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# Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that

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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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20 May 2012, 09:18
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.

1) reasons why common belief is false = mood is a bit critical

2) But historian then presents his own position in contrary to other scientists

Thus, D it is!
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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21 May 2012, 01:52
Arguement:
Leibniz might have copied the calculus concepts from Newton.

Conclusion:
Leibniz did not copy the Newton's concepts and Leibniz's reference to the newton's material is limited to first few chapters at most which do not include calculus.

First Bold face statement argues against the conclusion.
Second bold face statement is in favor of the conclusion.

D points this one out.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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29 Apr 2014, 08:31
Hi E-GMAT,

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to
modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has
traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have,
however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on
mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of
Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before
Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques
, it is virtually certain
that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however.
Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede
the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the
second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.
B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the
second is that position.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide
support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence
against that intermediate conclusion.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes;
the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.
E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes;
the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

Now lets break this argument.

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to
modern calculus....FACT1
. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques.FACT2

It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. HISTORIAN OPINION....intermediate conclusion.

Researchers have,however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on
mathematics. Researchers Opinion

Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of
Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before
Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques
, SCHOLORS OPINIONS

it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. Historians Opinions..... MAIN CONCLUSION.

A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however.
Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede
the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented
. Historion Opinion.

So as per the above understanding, First Bold face is the explanation to support the main conclusion.

and Second Bold Face as it mention However. I though i should be against the main conclusion.

With this understanding I'm able to eliminate all the choice but I'm not able to understand why in option D,second bold face statement support the main conclusion.

Thanks

Nitin Singh
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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01 May 2014, 03:00
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to
modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has
traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have,
however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on
mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of
Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before
Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques
, it is virtually certain
that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however.
Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede
the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the
second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.
B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the
second is that position.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide
support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence
against that intermediate conclusion.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes;
the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.
E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes;
the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

Now lets break this argument.

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to
modern calculus....FACT1
. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques.FACT2

It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. HISTORIAN OPINION....intermediate conclusion.

Researchers have,however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on
mathematics. Researchers Opinion

Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of
Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before
Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques
, SCHOLORS OPINIONS

it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. Historians Opinions..... MAIN CONCLUSION.

A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however.
Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede
the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented
. Historion Opinion.

So as per the above understanding, First Bold face is the explanation to support the main conclusion.

and Second Bold Face as it mention However. I though i should be against the main conclusion.

With this understanding I'm able to eliminate all the choice but I'm not able to understand why in option D,second bold face statement support the main conclusion.

Thanks

Nitin Singh

Hi Nitin,

Thanks for sharing detailed analysis. In this way, I'll be able to point exactly where all you faltered:

Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to
modern calculus....FACT1 - Correct
. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques.FACT2 - Correct

It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. HISTORIAN OPINION....intermediate conclusion. - It's not an intermediate conclusion. A conclusion needs to be supported by some reasoning. Which statement supports this? It is only traditional opinion.
Researchers have,however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on
mathematics. Researchers Opinion -Incorrect. It's a discovery. So, it needs to be a FACT.

Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of
Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before
Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques
, SCHOLORS OPINIONS -Incorrect - Both the parts following "Since" are facts. They are presented as information or facts.

it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. Historians Opinions..... MAIN CONCLUSION. -Incorrect. This is scholars' opinion and it's their conclusion, not Historian's

A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however.
Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede
the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented
. Historion Opinion. - Incorrect. Historian opinion is limited to " A more cautious conclusion than this is called for". The rest of the sentence is a fact. Since, this is the only historian opinion in the argument, this is also the main conclusion.

Now, given my above comments, would you like to re-evaluate the option statements?

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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06 May 2014, 08:54
Thanks Chiranjeev,

Lots of things are cleared, which are FACTs and which are opinions...

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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2015, 06:24
Hi there,

Anyone who is still active in this thread.. I picked the choice D, but in some random blogs, I found the answer as C.

nusmavrik wrote:
Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.
B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.
E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

If you know the historian's position you have the answer . OA after the discussion

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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2015, 03:49
bf question tests our ability to read, nothing more. so, practicing reading is good for cr also. I used this type of question to practice reading for RC because the ability to realize the roles of each sentence in a test is key to understanding the text.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2016, 06:18
A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. - This statement narrows down to Options D and E.

While E states that the second is further information that substantiates that evidence., it the opposite which is stated correctly in D
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2016, 07:20
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.

B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.

C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.

D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.

E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

wow..this is a long question...took me a while to read the argument then all the answer choices...not to speak about analysis...
1st is a fact used for the intermediate conclusion - the conclusion that the historian opposes. the second is a fact used to support his conclusion.
D fits best here..though C is close..but not really...the first part is good till: that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2017, 07:35
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.

B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.

C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.

D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.

E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

VeritasPrepKarishma I got it right but not before taking 3:41 Mins to solve it.. Bold Face typically take more time than the other Questions... are there any shortcuts to do it?? WHat would be your Way to approach these questions???
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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20 May 2017, 23:29
A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.

B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.

C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.

D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position. | Correct Because the first statement supports a conclusion that the traditional thought is false, in the second bold statement the author presents his own views and a 'more cautious conclusion' on how it is justified.

E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2017, 01:57
A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position. Its not the overall position that the historian defends but he actually criticises

B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position. Same as above

C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion. Same as above

D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position. Correct

E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence. No it actually weakens it
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2017, 08:44
Imo D
The first statement is used to criticize traditional view that Leibniz developend his own calculus .
The second statement is used to offer the historian's own position based on fact that Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.
Hence D
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 04:29
Solution: A historian discusses a controversy about whether or not Leibniz developed calculus concepts and techniques independently of Newton.

Reasoning: What argumentative roles do the two portions in boldface play in the passage?

D is Correct - The first boldface section is one of two premises in the scholars' argument, and the second boldface section is that argument's conclusion. In the following sentence the historian expresses reservations about that conclusion

can anyone share the views on why B will be an incorrect choice here.. Verbal review has "B" as the correct choice.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2017, 21:46
AnubhavK wrote:
Solution: A historian discusses a controversy about whether or not Leibniz developed calculus concepts and techniques independently of Newton.

Reasoning: What argumentative roles do the two portions in boldface play in the passage?

D is Correct - The first boldface section is one of two premises in the scholars' argument, and the second boldface section is that argument's conclusion. In the following sentence the historian expresses reservations about that conclusion

can anyone share the views on why B will be an incorrect choice here.. Verbal review has "B" as the correct choice.

Refer here. https://gmatclub.com/forum/historian-ne ... l#p1915087

I believe you are referring to Verbal Review 2018.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that  [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2018, 18:01
Pre-thinking:
Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. --- Fact
Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. --- Fact
It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. --- opinion/ a conclusion
Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. --- Fact

1. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques,---- fact/evidence/contradicting above conclusion

it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. --- main conclusion

A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however.

2. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented. --- Fact, evidence for above conclusion

Final verdict - (D) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.
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