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# How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2012, 07:10
Initially I chose C. But after seeing the discussion here, I re-read the question and found that the keyword of the question lies in the first part of the stimulus. "How do the airlines EXPECT to prevent.
."
In option c, "will" changes the entire orientation of the option and makes it a definitely sure thing that is incorrect.
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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2012, 18:02
(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors. - Incorrect because of "lack of actual flying time"
(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers. - Irrelevant
(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time. - Contender but it is not the assumption that the argument depends upon.
(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes. - Correct as it addresses the flying time and pilot error
(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs. - Irrelevant

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2012, 19:26
+1 D

C is close, but there is no way to assume that the program should FOCUS ON flying time.
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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2012, 20:25
(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors. - Lack of actual flying time will not compensate for training - Given in the argument - Incorrect
(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers. - Irrelevant and out of scope - Incorrect
(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time. - Too strong with the usage of word 'Will' - Incorrect
(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes. - Not too obvious and takes into account other factors as well - Correct
(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs. - Many factors are important and communication skills is one of them - Implied from the passage - Incorrect

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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18 Jan 2013, 22:13
Commercial Airlines plan to address plane crash problem by increasing hours of classroom instructions.
But training will not compansate for LACK OF ACTUAL FLYING TIME
Thus, should rethink training approach...

What about LACK OF ACTUAL FLYING TIME? Can't Training be sufficient...
The author seems to assume that this factor cannot be ignored.

(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors.
This is opposite of the argument.

(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers.
Okay? Has no bearing on the argument?

(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.
The argument assumes that flying time is an importan factor but actually decreasing it... we keep this for now...

(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.
This is just enough. The tone is not as extreme as C but it just admits to importance of actual flying time..

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2013, 20:33
Interesting question. The conclusion is deliberately written in a very vague way, and that is part of the challenge. What does "rethink their training approach" mean? The only interpretation that really makes sense, in light of the preceding statements, is that the author wants the airlines to include more actual flying time in their training. Given that interpretation, the missing assumption is fairly clear: If the airlines do NOT include more flying time in their training, then the incidence of airline crashes will NOT go down.

Once we recognize that this is the key assumption, it becomes even clearer why (D) is right and (C) is wrong. It is not merely that (C) is "too strong". It is more fundamental than that: The missing assumption is that if action A is not done, then result B will not happen. This is NEVER the same as (and NEVER proves that) if action A IS done, then result B will happen. So answer choice (C) is a trap for test takers who do not know that "IF A, then B" is totally different from "If not A, then not B" - or more likely, who do know this but don't notice that it is happening in this answer choice.

If you're not quite sure about the fact that we canNOT start from "if action A does not happen, then result B does not happen" and get to "if action A does happen, then result B does happen", consider these two statements:

If Fred doesn't work out at the gym, he will not become an Olympic weightlifting champion.

If Fred works out at the gym, he will become an Olympic weightlifting champion.

The first statement is probably true. But if it is, it does not prove that the second statement is.
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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2013, 21:08
MA wrote:
How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes. To address this problem, the airlines have upgraded their training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit. But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilotsâ€™ lack of actual flying time. Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes.

Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?

(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors.
(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers.
(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.
(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.
(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs.

Well the argument states that :

Training approach (Increase in instruction hrs + CS in cockpit) for decreasing the crashes.However,this program will decrease the fly time of the pilots.

Conclusion: So , airlines will have to rethink the validity of their training program.

GAP:Lack of fly time induces error,although this doesn't mean that the increase in fly time reduces crashes.

Hope that helps
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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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24 Feb 2013, 05:22
Hi!!!

Could any one please explain why A is not right as without the assumption mentioned in A none of the answer will hold good.Furthemore,on negation of assumption in A, Argument will rip apart.

Am i missing some thing here?

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2015, 23:28
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2015, 09:07
Fistail wrote:
How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes. To address this problem, the airlines have upgraded their training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit. But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilots’ lack of actual flying time. Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes.

Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?

(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors.
(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers.
(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.
(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.
(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs.

Argument :
Pilot error -> Commercial crashes.
To reduce Crashes -> Company increased - Training and communication skills training.
Author - Increase flying time.

