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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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23 May 2011, 07:53

In this kind of CR questions generally a split can be done.

of course the first bold portion is an evidence; the second do not add further information but the phrase only give us where the information are (highlights something - evidence). so D

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position. B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position. C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion. D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position. E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

Now lets break this argument.

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus....FACT1 . Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques.FACT2

It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. HISTORIAN OPINION....intermediate conclusion.

Researchers have,however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Researchers Opinion

Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, SCHOLORS OPINIONS

it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. Historians Opinions..... MAIN CONCLUSION.

A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented. Historion Opinion.

So as per the above understanding, First Bold face is the explanation to support the main conclusion.

and Second Bold Face as it mention However. I though i should be against the main conclusion.

With this understanding I'm able to eliminate all the choice but I'm not able to understand why in option D,second bold face statement support the main conclusion.

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position. B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position. C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion. D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position. E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

Now lets break this argument.

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus....FACT1 . Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques.FACT2

It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. HISTORIAN OPINION....intermediate conclusion.

Researchers have,however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Researchers Opinion

Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, SCHOLORS OPINIONS

it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. Historians Opinions..... MAIN CONCLUSION.

A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented. Historion Opinion.

So as per the above understanding, First Bold face is the explanation to support the main conclusion.

and Second Bold Face as it mention However. I though i should be against the main conclusion.

With this understanding I'm able to eliminate all the choice but I'm not able to understand why in option D,second bold face statement support the main conclusion.

Thanks

Nitin Singh

Hi Nitin,

Thanks for sharing detailed analysis. In this way, I'll be able to point exactly where all you faltered:

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus....FACT1 - Correct . Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques.FACT2 - Correct

It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. HISTORIAN OPINION....intermediate conclusion. - It's not an intermediate conclusion. A conclusion needs to be supported by some reasoning. Which statement supports this? It is only traditional opinion. Researchers have,however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Researchers Opinion -Incorrect. It's a discovery. So, it needs to be a FACT.

Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, SCHOLORS OPINIONS -Incorrect - Both the parts following "Since" are facts. They are presented as information or facts.

it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. Historians Opinions..... MAIN CONCLUSION. -Incorrect. This is scholars' opinion and it's their conclusion, not Historian's

A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented. Historion Opinion. - Incorrect. Historian opinion is limited to " A more cautious conclusion than this is called for". The rest of the sentence is a fact. Since, this is the only historian opinion in the argument, this is also the main conclusion.

Now, given my above comments, would you like to re-evaluate the option statements?

Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2015, 06:14

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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2015, 06:24

Hi there,

Anyone who is still active in this thread.. I picked the choice D, but in some random blogs, I found the answer as C.

nusmavrik wrote:

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position. B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position. C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion. D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position. E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2015, 03:49

bf question tests our ability to read, nothing more. so, practicing reading is good for cr also. I used this type of question to practice reading for RC because the ability to realize the roles of each sentence in a test is key to understanding the text.
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