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If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers

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If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Jan 2012, 05:12
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If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers 1 to 96, inclusive, what is the probability that n(n + 1)(n + 2) will be divisible by 8?

A. 1/4
B. 3/8
C. 1/2
D. 5/8
E. 3/4

Originally posted by RadhaKrishnan on 28 Jan 2012, 04:03.
Last edited by Bunuel on 28 Jan 2012, 05:12, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Probability  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2012, 05:12
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RadhaKrishnan wrote:
If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers 1 to 96, inclusive, what is the probability that n(n + 1)(n + 2) will be divisible by 8?

A. 1/4
B. 3/8
C. 1/2
D. 5/8
E. 3/4


\(n(n + 1)(n + 2)\) is divisible by 8 in two cases:

A. \(n=even\), in this case \(n+2=even\) too and as \(n\) and \(n+2\) are consecutive even integers one of them is also divisible by 4, so their product is divisible by 2*4=8;
B. \(n+1\) is itself divisible by 8;

(Notice that these two sets have no overlaps, as when \(n\) and \(n+2\) are even then \(n+1\) is odd and when \(n+1\) is divisible by 8 (so even) then \(n\) and \(n+2\) are odd.)

Now, in EACH following groups of 8 numbers: {1-8}, {9-16}, {17-24}, ..., {89-96} there are EXACTLY 5 numbers satisfying the above two condition for n, for example in {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} n can be: 2, 4, 6, 8 (n=even), or 7 (n+1 is divisible by 8). So, the overall probability is 5/8.

Answer: D.

Similar question: divisible-by-12-probability-121561.html

Hope it helps.
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Re: Probability  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2012, 01:17
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Bunuel wrote:
RadhaKrishnan wrote:
If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers 1 to 96, inclusive, what is the probability that n(n + 1)(n + 2) will be divisible by 8?

A. 1/4
B. 3/8
C. 1/2
D. 5/8
E. 3/4


\(n(n + 1)(n + 2)\) is divisible by 8 in two cases:

A. \(n=even\), in this case \(n+2=even\) too and as \(n\) and \(n+2\) are consecutive even integers one of them is also divisible by 4, so their product is divisible by 2*4=8;
B. \(n+1\) is itself divisible by 8;


from here u can also think this way (though it is a lil bit similar)
find how many numbers are divisible by 2 or 8
96/2=48
96/8=12
(48+12)/96=60/96=5/8
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Re: If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2012, 08:03
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+1 D

Other way is analyzing if there is a patron:

1) If n is an even number:
n:2, then 2*3*4 = 24 (divisible by 8)
n:4, then 4*5*6 = 120 (divisible by 8)
n:6, then 6*7*8= again divisible by 8
We have a patron.
So, we have 48 even possible values.

2) If n is an odd number:
This only can take place when n+1 is multiple of 8.
So, we have 12 possible values.

Then, \(\frac{(48 + 12)}{96} = \frac{5}{8}\)

D
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Re: PS QUESTION  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2012, 02:22
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8
Any integer n(n+1)(n+2) will be divisible by 8 if n is a multiple of 2. This gives us 48 numbers between 1 and 96.

Additionally, all those numbers for which (n+1) is a multiple of 8 are also divisible by 8. This gives us a further 12 numbers. These numbers are all distinct from the first set because the first set had only even numbers and this set has only odd numbers.

Therefore probability = (48+12)/96 = 60/96 = 5/8

Option (D)
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Re: If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2014, 00:24
12
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goodyear2013 wrote:
If n is an integer between 1 and 96 (inclusive), what is the probability that n×(n+1)×(n+2) is divisible by 8?

A. 1/4
B. 1/2
C. 5/8
D. 3/4
E. 7/8



In such problem always follow a simple rule.
The divisor is 8. So take number from 1 to 8 as example
If n=1, n(n+1)(n+2)= Not divisible by 8
If n=2, n(n+1)(n+2)= yes
If n=3, n(n+1)(n+2)=No. Do upto 8

So, 5 out of 8 are divisible. Hence, 5/8 is the answer.


