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# If the majority of the residents of the apartment complex

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Director
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If the majority of the residents of the apartment complex [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2005, 10:26
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If the majority of the residents of the apartment complex complain that their apartments are infested with ants, then the management of the complex will have to engage the services of an exterminator. But the majority of the residents of the complex indicate that their apartments are virtually free of ants. Therefore, the management of the complex will not have to engage the services of an exterminator.
Which one of the following arguments contains a flawed pattern of reasoning parallel to that contained in the argument above?
(A) A theater will be constructed in the fall if funds collected are at least sufficient to cover its cost. To date, the funds collected exceed the theaterâ€™s cost, so the theater will be constructed in the fall.
(B) The number of flights operated by the airlines cannot be reduced unless the airlines can collect higher airfares. But people will not pay higher airfares, so it is not the case that the number of flights will be reduced.
(C) In order for the company to start the proposed building project, both the town council and the mayor must approve. Since the mayor has already approved, the building project will be started soon.
(D) Most employees will attend the company picnic if the entertainment committee is successful in getting a certain band to play at the picnic. But that band will be out of the country on the day of the picnic, so it is not true that most employees will attend.
(E) Either the schoolâ€™s principal or two-thirds of the parent council must approve a change in the school dress code in order for the code to be changed. Since the principal will not approve a change in the dress code, the code will not be changed.
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01 Mar 2005, 11:24
Like "B".....majority determines the course of action. I think B gives us that. Tough one.
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01 Mar 2005, 12:15
the structure of the argument is
if A then B
Since not A therefore not B

I guess (D) is the most parallel.
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01 Mar 2005, 12:39
Stem: A (ants)->B (exterminator); non A, therefore non B.

(A) A theater will be constructed in the fall if funds collected are at least sufficient to cover its cost. To date, the funds collected exceed the theaterâ€™s cost, so the theater will be constructed in the fall.
A (sufficient funds)->B (theater be constructed). A, therefore B.
(correct logic) Not same.

(B) The number of flights operated by the airlines cannot be reduced unless the airlines can collect higher airfares. But people will not pay higher airfares, so it is not the case that the number of flights will be reduced.
non A (less flights) if non B (higher fares). Non B, therefore non A.
(Correct logic) Not same.

(C) In order for the company to start the proposed building project, both the town council and the mayor must approve. Since the mayor has already approved, the building project will be started soon.
A (start project) only if B (council approve) and C (mayor approve). C, therefore A.
(Wrong logic) Not same.

(D) Most employees will attend the company picnic if the entertainment committee is successful in getting a certain band to play at the picnic. But that band will be out of the country on the day of the picnic, so it is not true that most employees will attend.
A (band) -> B (most people attend). Non A, therefore non B.
Exactly the same logic with stem.

(E) Either the schoolâ€™s principal or two-thirds of the parent council must approve a change in the school dress code in order for the code to be changed. Since the principal will not approve a change in the dress code, the code will not be changed.
If A (principle approve) Or B (parent council approve) then C (change dress code). Non A, therefore Non C.
(Wrong logic) Not similar.

(D)
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01 Mar 2005, 12:43
I think it is either D or E;

Reasoning:

iIf A (beein A not absolute) then B but it could be possible that there should be B without A.

that's why the most similar is D:

Most people will go to picnic if there is a band ) If A then B
but, as there is no band, it reasons as: no B, then no A.

but it could be possible for the employees to go to the picnic even though there is no band righ? as it would be possible for the management of the complex to engage the services of the exterminator even if there is a minority of complains of even one complain, right??
correct me if I am wrong.

Kevin
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01 Mar 2005, 12:48
I opted for 'E' but going thru' HongHu's post I realized my oversight
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01 Mar 2005, 17:56
HongHu wrote:
Stem: A (ants)->B (exterminator); non A, therefore non B.

(A) A theater will be constructed in the fall if funds collected are at least sufficient to cover its cost. To date, the funds collected exceed the theaterâ€™s cost, so the theater will be constructed in the fall.
A (sufficient funds)->B (theater be constructed). A, therefore B.
(correct logic) Not same.

