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# His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land,

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His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2003, 11:28
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This topic is now locked. Refer to his-studies-of-ice-polished-rocks-to-spot-adverb-166115.html for open discussion of this question.

His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

[Reveal] Spoiler:
It's either B or E. Is it due to idioms( in which vs. when) or since the age is in the past; it is unlikely that the great ice sheets existed in areas now. I know diction is important on GMAT. In ( now) temperate areas , does now function as an adjective?

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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2008, 19:34
OA is B.

OE :

In which or when can be used interchangeably in this sentence. The verb form should be simple past verb tense.
A) had existed should be existed; now currently is redudant
B) correct
C) where there were areas now temperate is wordy and consuing
D) HAD EXISTED SHOULD BE EXISTED; current should be currently
E)"now" is an adverb and should be placed just after the verb are
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2008, 21:26
x2suresh wrote:
In which or when can be used interchangeably in this sentence.

Though I got the OA correct, I still dont agree to using "When" or "In Which" interchangeably.

Any thoughts on when to use When vs In which?

I think this is the difference..

[quote="Sunny143
..

In think it comes down to the use of "In which" vs "When". I guessthe general rule is to use "In which" when we want to use "When" but its not a time...such as an age or an era...
[/quote]

Any thoughts?
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2008, 14:24
Sunny143 wrote:
x2suresh wrote:
In which or when can be used interchangeably in this sentence.

Though I got the OA correct, I still dont agree to using "When" or "In Which" interchangeably.

Any thoughts on when to use When vs In which?

I think this is the difference..

[quote="Sunny143
..

In think it comes down to the use of "In which" vs "When". I guessthe general rule is to use "In which" when we want to use "When" but its not a time...such as an age or an era...

Any thoughts?[/quote]

If we are referring to a period of time "when" could have made sense
Here we are referring to concept of age .Thats why we need "which"
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2008, 12:27
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2008, 13:29
"had existed" is incorrect because this requires another simple past tense verb in the sentence to distinguish two events in the past. eliminated A and D.

use "when" for an actual point in time and "in which" to describe concept. So B is best choice.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2008, 18:28
It is a clear B
using when implies that we are referring to some time period but we are referring to a theory hence in which is better. In A now curently is redundant. CDE also have other problems such as using "where there were areas now temperate" "had existed" " areas now that are temperate"
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2008, 20:14
hibloom wrote:
It is a clear B
using when implies that we are referring to some time period but we are referring to a theory hence in which is better. In A now curently is redundant. CDE also have other problems such as using "where there were areas now temperate" "had existed" " areas now that are temperate"

OA is B
when Vs in which is clear
but can you shed some light on usage of had existed here ?

Led X to propose that Z had existed in what are now A
Led represents past tense why not had existed valid
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2008, 09:45
Always makes me confused...

His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2009, 10:42
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His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2009, 11:03
age refers to time period, hence when should be used. A,B are out. I chose D by POE
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas Hold
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

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Posts: 1408
Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2009, 08:25
botirvoy wrote:
B.
1. I dont think "age" is "when - it is "which"
2. Comparison is between "now" and "then"(in disguise) - so, no need for past perfect.
3. In general, we use past perfect only when doing otherwise leads to ambiguities.

priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

Looking at every one choosing D, I was surprised. But now I have company.

Can some one tell me what are the two past events in the chronological order, if you think it's D. IMO, there are no two such events

The only past tense word I see is existed.

Hence B
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2009, 20:17
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OA is B.

When "age" means some period, use of pronoun reference "in which" is correct. But referring to particular age i.e. at age 18, "when" is correct.
Ex: I was 18 when I met my consort. - referring to particular time
We are living in an age in which art galleries are more popular than theme parks. -- referring to a period

So, I eliminated to A and B and went with A. I assumed that "led" is in past form so must be preceded by exist (past verb). botirvoy and icandy are correct. "In which" starts new clause here so any clause after pronoun reference creates new fragment and, thus, jeopardizes the chronology, if any. B is correctly using "existed" as standalone past action.

Thank you
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2009, 11:47
His Studies of ice-polished rocks in his alpine homeland, far outside the range of present day glaciers, led Louis Agasiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas

a. in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
b.in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas.
c. when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
d. when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
e. when great ice sheers existed in areas now that are temperate

Hey guys, can someone explain to me why the verb form here should be simple past "existed" rather than the past perfect "had existed".

Thanks.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2009, 12:19
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Are you asking because there are two verbs? [led and (had)existed] You might be thinking that one event preceded the other. If so, be careful about linking the two, as they are used quite differently here.

The subject of "led" is "his studies." The subject of "existed" is "ice sheets." Not only that, but the two verbs are found in different clauses of the sentence. The main sentence includes the main verb "led": His studies ... led Louis Agasiz ...to propose the concept. "The concept" is the object of the main clause. We find "existed" deep within a modifier of a modifier of the object. This structure alone implies that the ice sheets existed before Agasiz was led to propose the concept.

A rule of thumb is that if you can use the simple past and still convey the meaning accurately, you shouldn't need to use the past perfect tense.

It would be different if the ice sheets did two things, at different times. For example:
His Studies led Louis Agasiz to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now temperate areas and melted gradually over the course of a thousand years.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2010, 08:14
I'm not an expert but I believe "had" is appropriate when demonstrating that one past event occurred before another. In this case, we are only talking about the past and the "temperate areas" today so the simple past is sufficient.

About "when" vs. "in which", an earlier comment demonstrated the correct usage:

I was 18 when...
It occured during an age in which...

Specific age should be "when", referring to a period of time should be "in which".
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2010, 09:27
shivganar wrote:
It is not necessary to refer to past perfect when the past occurance is obvious. When we use to 'age in which' it is obvious and we need to to use 'had' in this case.

As long as possible we must avoid perfect tense.

Sorry for the typo error. I wanted to say that 'we need not to use 'had' in this case. So B is the right answer. he use of 'in which' correctly refers to the age.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2010, 10:10
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.
(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

What can also eliminate D is the last part: current temperate areas. The original phrase correctly used the adverb currently to describe the adjective temperate. An adjective usually cannot modify another adjective, if I recall correctly (i.e. current temperate). Does anyone else agree?
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2010, 10:15
B

A/D) incorrectly uses the past perfect HAD. You only use past perfect in order to clarify a sequence of events. In this case there is nothing to suggest any confusion.

C/E) When is used to modify a specific time and THE CONCEPT being the noun is a hypotical condition/arragement/IDEA etc that uses the modifier in which. Age was not the noun I chose because it sits inside a prepositional phrase.

POE leaves us with B

-Will
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2010, 22:12
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B

No had is not needed here.

First in which is correct so pick A or B. He proposed a concept of an age in which + simple past tense to match the tense of proposed. Also, HAD existed in now CURRENTLY don't work well. It's more clear when hyou say existed in what ARE NOW temperate areas. Those areas were not temperate areas then.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land, [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2010, 13:50
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

1. We need a simple past tense. Because LED and EXISTED are not related. Remove A, D.
2. in which should be used for Age (long time period). So, remove E,C.
3. B look awkward but best answer should not necessarily sound good all the time. lol
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine home land,   [#permalink] 12 Feb 2010, 13:50

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