This rule is applicable if last number(96 in this case) is divisible by 8.
If you had to pick from 1-98, still you can apply the rule but be careful. But there is one additional step.
Hopefully you can find answer in less than 60 seconds
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Re: If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2014, 02:00
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Here is the dumb way of doing this question, if the smart ones don't strike your head during the test :P

Since we are looking at divisibility by 8, we consider n to be between 1 and 8. We can multiply the result by 12 - since 96/8 = 12.

Attachment:
Capture.PNG
Capture.PNG [ 6.47 KiB | Viewed 84080 times ]

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If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers  [#permalink]

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Re: If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2013, 13:07
3
there are total 48 numbers in the form n*n+1*n+2 starting from 2,4,6,8,10.....96 for which it is divisible by 8.

Additionally,there are 12 cases if there is 8 or a multiple of 8 that also divides the form n*n+1*n+2 which starts from 7,15,23,31....95.


The above cases both are non-overlapping, so we can add them.

adding the above two cases 48+12=60
ans=60/96=5/8 which is D.


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Re: Probability  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2012, 09:10
2
1
Bunuel wrote:
RadhaKrishnan wrote:
If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers 1 to 96, inclusive, what is the probability that n(n + 1)(n + 2) will be divisible by 8?

A. 1/4
B. 3/8
C. 1/2
D. 5/8
E. 3/4


\(n(n + 1)(n + 2)\) is divisible by 8 in two cases:

A. \(n=even\), in this case \(n+2=even\) too and as \(n\) and \(n+2\) are consecutive even integers one of them is also divisible by 4, so their product is divisible by 2*4=8;
B. \(n+1\) is itself divisible by 8;

(Notice that these two sets have no overlaps, as when \(n\) and \(n+2\) are even then \(n+1\) is odd and when \(n+1\) is divisible by 8 (so even) then \(n\) and \(n+2\) are odd.)

Now, in EACH following groups of 8 numbers: {1-8}, {9-16}, {17-24}, ..., {89-96} there are EXACTLY 5 numbers satisfying the above two condition for n, for example in {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} n can be: 2, 4, 6, 8 (n=even), or 7 (n+1 is divisible by 8). So, the overall probability is 5/8.

Answer: D.

Similar question: divisible-by-12-probability-121561.html

Hope it helps.


Bunnel - Thanks for the explanation. I did not take the condition when n+1 is also divisible by 8
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Re: PS QUESTION  [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2012, 01:05
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jayaddula wrote:
Bunuel wrote:
anjolaolu wrote:
(PLS CAN SOMEONE KINDLY EXPLAIN WHY THE ANSWER OF THE QUESTION BELOW IS D, THANK YOU)

If an integer n is to be chosen at random from integers 1 to 96 , inclusive , what is the probability that n(n+1)(n+2) will be divisible by 8.

a)1/4
b)3/8
c)1/2
d)5/8
e)3/4


Merging similar topics. Please ask if anything remains unclear.


Hi,
please correct where i am going wrong with my apporach.

between 1 and 96 inclusive, there are 12 multiples of 8 i.e. 8,16,24,32,40,48,54,64,72,80,88,96. so, if n is any of the 12 numbers, then n.(n+1)(n+2) is divisible by 8.

now, based on the above listed, the numbers for n+1 can be 7,15,23,31,39,47,53,63,71,79,87,95 and similary for
n+2 = 6,14,22,30,38,46,52,62,70,78,86,96.

so, a total of 36, hence 36/98 = 3/8 which is incorrect.

thanks
jay


There are more cases for n(n+1)(n+2) to be divisible by 8. Please read the solution above.

n(n+1)(n+2) is divisible by 8 in two cases:

A. \(n=even\), in this case \(n+2=even\) too and as \(n\) and \(n+2\) are consecutive even integers one of them is also divisible by 4, so their product is divisible by 2*4=8;
B. \(n+1\) is itself divisible by 8.
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Re: If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2015, 05:40
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RadhaKrishnan wrote:
If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers 1 to 96, inclusive, what is the probability that n(n + 1)(n + 2) will be divisible by 8?

