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# His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land,

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His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2003, 11:28
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His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

[Reveal] Spoiler:
It's either B or E. Is it due to idioms( in which vs. when) or since the age is in the past; it is unlikely that the great ice sheets existed in areas now. I know diction is important on GMAT. In ( now) temperate areas , does now function as an adjective?

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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2011, 07:19
chrischrischris wrote:
I think B. I couldn't actually read any of the others.

Edit: I ruled out D because of "had existed".

can you please post a better explanation to ruled out D.
i choose D because of "had existed".

this sentence is in past perfect and had existed is correct.

i am with D.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2011, 10:07
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

'had' represents past perfect . past perfect is not required here.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2011, 22:39
I went for B here are the reasons:

B)correct
C,D,E usage of when is wrong since its a concept that is being talked about not the age itself.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2011, 23:00
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

My qusn - The proposal was made in past (1837) about an event (ice age) that occurred (existed) earlier than 1837. So is the "had existed" still invalid?

Lets say someone gives the definition of ICE AGE -
An age in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas.

OR Louis Agassiz is alive and he is making his proposal today -
Agassiz has proposed the concept of an age in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas.

So the bottomline is 2 events in past needs a past perfect unless I am missing something.

Can Any Guru help?

Thanks
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2011, 10:48
A - wrong tense, redundancy
B - correct tense
C - correct tense, awkward
D - wrong tense. current should be currently
E - correct tense, wrong place of now
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2011, 20:29
A,D - Out . Use of past perfect had is not required.

C changes the meaning of sentence

B & E - E looks better to me. "what" in B sounds strange.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2011, 08:18
Quote:
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

Interesting question. since age, I narrowed down to (A) and (B) "in which" as the possible answers. My instinct was to first choose (A). But, then the problem with option (A) is "currently", easy to miss.

(B) has "in which" and no issues with "now temperate".

Thanks, good question.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2012, 15:14
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in what are now temperate areas
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in what are now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

Why is Past Perfect Not Required in this Question?

Also why is Answer D wrong?

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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2012, 16:46
There are two events:
- existence of the ice sheets (in the past)
- existence of temperate areas (in the present)
So, past perfect is not necessary.

Maybe, you think that the simple past of the verb "lead" indicates that we need past perfect, but we should use past perfect only when the events are related or there is a sequence of events.
Yes, it is a little hard to understand it. But notice that the verb "to lead" is not in the same sequence of events in which "the existence of ice sheets" is.

Hope it helps.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2012, 03:05
IMO B
It is denoting a period and hence when is not required here as it denotes a particular time.Considering this C,D and E are out. A is out as both now and currently are making redundancy.In effect B is left out and it is perfect too.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2012, 04:45
points to consider

a) wrong-past perfect used, however simple past should be used, as we are not discuss two events in the past, rather we are discussing one event in the past.
b) correct- in which is the correct usage
c) wrong- too wordy
d) wrong -past perfect used
e) wrong-are is unncessary used
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2012, 11:33
Thanks Shraddha. Quick question is use of "current temperate areas" in option D also incorrect? (Current and temperate both being adjectives)
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2012, 09:40
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

Is there any rule or advisable guidance about usage of 'when' vs. 'in which'.

OG 13 Q

thanks!
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2012, 10:28
I would say, "when" can refer to time frame, period and physical existence. On the other hand, "in which" would rather mean like here in aforesaid sentence, means - concept, virtual existence or some kind of pondering. Just my 50 cent, the way I understand it.
Please, correct me, if I went awry
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2013, 10:34
Meaning in B is not illogic
but
when A and B stand together, we realize that meaning in A is the intended meaning

what I want to say is that

whenever we see both logical choices/meanings, we have to USE COMMON SENSE TO realize which is intended meaning

is my thinking correct.?

the above situation happen many times on og questions. the easy time is when the wrong answer contain illogic meaning which can be realize soon.

pls comment on my rule above

this is hard questions.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2013, 13:48
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland,far outside the range of present -day glaciers,led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A)In which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(B)in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas.
(C)when great ice sheets existed where were areas now temperate
(D)when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

Need explanation of every option
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2013, 14:03
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland,far outside the range of present -day glaciers,led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

First of all: "an age when" is incorrect. out C D E
Between A and B there is a verb tense difference
A had existed : this is used to express an action that took place over a long period of time BEFORE another action STOPPED IT. This is not the case
B existed : CORRECT
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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29 Apr 2013, 12:03
Hi Gyanendra,

Here is my response to your question on this official sentence.

His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

Meaning Analysis:

In 1837, Louis Agassiz studied the ice-polished rocks of his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers. These studies led him to propose the concept of ice age. During this age, great sheets of ice existed in the areas that are now temperate areas.

Error Analysis:

1. Use of past perfect tense “had existed” is incorrect in this sentence because we use past perfect tense to denote the earlier event in presence of two past events. Past perfect tense establishes the time sequencing between the two past events. However, here we do not have two events that are related to each other in regards to the timing of their happening. The fact that the ice age existed does not depend on Agassiz’s studies. Also, the temperate areas exist in the present time. So there is no question of using past perfect tense in the sentence.

2. Use of “now” and “currently” together leads to redundancy error.

PoE:
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas: Correct. This choices use the correct verb tense – simple past.

(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate: Incorrect. This choice is awkward and non- precise.

(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas: Incorrect.
i. This choice repeats the verb tense error of choice A.
ii. “Current” should actually be “currently”.

(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate: Incorrect. Placement of “now” is not correct.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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01 May 2013, 20:56
All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

Please check and follow the Guidelines for Posting in Verbal GMAT forum before posting anything.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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06 May 2013, 06:36
Curly05 wrote:
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

[Reveal] Spoiler:
It's either B or E. Is it due to idioms( in which vs. when) or since the age is in the past; it is unlikely that the great ice sheets existed in areas now. I know diction is important on GMAT. In ( now) temperate areas , does now function as an adjective?

Victor

OG #13 says that A is wrong because of 2 reasons:
1) now / currently
2) had existed should be existed.

To me it is perfectly after past tense LED.

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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land,   [#permalink] 06 May 2013, 06:36

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