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How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane

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Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 1891

Kudos [?]: 1130 [0], given: 93

Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
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Re: How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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New post 13 Dec 2017, 03:43
MA wrote:
How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes. To address this problem, the airlines have upgraded their training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit. But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilots' lack of actual flying time. Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes.

Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends?

(A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors.
(B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers.
(C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time.
(D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes.
(E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs.

Source: LSAT


Pilot error accounts for 2/3 of all crashes
+
Airlines upgraded training programs but these cannot compensate for lack of actual flying time
-->
airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes

When reading this, I am thinking about the gap between actual flying time, pilot error, and the training approaches. What I mean by that is the argument is assuming that more flying time --> less pilot error --> less crashes. How do we know this? Because the argument says tat "pilot error contributes to 2/3 of all such crashes." Therefore, what is the best way to reduce the commercial crashes? The best way is to attack the pilot error by presumably (here is where the gap is) increasing flying time!

(A) We don't need to ELIMINATE pilot errors per se. It would be great but we are only focused on "reducing" the number of crashes and who's to say that all pilot errors lead to crashes anyway?
(B) Out of scope. We don't care about the other training they go through. We are concerned about the flying time that these pilots receive and this answer choice does not give us nearly enough information for us to say that this is close to a good answer.
(E) Not necessary. The author is not assuming that communication skills are NOT necessary. The author is just rather saying that flying time is important.

Now for the tough ones:

(C) Not necessary. There are two gaps here that are so SMALL but significant. This is the type of stuff I would expect to see on a #19 question like this one. The two things are the words "focus" and "airline." The argument is talking about "commercial plane crashes" and then equates this to "airline crashes" in this answer choice. This seems okay but it actaully is not. An airline lets say has two different types of planes: 1) commercial plans and 2) other planes. The argument here says the following: "How do airlines expect to prevent COMMERCIAL plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all SUCH crashes (aka, commercial plane crashes)." Therefore, we can only talk about one type of plane, the COMMERCIAL plane. Let's say the airline has 50 commercial planes and 50 non-commercial plane. The training program is improved and instead of 3 crashes a year there are only 1 crashes a year. However, this doesn't mean that the overall airline crashes would decrease in this case. Maybe even the number of airline crashes went up! Either way, the shift here is from what we know about "commercial plane crashes" to "airline crashes." Also, albeit this is a much smaller point, if one was still stuck then I would appeal to the "focus" word there. Focus is a vague term but it seems to imply that the training program should be the main priority. The new training program does not have to be the main priority, we just have to increase flying time.
(D) Correct. A tough correct answer but it does address the gap mentioned above. If lack of actual flying time is NOT important contributor to pilot error, then it looks like the whole point of the flying time is unfounded. Plus, in this answer, there is no scope shift between "airline" and "commercial plane". Bingo.
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How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2017, 10:25
Expert,
I always difficulty in negating 'if - then' sentence; here how can we negate option 'c'?

Thank you in advance.

Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 3

How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane   [#permalink] 14 Dec 2017, 10:25

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