A. 1/4
B. 3/8
C. 1/2
D. 5/8
E. 3/4


Alternate solution:

Look at the first few sets of 3s:
1,2,3
2,3,4
3,4,5
4,5,6
5,6,7
6,7,8
7,8,9
8,9,10


We see that out of the above 8 sets, favorable cases are 5 (in red). Thus the probability is 5/8. This will repeat till we have 88,89,90 making it 9 total patterns.

Now consider after 88,89,90, we get

89,90,91
90,91,92
91,92,93
92,93,94
93,94,95
94,95,96
95,96,97
96,97,98

So we have another 5 favorable out of the remaining 8 sets. Thus we have final 5/8 as the probability.

Thus the final probability = {(5/8)*9+(5/8)*1} / (9+1) = 5/8
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Re: PS QUESTION  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2012, 13:07
1
Bunuel wrote:
anjolaolu wrote:
(PLS CAN SOMEONE KINDLY EXPLAIN WHY THE ANSWER OF THE QUESTION BELOW IS D, THANK YOU)

If an integer n is to be chosen at random from integers 1 to 96 , inclusive , what is the probability that n(n+1)(n+2) will be divisible by 8.

a)1/4
b)3/8
c)1/2
d)5/8
e)3/4


Merging similar topics. Please ask if anything remains unclear.


Hi,
please correct where i am going wrong with my apporach.

between 1 and 96 inclusive, there are 12 multiples of 8 i.e. 8,16,24,32,40,48,54,64,72,80,88,96. so, if n is any of the 12 numbers, then n.(n+1)(n+2) is divisible by 8.

now, based on the above listed, the numbers for n+1 can be 7,15,23,31,39,47,53,63,71,79,87,95 and similary for
n+2 = 6,14,22,30,38,46,52,62,70,78,86,96.

so, a total of 36, hence 36/98 = 3/8 which is incorrect.

thanks
jay
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Re: Probability  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2013, 01:39
1
Bunuel wrote:
RadhaKrishnan wrote:
If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers 1 to 96, inclusive, what is the probability that n(n + 1)(n + 2) will be divisible by 8?

A. 1/4
B. 3/8
C. 1/2
D. 5/8
E. 3/4


\(n(n + 1)(n + 2)\) is divisible by 8 in two cases:

A. \(n=even\), in this case \(n+2=even\) too and as \(n\) and \(n+2\) are consecutive even integers one of them is also divisible by 4, so their product is divisible by 2*4=8;
B. \(n+1\) is itself divisible by 8;

(Notice that these two sets have no overlaps, as when \(n\) and \(n+2\) are even then \(n+1\) is odd and when \(n+1\) is divisible by 8 (so even) then \(n\) and \(n+2\) are odd.)

Now, in EACH following groups of 8 numbers: {1-8}, {9-16}, {17-24}, ..., {89-96} there are EXACTLY 5 numbers satisfying the above two condition for n, for example in {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} n can be: 2, 4, 6, 8 (n=even), or 7 (n+1 is divisible by 8). So, the overall probability is 5/8.

Answer: D.

Similar question: divisible-by-12-probability-121561.html

Hope it helps.


Hi,

Can we use this formula for this problem
# of multiples of x in the\ range = frac{Last multiple of x in the range - First multiple of x in the range}{x}+1,

Which give value of = 12

total outcome is 96,

Please explain this with the above formula.

Regards,
Rrsnathan.
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Re: If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2014, 13:42
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Bunuel: Please suggest where I went wrong;

Although I understand your solution, I have a doubt on my approach.

I multiplied n(n+1)(n+2) and I got n3+3n2+2n ... raised to the power;

So what I thought was...I need to find the numbers for which the quotient is zero for the above expression....since the last number of the above expression is 2n, it just needs a minimum 4 to be divisible by 8. Moreover a minimum n=4 will make n3 and 3n2 easily divisible by 8; Therefore, I thought that the above expression will be true for all the multiples of 4...there are 24 multiples of 4 from 1 to 96 inclusive, hence my answer comes out to be 24/96=1/4;

I will be really thankful to you if you can tell me where did I go wrong!!

