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# Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to

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Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2008, 14:29
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Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen.

In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.

(B) The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.

(C) The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.

(D) The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.

(E) The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 17 Jul 2017, 22:38, edited 5 times in total.

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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2008, 02:00
1st BF - Village census records are complete.
Premise - Villagers had reason to report declines.
Evidence - Increase in Tax
Position (historian seeks to establish) - There was no actual decline in population, because villagers had their reason to report decines evident in tax increments.
Main Conclusion - There was no actual decline in population.
2nd BF - Same as main conclusion

IMO C
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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2008, 06:15
C it is..

Only war between C and E...

E isn't the case because assumptions are the phrases which ain't explicitly mentioned in the passage.. Moreover even if this is the assumption which is necessary to come to the conclusion, even then the second bold face is not ust a consideration.. It is the conclusion drawn by the author no matter how vague it may be...

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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2008, 06:29
C is most appropriate

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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2008, 07:10
eyunni wrote:
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen. In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.
B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.
C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.
D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.
E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.

Explanations please. I know the OA.

see this period: Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen...it means that the census, actually, wasn't that complete. I believe E is the OA

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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2008, 07:18
marcodonzelli wrote:
eyunni wrote:
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determi

Explanations please. I know the OA.

see this period: Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen...it means that the census, actually, wasn't that complete. I believe E is the OA

I think you confuse some points, census was complete, thing that was not is event, they just didn't tell the truth. It doesn't matter declining or increasing fact is census was complete. it is premise.

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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2008, 07:30
kazakhb wrote:
marcodonzelli wrote:
eyunni wrote:
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determi

Explanations please. I know the OA.

see this period: Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen...it means that the census, actually, wasn't that complete. I believe E is the OA

I think you confuse some points, census was complete, thing that was not is event, they just didn't tell the truth. It doesn't matter declining or increasing fact is census was complete. it is premise.

yeah, I thought about that ..... but also C seems ambiguous....actually, we must say that if the census is complete, then the decline must be false and it is not a consequence of a wrong census..under this point of view OA seems C indeed...what do you think?

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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2008, 09:57
OA is C. I was also a little confused about C and E.

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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2008, 15:27
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eyunni wrote:
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen. In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.
B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.
C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.
D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.
E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.

Explanations please. I know the OA.

This one is actually pretty easy. Its just a long passage.
A: first part ok, no the second is his or her position.
B: second is not true.
C: first is a context. second is the position. OK
D: first is not a position.
E: first is not an assumption.

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Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2008, 18:44
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the
population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are
remarkably complete.
This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five
different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines.
Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian
tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government
using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an
especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded;
and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would
have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not
happen.

In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following
roles?
A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges
a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks
to establish.
B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to
establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue
against that position.
C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the
historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.
D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption
that serves as the basis of that argument.
E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a
certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that
assumption into question.
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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2008, 23:10
Hey saravalli I really appreciate the effort that you put in typing in these questions. But perhaps you could take a little more time to space and format the text a little better ?

saravalli wrote:
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines.

Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen.

In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.

B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.

C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.

D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.

E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.
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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2013, 05:12
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Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen. In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.
The second is a position that is in support to the author's main conclusion. OUT!

B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.
2nd position: that tax hike gives people incentive to alter reports & 1st position: that the report is complete... The first is not used to support the second position. It merely introduces the context on how the decline seems to stick out and later concluded that the reports are not accurate... CONTEXT is NOT EVIDENCE...

C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.
This is the answer. The report as complete is totally accepted by the author and used to give context to his position. That its very completeness made it obvious that second position happened: altering of reports..

D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.
The first is merely an introduction of context to introduce the author's argument... not the position itself..

E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.
It is the completeness of the report that made the author assumes or argues that the report is not accurate... The report is complete is accepted and not argued against...

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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2013, 00:50
mbaiseasy wrote:
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen. In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.
The second is a position that is in support to the author's main conclusion. OUT!

