awckwardly expands 'imbalance in fish population' to "certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling" This makes it incorrect.
Between A and D: split is in "introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment" or "harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment". To maintain parallel structure with destruction/imbalance , we need to use a noun - thus inttroduction is prefered to entering.
Hence A

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Re: erosion SC! [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2011, 01:34
Imho C, all parts after the ":" are parallel.
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Re: erosion SC! [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2011, 02:09
It should be (A).

(1) 'imbalance of the fish population' is parallel with 'the introduction of harmful chemicals....'
(2) Also, 'the introduction' is needed in the beginning to keep the parallel structure.
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New post 25 Jul 2011, 03:02
No doubt ‘including the following’ is redundant. Between B and C that drop this phrase, C is better because the fourth arm of the list namely, ‘harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment’ in B is not the same as ‘the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment’ in C both in meaning and //ism with other arms of the list.
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New post 25 Jul 2011, 15:11
+1 C. I was debating between B and C, but prefer C to B because C seems to preserve the meaning better than B.
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Re: erosion SC!   [#permalink] 25 Jul 2011, 15:11

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