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# Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and

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Senior Manager
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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2012, 15:59
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85% (hard)

Question Stats:

55% (02:51) correct 45% (03:39) wrong based on 286 sessions

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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented. In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.

B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.

C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.

D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.

E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

I will post my reasoning in the reply section. Please tell me what's wrong with my reasoning.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by eybrj2 on 15 Apr 2012, 16:12, edited 1 time in total.
If you have any questions
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Senior Manager
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15 Apr 2012, 16:10
Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

Assetion 1
Evidence to support assertion 1

Assertion 2 that attacks assertion 1
Evidence to support assertion 2

I narrowed my choice down to C and D and picked c eventually, although I doubted about some parts in C.

C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion. ---> overall position ???

D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.

The reason why I didn't pick D is "the historians". I think that the passage didn't clearly state that who attacks the asserion 1.

Please, tell me what's wrong with my reasong and state your reasoning.
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16 Apr 2012, 00:23
you may want to see a previous discussion :

historian-newton-developed-mathematical-concepts-and-100382.html

hope this helps..!!
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20 May 2012, 09:18
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.

1) reasons why common belief is false = mood is a bit critical

2) But historian then presents his own position in contrary to other scientists

Thus, D it is!
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21 May 2012, 01:52
Arguement:
Leibniz might have copied the calculus concepts from Newton.

Conclusion:
Leibniz did not copy the Newton's concepts and Leibniz's reference to the newton's material is limited to first few chapters at most which do not include calculus.

First Bold face statement argues against the conclusion.
Second bold face statement is in favor of the conclusion.

D points this one out.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2016, 02:51
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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20 May 2017, 23:29
A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.

B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.

C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.

D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position. | Correct Because the first statement supports a conclusion that the traditional thought is false, in the second bold statement the author presents his own views and a 'more cautious conclusion' on how it is justified.

E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.
Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and   [#permalink] 20 May 2017, 23:29
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