Thanks.
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Re: If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2014, 06:05
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execnitinsharma wrote:
Bunuel: Please suggest where I went wrong;

Although I understand your solution, I have a doubt on my approach.

I multiplied n(n+1)(n+2) and I got n3+3n2+2n ... raised to the power;

So what I thought was...I need to find the numbers for which the quotient is zero for the above expression....since the last number of the above expression is 2n, it just needs a minimum 4 to be divisible by 8. Moreover a minimum n=4 will make n3 and 3n2 easily divisible by 8; Therefore, I thought that the above expression will be true for all the multiples of 4...there are 24 multiples of 4 from 1 to 96 inclusive, hence my answer comes out to be 24/96=1/4;

I will be really thankful to you if you can tell me where did I go wrong!!

Thanks.


You are missing cases there. Won't n^3+3n^2+2n when n is any even number? Also it can be divisible by 8, even if individual terms are not but the sum is. For example check for n =7.
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Re: If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2016, 02:41
1
megha_2709 wrote:
Bunuel wrote:
RadhaKrishnan wrote:
If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers 1 to 96, inclusive, what is the probability that n(n + 1)(n + 2) will be divisible by 8?

A. 1/4
B. 3/8
C. 1/2
D. 5/8
E. 3/4


\(n(n + 1)(n + 2)\) is divisible by 8 in two cases:

A. \(n=even\), in this case \(n+2=even\) too and as \(n\) and \(n+2\) are consecutive even integers one of them is also divisible by 4, so their product is divisible by 2*4=8;
B. \(n+1\) is itself divisible by 8;

(Notice that these two sets have no overlaps, as when \(n\) and \(n+2\) are even then \(n+1\) is odd and when \(n+1\) is divisible by 8 (so even) then \(n\) and \(n+2\) are odd.)

Now, in EACH following groups of 8 numbers: {1-8}, {9-16}, {17-24}, ..., {89-96} there are EXACTLY 5 numbers satisfying the above two condition for n, for example in {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} n can be: 2, 4, 6, 8 (n=even), or 7 (n+1 is divisible by 8). So, the overall probability is 5/8.

Answer: D.

Similar question: divisible-by-12-probability-121561.html

Hope it helps.


Hi,

Thank you for posting such a good explanation , however I could not understand how can you categorize the numbers in group of 8 . Probability is Fav/Total . Shouldn't we consider all 96 values and find out how many are satisfying our conditions , cant understand how you arrive at 5/8. If you can please explain.
Sorry if this sounds too basic.

Regards
Megha


In EACH following groups of 8 numbers: {1-8}, {9-16}, {17-24}, ..., {89-96} there are EXACTLY 5 numbers satisfying the above two condition for n, for example in {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} n can be: 2, 4, 6, 8 (n=even), or 7 (n+1 is divisible by 8). So, the overall probability is 5/8
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Re: If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2016, 08:55
1
RadhaKrishnan wrote:
If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers 1 to 96, inclusive, what is the probability that n(n + 1)(n + 2) will be divisible by 8?

A. 1/4
B. 3/8
C. 1/2
D. 5/8
E. 3/4


We are given that an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers 1 to 96 inclusive, and we need to determine the probability that n(n + 1)(n + 2) will be divisible by 8.

We should recall that when a number is divisible by 8, it is divisible by 2^3, i.e., three factors of 2. We should also recognize that n(n + 1)(n + 2) is the product of three consecutive integers.

Case 1: n is even. Any time that n is even, n + 2 will also be even. Moreover, either n or n + 2 will be divisible by 4, and thus n(n + 1)(n + 2) will contain three factors of 2 and will be divisible by 8.

Since there are 96 integers between 1 and 96, inclusive, and half of those integers are even, there are 48 even integers (i.e., 2, 4, 6, …, 96) from 1 to 96 inclusive. Thus, when n is even, there are 48 instances in which n(n + 1)(n + 2) will be divisible by 8.