B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.
2nd position: that tax hike gives people incentive to alter reports & 1st position: that the report is complete... The first is not used to support the second position. It merely introduces the context on how the decline seems to stick out and later concluded that the reports are not accurate... CONTEXT is NOT EVIDENCE...

C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.
This is the answer. The report as complete is totally accepted by the author and used to give context to his position. That its very completeness made it obvious that second position happened: altering of reports..

D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.
The first is merely an introduction of context to introduce the author's argument... not the position itself..

E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.
It is the completeness of the report that made the author assumes or argues that the report is not accurate... The report is complete is accepted and not argued against...

If the report is complete, then the census must record every single person in DE. If the census records every one in the DE, how can there be a decline? (cuz actually, people were justing concealing the size)
So i don't understand why the author can reach the conclusion that "the declines did not happen" on the premise of " the report is completed"?

Plus, i think the two BF parts are in negative relation, meaning that the first one weakens the second one.

One more question, i don't understand what "provide a context" mean. Can you plz explain it in detail? An example may be helpful

thx

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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2014, 10:12
maggiegecby wrote:
mbaiseasy wrote:
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen. In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.
The second is a position that is in support to the author's main conclusion. OUT!

B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.
2nd position: that tax hike gives people incentive to alter reports & 1st position: that the report is complete... The first is not used to support the second position. It merely introduces the context on how the decline seems to stick out and later concluded that the reports are not accurate... CONTEXT is NOT EVIDENCE...

C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.
This is the answer. The report as complete is totally accepted by the author and used to give context to his position. That its very completeness made it obvious that second position happened: altering of reports..

D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.
The first is merely an introduction of context to introduce the author's argument... not the position itself..

E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.
It is the completeness of the report that made the author assumes or argues that the report is not accurate... The report is complete is accepted and not argued against...

If the report is complete, then the census must record every single person in DE. If the census records every one in the DE, how can there be a decline? (cuz actually, people were justing concealing the size)
So i don't understand why the author can reach the conclusion that "the declines did not happen" on the premise of " the report is completed"?

Plus, i think the two BF parts are in negative relation, meaning that the first one weakens the second one.

One more question, i don't understand what "provide a context" mean. Can you plz explain it in detail? An example may be helpful
thx
Let me alleviate this confusion:

Here is a parallel example: Annual Report Cards of students submitted by teachers are absolutely correct from perspective of record maintenance. Teachers have incentives for receiving gifts at the end of term with outstanding results. Since, none of teachers like to be left out of receiving a gift and students were amazingly poor this year from academic standards. So, teachers must have reported wrong figures while calculating internal numbers/marks(per subject) within Annual Report Cards.

Documentation is a necessary evil(First Boldface) which has to be available to support your final conclusion(Second Boldface). If first boldface is not present, you can say that conclusion is wrong because teachers might not have goofed up or errored out in preparing Annual Report Cards themselves, but they didn't provide the complete documentation (Annual Report Cards for all the students. They may just submit the report cards of the students who passed with flying numbers). So first part is a supporter than a weakener or opposing contender to the conclusion.

For your second question around meaning of "provide a context", above should help.
Basically, Complete Documentation is primary basis which has to be established to reach the conclusion that teachers must have purposely reported/calculated wrong Internal Numbers/Marks in those report cards. It is like Sufficient Condition, Necessary condition relationship where 2nd Boldface is suffcient condition and 1st Boldface is necessary condition.

HTH
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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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11 Jan 2014, 23:35
I have a question can someone help?

As assumptions are unstated premises,so in the bold face questions,is it possible to have an argument that will have an assumption specifically mentioned there?

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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2014, 05:19
karanwalia wrote:
I have a question can someone help?

As assumptions are unstated premises,so in the bold face questions,is it possible to have an argument that will have an assumption specifically mentioned there?
Very Valid Question. I also had similar doubt. I have roughly seen 6-8 GMAC Boldface questions with assumption reference in choices and never found the choice with reference to assumption to be true. So now, as a rule, I consider the choice wrong for faster processing.