Possible assumption :
Increase flying time -> Reduce pilot error -> reduce commercial crashes.

Only Option D matches pre thinking.

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2015, 00:53
How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes. To address this problem, the airlines have upgraded their training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit. But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilots’ lack of actual flying time. Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes.

Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?
The argument is that increased classroom hours cannot compensate for lack of flying time.

(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors. The argument says the opposite, that training programs aren't enough. Moreover, training programs are intended to reduce crashes, not pilot error directly (which accounts for two thirds of the crashes).
(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers. The argument places more emphasis on flying time than training, so this is not relevant either.
(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time. It says that increasing classroom instruction hours will decrease crashes if the pilots have enough actual flying time.
(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes. If it weren't, increased classroom hours would be sufficient enough to reduce crashes.
(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs. The text states that communication skills in the cockpit can be learned in the training programs.

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2015, 23:19
How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes. To address this problem, the airlines have upgraded their training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit. But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilots’ lack of actual flying time. Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes.

Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?

(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors.
(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers.
(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.
(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.
(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs.

A: Out of the argument
B: Irrelevant
C: Close. Actually mentions flying experience as a factor.
D: Bingo. This argument specifically depends on the assumption that lack of experience is the driver of accidents since current training methods don't address it and therefore bring about concern.
E: Irrelevant

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2015, 13:40
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2015, 14:15
Fistail wrote:
How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes. To address this problem, the airlines have upgraded their training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit. But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilots’ lack of actual flying time. Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes.

Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?

(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors.
(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers.
(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.
(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.
(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs.

I narrowed it down to C and D.

Using the Negation technique gives me this:
(C) The number of airline crashes will NOT decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time
(D) Lack of actual flying time is NOT an important contributor to pilot error in plane crashes.

They both equally weaken the conclusion when negated...

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2015, 13:16
Problem: Pilot error ----> 2/3 of commercial plane crashes
Airlines solution: Improve pilot communication skills through training -----> less pilot error ----> less commercial plane crashes
Author of argument believe: Compensate lack of actual flying time -----> way less pilot error ----> way less commercial plane crashes

So the author think lack of actual flying time contribute more to pilot error than the lack of communication skills. Hence should be the priority if we want to reduce pilot error.

D says just that.

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2015, 13:31
C was easy eliminate for me. One really good instructor taught me that any conclusion or inference cannot be the assumption of passage and C is a conclusion by itself because it states that "If pilot training did ____ the number will ____" so it is already concluding and can therefore never be a premise . An assumption has to be a premise.
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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2016, 11:23
IN this question :-

Premise - How can the airlines expect the crashes to go down,when they are teaching the comm skills,

P2 - The training cannot offset the lack of flying time

Conclusion :- The training is useless

Assumption :- There is a link between the Flying Hours and Crashes

Hence the only one phrasing it is C.

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2016, 02:15
Why is E not the right answer here. if you apply negation you get Communication skills are necessary for flying ...Please let me know...

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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05 May 2016, 01:50
src_saurav wrote:
Why is E not the right answer here. if you apply negation you get Communication skills are necessary for flying ...Please let me know...

How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes. To address this problem, the airlines have upgraded their training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit. But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilots’ lack of actual flying time. Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes.

Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?

(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors.
(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers.
(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.
(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.
(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs.

Hi src_saurav

E is a classic GMAT trap which talks about the premise rather than the assumption

Simplifying the argument:

Premise1 : Currentlessons focus on in-class lessons ( theory and comm)
Premise2 : The current type of lessons is inadquate

C: Increasing flying time during lessons will decrease the number of crashes

This is a logical gap type question.

To complete this argument.

Current lessons are inadequate. A: Because lack of actual flying time is causing error. So increasing flying lessons will decrease the number of crashes.

E panders to premise 1. It has nothing to do with the assumption or conclusion of the author
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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2017, 06:54
eliminated all except C and D. here key work is lack of flying hours.

C does not appear to be an assumption. it is just a conditional statement.

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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane   [#permalink] 30 Jul 2017, 06:54

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