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If a society encourages freedom of thought and expression,

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Intern
Joined: 07 Oct 2009
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If a society encourages freedom of thought and expression, [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2009, 21:08
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If a society encourages freedom of thought and expression, then, during the time when it does so, creativity will flourish in that society. In the United States creativity flourished during the eighteenth century. It is clear, therefore, that freedom of thought was encouraged in the United States during the eighteenth century.
An error of reasoning of the same kind as one contained in the passage is present in each of the following arguments EXCEPT:
(A) According to the airline industry, airfares have to rise if air travel is to be made safer; since airfares were just raised, we can rest assured that air travel will therefore become safer.
(B) We can conclude that the Hillside police department has improved its efficiency, because crime rates are down in Hillside, and it is an established fact that crime rates go down when police departments increase their efficiency.
(C) People who are really interested in the preservation of wildlife obviously do not go hunting for big game; since Gerda has never gone hunting for big game and intends never to do so, it is clear that she is really interested in the preservation of wildlife.
(D) If the contents of a bottle are safe to drink, the bottle will not be marked “poison,” so, since the bottle is not marked “poison,” its contents will be safe to drink.
(E) None of the so-called Western democracies is really democratic, because, for a country to be democratic, the opinion of each of its citizens must have a meaningful effect on government, and in none of these countries does each citizen’s opinion have such an effect.

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Re: Find the similar logical error---I stuck here. [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2009, 21:24
IMO E.
In the question the logic used is If A --> B
B does not imply A.

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Re: Find the similar logical error---I stuck here. [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2009, 00:17
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For me it's A.

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Re: Find the similar logical error---I stuck here. [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2009, 01:26
IMO D.

Whats the OA?
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Re: Find the similar logical error---I stuck here. [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2009, 03:31
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Gracez,

thanks for this question.
In my opinion, this is one of the toughest kinds of questions in CR, because after analyzing the question, you have to analyze FIVE MORE questions (which are the answers).

If a society encourages freedom of thought and expression, then, during the time when it does so, creativity will flourish in that society. In the United States creativity flourished during the eighteenth century. It is clear, therefore, that freedom of thought was encouraged in the United States during the eighteenth century.

Paraphrasing:
Statement: if encourages freedom --> then we have creativity
(pay attention to the direction of the arrow)

Conclusion: if US had creativity --> then creativity was surely encouraged
(this is a flaw, because creativity must have come from another "source" or incentive)

The keywords here are: not necessarily

Now, let's go through the answers:

(A) According to the airline industry, airfares have to rise if air travel is to be made safer; since airfares were just raised, we can rest assured that air travel will therefore become safer.

Statement: safer --> airfares have to rise
Conclusion: air fares raised --> safer
not necessarily

(B) We can conclude that the Hillside police department has improved its efficiency, because crime rates are down in Hillside, and it is an established fact that crime rates go down when police departments increase their efficiency.

statement: crime rates down --> improved efficiency

conclusion: increase efficiency --> crime rates down
not necessarily

(C) People who are really interested in the preservation of wildlife obviously do not go hunting for big game; since Gerda has never gone hunting for big game and intends never to do so, it is clear that she is really interested in the preservation of wildlife.

statement: interested in preservation --> do not go hunting
conclusion: do not go hunting --> interested in preservation
not necessarily

(D) If the contents of a bottle are safe to drink, the bottle will not be marked “poison,” so, since the bottle is not marked “poison,” its contents will be safe to drink.

statement: safe to drink --> not remarked "poision"
conclusion: not remarked "poison" --> safe to drink

(E) None of the so-called Western democracies is really democratic, because, for a country to be democratic, the opinion of each of its citizens must have a meaningful effect on government, and in none of these countries does each citizen’s opinion have such an effect.

statement: opinion have an effect on govt --> democratic
conclusion: opinion does not have effect --> not democratic
BINGO! That is ok!

This is very tricky and time consuming.
I was between A and E. But since E's conclusion is only a negation of E's statement, is is not flawed. Therefore, I would choose E.

If you paraphrase A the way I did, you will find out that it is flawed as well.

