Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and

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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2004, 00:43
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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibnizâ€™ that discuss one of Newtonâ€™s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newtonâ€™s calculus concepts and techniques, and since <<the notes were written before Leibnizâ€™ own development of calculus concepts and techniques>>, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. <<Leibnizâ€™ notes are limited to early sections of Newtonâ€™s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newtonâ€™s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.>>

In the historianâ€™s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.
B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historianâ€™s own position.
E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

Last edited by marine on 18 Sep 2004, 06:08, edited 1 time in total.
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18 Sep 2004, 00:53
Marine
Can you boldface the 2 portions
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18 Sep 2004, 06:09
srijay007 wrote:
Marine
Can you boldface the 2 portions

OOPS! my mistake, here it is

Posted: Sat Sep 18, 2004 12:43 am Post subject: CR Bold Face

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibnizâ€™ that discuss one of Newtonâ€™s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newtonâ€™s calculus concepts and techniques, and since <<the notes were written before Leibnizâ€™ own development of calculus concepts and techniques>>, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. <<Leibnizâ€™ notes are limited to early sections of Newtonâ€™s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newtonâ€™s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.>>

In the historianâ€™s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.
B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historianâ€™s own position.
E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.
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18 Sep 2004, 06:19
I am getting it as C.

The main conclusion is "A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however." The intermediate conclusion (a quick conclusion) is "it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. "

And C fits the bill cleanly now. The first statement clealr supports the weak intermediate conclusion, which is in turn supporting the main conclusion. The second tells us why it is against the first conclusion is improper.

marine wrote:
srijay007 wrote:
Marine
Can you boldface the 2 portions

OOPS! my mistake, here it is

Posted: Sat Sep 18, 2004 12:43 am Post subject: CR Bold Face

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since <<the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques>>, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. <<Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.>>

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.
B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.
E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

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Awaiting response,

Thnx & Rgds,
Chandra

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18 Sep 2004, 07:39
I will take C.

1. "more cautious conclusion" - shows that the previous is an intermediate conclusion
2. "Leibnizâ€™ notes are limited to early sections of Newtonâ€™s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newtonâ€™s calculus concepts and techniques are presented" - shows some evidence against the conclusion (Leibniz'-Theory-Is-Dependent-On-Newton's). Seems like he never read or was not imterested in that portion.
3. "However" in the last bold face shows that this is agianst the previous sentence.
4. "A more cautious conclusion than this is called for," shows that this is not his own decision/take (D).
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18 Sep 2004, 19:30
Vote for "D"

1st: the notes were written before Leibnizâ€™ own development of calculus concepts and techniques

This is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes....which is why he calls for a cautious conclusion

2nd: Leibnizâ€™ notes are limited to early sections of Newtonâ€™s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newtonâ€™s calculus concepts and techniques are presented

the second is evidence offered in support of the historianâ€™s own position... this outlines the caution that he proposed..
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18 Sep 2004, 23:33
drdas wrote:
Vote for "D"

1st: the notes were written before Leibnizâ€™ own development of calculus concepts and techniques

This is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes....which is why he calls for a cautious conclusion

2nd: Leibnizâ€™ notes are limited to early sections of Newtonâ€™s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newtonâ€™s calculus concepts and techniques are presented

the second is evidence offered in support of the historianâ€™s own position... this outlines the caution that he proposed..

OA is D
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19 Sep 2004, 07:37
I am not very sure that D is the answer.
Does 'cautious conclusion' mean criticism? I donot think so. The author is very objective with a set of facts and figures.

I appreciate if somebody clarifies me on this front.

marine wrote:
drdas wrote:
Vote for "D"

1st: the notes were written before Leibnizâ€™ own development of calculus concepts and techniques

This is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes....which is why he calls for a cautious conclusion

2nd: Leibnizâ€™ notes are limited to early sections of Newtonâ€™s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newtonâ€™s calculus concepts and techniques are presented

the second is evidence offered in support of the historianâ€™s own position... this outlines the caution that he proposed..

OA is D

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Awaiting response,

Thnx & Rgds,
Chandra

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20 Sep 2004, 13:11
I agree with D as the answer. need more boldfaced problems.
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20 Sep 2004, 13:24
20 Sep 2004, 13:24
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