Case 2: n is odd. If n is odd, then n(n + 1)(n + 2) still can be divisible by 8 if the factor (n + 1) is a multiple of 8. So, let’s determine the number of multiples of 8 between 1 and 96 inclusive.

Number of multiples of 8 = (96 - 8)/8 + 1 = 88/8 + 1 = 12. Thus, when n is odd, there are 12 instances in which n(n + 1)(n + 2) will be divisible by 8.

In total, there are 48 + 12 = 60 outcomes in which n(n + 1)(n + 2) will be divisible by 8.

Thus, the probability that n(n + 1)(n + 2) is divisible by 8 is: 60/96 = 10/16 = 5/8.

Answer: D
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Re: If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2017, 07:48
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My approach was similar to Bunuel's and AdmitJA's, but I wanted to offer it because it was simple and quick. I was able to do this one in just over a minute.

When I read the question, I paid attention to two things right away. The first was that \((n)(n+1)(n+2)\) is the product of three consecutive integers. Because \(8=2^3\), I knew that I needed to find three 2s in the factorization of whatever 3 consecutive numbers I used. The second thing that I noticed is that 96 is divisible by 8. This indicated to me that whatever pattern I noticed in the first 8 numbers would be repeated 12 times through 96. Since I recognized that the pattern would be repeated, I knew that I only needed to look at the first 8 numbers.

I listed the numbers out: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8.

Since 8 has three 2s in its factorization, I knew that n=6,7,8 would all be divisible by 8. I saw that n=2 would work because 2 has one 2 and 4 has two 2s. Similarly, I saw that n=4 would work because 4 has two 2s and 6 has one 2. That gives us 5 options in the first 8 numbers. So the answer is 5/8.

As mentioned above, this ratio will be the same for every 8 numbers, so 5/8 will be true of 8x where x is any positive integer. A trickier version of this question would have been to make the number NOT divisible by 8. In that case, I think you should still find the pattern for every 8 numbers, but you'd also want to look at the "extra" numbers to figure out the fraction.

Take 53, for instance. You'd want to recognize that 8 goes into 53 six times with a remainder of 5. This means that you'd have the \(5/8\) ratio for 6 sets of 8 but also an "incomplete" set of n = 1,2,3,4,5. In the first 48 numbers, you'd have 30 that would be divisible by 8. In the "incomplete" set you'd have 2 (since n=2 and n=4 are both divisible by 8). Thus you'd have 32/53 numbers divisible by 8.
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Re: If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers  [#permalink]

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siddreal wrote:
RadhaKrishnan wrote:
If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers 1 to 96, inclusive, what is the probability that n(n + 1)(n + 2) will be divisible by 8?

A. 1/4
B. 3/8
C. 1/2
D. 5/8
E. 3/4


VeritasPrepKarishma Pls show us your approach to this question. Though I understood the solutions mentioned in the thread, I am finding it difficult to believe that I might think of this approach during actual exam.


What I would do is pretty much what Bunuel has done in his solution.

Note that the moment I see n(n + 1)(n + 2), I think of divisibility in a bunch of consecutive numbers.
In 3 consecutive integers, if n is even, (n+2) is even too. If there are two consecutive even integers, one of them will be a multiple of 4.
So if n is even, (n+2) is even too and one of them is definitely a multiple of 4.
So n(n + 1)(n + 2) becomes divisible by 8 in each case that n is even.
From 1 to 96, half the cases have even n so this mean 48 cases.

Alternatively, when n is odd, n+1 is even. But then n+2 is odd too. So to be a multiple of 8, (n+1) will need to be a multiple of 8.
Hence this gives us another 12 cases (n+1 goes from 8 to 96).
Note that there will be no overlap in the two since here n is definitely odd.

Total we have 60 cases of the possible 96 which gives 60/96 = 5/8

For these properties of numbers, see
https://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2011/0 ... c-or-math/
https://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2011/0 ... h-part-ii/
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Re: If an integer n is to be chosen at random from the integers   [#permalink] 15 May 2018, 10:26

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