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Re: Find the similar logical error---I stuck here. [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2009, 06:55
Thanks. great explaination

I narrowed down to A and E and ten went wrong.

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Re: Find the similar logical error---I stuck here. [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2009, 15:32
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IMO E - but the question took me 10 mins.
What should we do in the test if this kind of question appear ? Guess and progress or spend 5/6 mins to answer it correctly. What are your thoungs guys ?

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Re: Find the similar logical error---I stuck here. [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2009, 10:48
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I would go with A.

I think question is flawed for mistaken reversal error of reasoning. Choice A is mistaken reversal.
Choice E is mistaken negation.

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Re: Find the similar logical error---I stuck here. [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2009, 12:14
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IMO A

OA?

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Re: If a society encourages freedom of thought and expression, [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2013, 12:16
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New Gmat club project

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Re: If a society encourages freedom of thought and expression, [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2013, 15:02
gracezz wrote:
If a society encourages freedom of thought and expression, then, during the time when it does so, creativity will flourish in that society. In the United States creativity flourished during the eighteenth century. It is clear, therefore, that freedom of thought was encouraged in the United States during the eighteenth century.
An error of reasoning of the same kind as one contained in the passage is present in each of the following arguments EXCEPT:
(A) According to the airline industry, airfares have to rise if air travel is to be made safer; since airfares were just raised, we can rest assured that air travel will therefore become safer.
(B) We can conclude that the Hillside police department has improved its efficiency, because crime rates are down in Hillside, and it is an established fact that crime rates go down when police departments increase their efficiency.
(C) People who are really interested in the preservation of wildlife obviously do not go hunting for big game; since Gerda has never gone hunting for big game and intends never to do so, it is clear that she is really interested in the preservation of wildlife.
(D) If the contents of a bottle are safe to drink, the bottle will not be marked “poison,” so, since the bottle is not marked “poison,” its contents will be safe to drink.
(E) None of the so-called Western democracies is really democratic, because, for a country to be democratic, the opinion of each of its citizens must have a meaningful effect on government, and in none of these countries does each citizen’s opinion have such an effect.

This is parallel reasoning question.

ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

The form of this question is:
If A occurs --> B occurs
Conclusion: If B occurs ==> A must occurs.
(the reverse relationship is true).

This is wrong conclusion, our task is to find option that does NOT follow the above wrong reasoning.
Please note: it does not mean we find a correct reasoning.

(A) if air travel is to be made safer ==> Airfares have to rise [ X --> Y ]
Conclusion: since airfares were just raised ==> air travel will become safer. [Y happens --> X must happen]
==> Same error as in the argument. Thus, A is wrong.

(B) when police departments increase their efficiency ==> crime rates go down[X --> Y].
Conclusion: because crime rates are down in Hillside, the Hillside police department has improved its efficiency [ Y happens --> X must happen]
==> Same error as in the argument. Thus, B is wrong.

(C) People who are really interested in the preservation of wildlife ==> do not go hunting for big game; [X --> Y]
Conclusion: since Gerda has never gone hunting for big game and intends never to do so ==> Gerda is really interested in the preservation of wildlife. [Y happens --> X must happen]
==> Same error as in the argument. Thus, C is wrong.

(D) If the contents of a bottle are safe to drink ==> the bottle will not be marked “poison, [X --> Y]
Conclusion: the bottle is not marked “poison,” ==> its contents will be safe to drink. [Y happens --> X must happen]
==> Same error as in the argument. Thus, D is wrong.

(E) the opinion of each of its citizens must have a meaningful effect on government ==> for a country to be democratic [X --> Y]
Conclusion: none of these countries does each citizen’s opinion have such an effect ==> None of the so-called Western democracies is really democratic, because [ NOT X --> NOT Y]
==> Clearly, E does NOT follow the same error as in the argument. Thus, E is correct.

Hope it helps
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Re: If a society encourages freedom of thought and expression, [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2017, 21:06
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Re: If a society encourages freedom of thought and expression,   [#permalink] 15 Jun 2017, 21:06
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