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# Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many

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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2011, 23:22
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Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by fameatop on 29 Jul 2013, 09:26, edited 1 time in total.
OA not Provided
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24 Jul 2011, 23:34
IMO, B.

"including the following" is redundant.
B is more concise. It is better an adjective ("entering") than a noun (introduction).
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25 Jul 2011, 00:17
I will also go with B. What is the OA?

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25 Jul 2011, 00:31
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When you are introducing a list with a :you have to use following, in B and C, what is the need of the colon? you can simply say harmful effects including X, Y, Z. Thus B and C are clearly wrong. E needlessly and awckwardly expands 'imbalance in fish population' to "certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling" This makes it incorrect.
Between A and D: split is in "introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment" or "harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment". To maintain parallel structure with destruction/imbalance , we need to use a noun - thus inttroduction is prefered to entering.
Hence A
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25 Jul 2011, 01:34
Imho C, all parts after the ":" are parallel.
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25 Jul 2011, 02:09
It should be (A).

(1) 'imbalance of the fish population' is parallel with 'the introduction of harmful chemicals....'
(2) Also, 'the introduction' is needed in the beginning to keep the parallel structure.
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25 Jul 2011, 03:02
No doubt ‘including the following’ is redundant. Between B and C that drop this phrase, C is better because the fourth arm of the list namely, ‘harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment’ in B is not the same as ‘the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment’ in C both in meaning and //ism with other arms of the list.
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25 Jul 2011, 15:11
+1 C. I was debating between B and C, but prefer C to B because C seems to preserve the meaning better than B.
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25 Jul 2011, 18:48
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AnkitK wrote:
Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.

A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

Very nice explanation from senior member daagh about why "following" is mandatory here.

The basic essence of the use of colon is that the preceding clause lying before the mark, should not leave an inkling of incompleteness. It should stand by itself but more importantly should not tend to end abruptly in meaning before the colon and should not lean on the list for completing the meaning. Thus it becomes essential, wordy though, to use the word 'following'. B and C therefore fall by the wayside.

Among A, D and E, D breaks the sense of llism by using an absolute phrase ‘ harmful chemicals entering’ in the fourth arm of the list.
E distorts the meaning in trying to define imbalance of fish population in a weird day.

Maintaining perfect llism, A stands out as the eligible choice, IMO.

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26 Jul 2011, 11:31
I'm stuck between B and C, but eventually selected C for parallel structure...

OA plz?
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27 Jul 2011, 03:41
I prefer 'B' as i also support that 'following' can be discarded and "introduction" is also not appropriate
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14 Oct 2011, 07:07
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rphardu wrote:
AnkitK wrote:
Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.

A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

Very nice explanation from senior member daagh about why "following" is mandatory here.

The basic essence of the use of colon is that the preceding clause lying before the mark, should not leave an inkling of incompleteness. It should stand by itself but more importantly should not tend to end abruptly in meaning before the colon and should not lean on the list for completing the meaning. Thus it becomes essential, wordy though, to use the word 'following'. B and C therefore fall by the wayside.

Among A, D and E, D breaks the sense of llism by using an absolute phrase ‘ harmful chemicals entering’ in the fourth arm of the list.
E distorts the meaning in trying to define imbalance of fish population in a weird day.

Maintaining perfect llism, A stands out as the eligible choice, IMO.

I agree that the use of following is required here. I had noted from somewhere (dnt remember where so Can't give due credit), that colon should not be used at following places:

1). After such as or including

All of the old gang were there, including : Mush Head, Beaver, Sparky, and Mole.- Incorrect colon use

2). Directly after a form of verb be

The three most popular composers of classical music, according to the poll, are : Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven.- Incorrect colon use

3). Between a verb and its object or between a preposition and its object.

The tourists went to: Toronto, Montreal, and Quebec.- Incorrect colon use
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14 Oct 2011, 08:55
Yes, I agree; following is indeed required to complete the sentence. A is the right answer.

However, there is an interesting aside to this issue, which I saw just now. An honorable member by name rpardhu has observed the following about me saying “very nice explanation from senior member daagh about why "following" is mandatory here”. One can see the sarcasm there

But the funny part is that I never explained any such thing about ‘following’ so nicely. Nor did I say ‘following’ is mandatory

I simply said that ‘no doubt following is redundant’. Probably our honorable member did not know the difference between redundant and mandatory.

To help him understand, let me make it clear the mandatory means required by authority or compulsory; redundant means superfluous or excess. I think this should help our honorable member. However, considering that everybody is human and everybody is error-prone, I will ignore this allusion.
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14 Oct 2011, 14:19
I originally thought D or A... i went with D and was thrown off with the "following"...thought it was redundant
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14 Oct 2011, 14:21
GMATmission wrote:
rphardu wrote:
AnkitK wrote:
Heightened land erosion, caused by human activity, has many negative effects including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.

A) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
B) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean's environment.
C) including: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean's environment.
D) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, imbalance of the fish population, and harmful chemicals entering the ocean’s environment.
E) including the following: algae blooms, coral reef destruction, certain fish populations rising, certain fish populations falling, and the introduction of harmful chemicals to the ocean’s environment.

Very nice explanation from senior member daagh about why "following" is mandatory here.

The basic essence of the use of colon is that the preceding clause lying before the mark, should not leave an inkling of incompleteness. It should stand by itself but more importantly should not tend to end abruptly in meaning before the colon and should not lean on the list for completing the meaning. Thus it becomes essential, wordy though, to use the word 'following'. B and C therefore fall by the wayside.

Among A, D and E, D breaks the sense of llism by using an absolute phrase ‘ harmful chemicals entering’ in the fourth arm of the list.
E distorts the meaning in trying to define imbalance of fish population in a weird day.

Maintaining perfect llism, A stands out as the eligible choice, IMO.

I agree that the use of following is required here. I had noted from somewhere (dnt remember where so Can't give due credit), that colon should not be used at following places:

1). After such as or including

All of the old gang were there, including : Mush Head, Beaver, Sparky, and Mole.- Incorrect colon use

2). Directly after a form of verb be

The three most popular composers of classical music, according to the poll, are : Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven.- Incorrect colon use

3). Between a verb and its object or between a preposition and its object.

The tourists went to: Toronto, Montreal, and Quebec.- Incorrect colon use

thank you for COLON refresher :D
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21 Oct 2011, 11:42
+1 for C. What's the OA and source?
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21 Oct 2011, 18:12
I pick A. Somehow, 'including :' does not seem right. Otherwise, would have picked C.
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22 Oct 2011, 08:01

@AnkitK - Whats OA?
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22 Oct 2011, 10:21
there are two splits
1) "the following", which is reduntant
2) parallel structures - blooms, destruction, imbalance and the introduction are ||
C fixes both errors.
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24 Oct 2011, 01:23
the following is redundant, after we use ':'. Between B and C, i go for C. OA and source please.
Re: erosion SC!   [#permalink] 24 Oct 2011, 01:23

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