If there is a question that goes against this rationale, I would like someone to post the question. Otherwise I would suggest one should discard any choice with assumption in Boldface Answer options.
HTH
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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2014, 08:04
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the
population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are
remarkably complete.
This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five
different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines.
Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian
tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government
using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an
especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded;
and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would
have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not
happen.

- Background
B1 - Census records were neat and complete
- Points out an odd situation
B2 - offers an explanation to the odd situation
- conclusion

Additional info: B2 supports the conclusion, B1 and B2 follow the same direction.

In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following
roles?

A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges
a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks
to establish.
we have an issue with the second boldf, the two portions agree, this answer is inconsistent.
B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to
establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue
against that position.
Looks good hold
C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the
historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.
The second clarifies the odds and supports the conclusion it is not the conclusion itself
D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption
that serves as the basis of that argument.
Completely off, the author accepts the first boldf statement
E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a
certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that
assumption into question.
The first is not an assumption, moreover the statements go in the same direction
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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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27 Mar 2014, 09:19
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen.

In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A) The first presents a finding to support the position the historian seeks to establish; the second is a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.
B) The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is a judgment advanced to support that position.
C) The first is a position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is evidence that has been used to argue against that position.
D) The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in support of a certain position; the second is that position.
E) The first is a claim that the historian rejects; the second is a conclusion drawn to justify that rejection.

NOTE: This Question has same Q stem, but has different 2nd BF line.

OE:

[Reveal] Spoiler:
What roles do the ~boldfaced statements play in the passage?
1st BF: Provides background information about the census records. Passage says that the situation described by 1st BF makes a certain observation stand out. To explain that observation, the passage argues that the records were probably falsified
2nd BF: Presents a hypothesis about economic incentives that supports that argument's conclusion. - Premise in the argument

A The historian seeks to establish the position that the records were falsified, and the hypothesis about economic incentives explains why they would have been falsified.
B Correct. The completeness of the records provides a context for the evidence supporting the conclusion that the records were falsified; the hypothesis about economic incentives supports the same conclusion by explaining why the records would have been falsified.
C The passage does not argue that the records are complete, but simply states that they were; the hypothesis about economic incentives is not used to argue that the records are incomplete, but rather that they are inaccurate.
D The completeness of the records does not support the hypothesis that the villagers had an economic incentive to record fewer people when the tax went up.
E The historian does not deny that the records are complete, but rather that they are accurate.

Hi, can anyone confirm; the conclusion of this stem -> (Therefore) the reported decline probably did not happen?

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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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27 Mar 2014, 09:48
Merged similar topic

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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2014, 11:53
eyunni wrote:
Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to determine the population of each village. Village census records for the last half of the 1600’s are remarkably complete. This very completeness makes one point stand out; in five different years, villages overwhelmingly reported significant population declines. Tellingly, each of those five years immediately followed an increase in a certain Drindian tax. This tax, which was assessed on villages, was computed by the central government using the annual census figures. Obviously, whenever the tax went up, villages had an especially powerful economic incentive to minimize the number of people they recorded; and concealing the size of a village’s population from government census takers would have been easy. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the reported declines did not happen. In the historian’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
A. The first supplies a context for the historian’s argument; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against the position the historian seeks to establish.
B. The first presents evidence to support the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second acknowledges a consideration that has been used to argue against that position.
C. The first provides a context for certain evidence that supports the position that the historian seeks to establish; the second is that position.
D. The first is a position for which the historian argues; the second is an assumption that serves as the basis of that argument.
E. The first is an assumption that the historian explicitly makes in arguing for a certain position; the second acknowledges a consideration that calls that assumption into question.

Hmmm. First of all, this question carries an Official Guide tag, and this is NOT an official question. I am not sure what the source is.

The OA cited, I believe supplied by carcass, is (B), but it seems to me this is wrong. The clear answer is (C), and that's the OA given on other websites on which this question appears.

Mike
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Re: Historian: In the Drindian Empire, censuses were conducted annually to   [#permalink] 28 Mar 2014, 11:53

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