(B) The number of flights operated by the airlines cannot be reduced unless the airlines can collect higher airfares. But people will not pay higher airfares, so it is not the case that the number of flights will be reduced.
non A (less flights) if non B (higher fares). Non B, therefore non A.
(Correct logic) Not same.

(C) In order for the company to start the proposed building project, both the town council and the mayor must approve. Since the mayor has already approved, the building project will be started soon.
A (start project) only if B (council approve) and C (mayor approve). C, therefore A.
(Wrong logic) Not same.

(D) Most employees will attend the company picnic if the entertainment committee is successful in getting a certain band to play at the picnic. But that band will be out of the country on the day of the picnic, so it is not true that most employees will attend.
A (band) -> B (most people attend). Non A, therefore non B.
Exactly the same logic with stem.

(E) Either the schoolâ€™s principal or two-thirds of the parent council must approve a change in the school dress code in order for the code to be changed. Since the principal will not approve a change in the dress code, the code will not be changed.
If A (principle approve) Or B (parent council approve) then C (change dress code). Non A, therefore Non C.
(Wrong logic) Not similar.

(D)

Thanks HongHu...

agree with (D)..
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03 Mar 2005, 02:14
HongHu wrote:
Stem: A (ants)->B (exterminator); non A, therefore non B.

(B) The number of flights operated by the airlines cannot be reduced unless the airlines can collect higher airfares. But people will not pay higher airfares, so it is not the case that the number of flights will be reduced.
non A (less flights) if non B (higher fares). Non B, therefore non A.
(Correct logic) Not same.

(D)

B and D are the same logic, but are not the same stem.
Thanks HounHu
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03 Mar 2005, 05:56
I chose B first but after going through HongHu's post, I choose D.
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22 Mar 2005, 16:20
i guess it is B

HERE'S MY EXPLANATION
B) The number of flights operated by the airlines cannot be reduced unless the airlines can collect higher airfares. But people will not pay higher airfares, so it is not the case that the number of flights will be reduced.

higher airfares----->reduced The number of flights
no higher airfares------>no reduced The number of flights
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22 Mar 2005, 17:48
HongHu great explanation.

A-->B
not A -->not B
But here A is not absolute A,
Between 'D' and 'E'. I opt for 'E'

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22 Mar 2005, 17:55
it has to be E ..logic is
if A then B
if !A then !B
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25 Mar 2005, 11:37
chunjuwu wrote:
HongHu wrote:
Stem: A (ants)->B (exterminator); non A, therefore non B.

(B) The number of flights operated by the airlines cannot be reduced unless the airlines can collect higher airfares. But people will not pay higher airfares, so it is not the case that the number of flights will be reduced.
non A (less flights) if non B (higher fares). Non B, therefore non A.
(Correct logic) Not same.

(D)

B and D are the same logic, but are not the same stem.

B and D are NOT the same logic.

In B It says non less flight unless higher fare, which is equivalent to if A (less flight) then B (higher fare) must happen. This is also equivalent to if non B then non A. Translate to common langurage, if higher fare is not possible then less flight is not possible. This is why B has correct logic.

In D it says attend picnic if band. This is equivalent to A (attend) if B (band), or if B then A. This is also equivalent to if non A then non B. But not equivalent to if non B then non A. Translate to common langrage, no band does not mean no attend, as D claims. This is why D is wrong.

The stem also contains wrong logic like D.

You need to be very careful to the words "unless" and "if", and the place of "if". If A then B (A->B) is different from A if B (B->A), also different from A unless B (non B->A).
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25 Mar 2005, 12:51
HongHu wrote:
You need to be very careful to the words "unless" and "if", and the place of "if". If A then B (A->B) is different from A if B (B->A), also different from A unless B (non B->A).

I chose B originally, and my interpretion for B was:
if B (higer fare) ---> A (reduced flights),
so if Non B (no higher fare ) ------> non A (not reduced flights).

Would you tell me where I was wrong?
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25 Mar 2005, 13:13
B says "The number of flights operated by the airlines cannot be reduced unless the airlines can collect higher airfares", ie., no less flight unless higher airfares. It is different from saying if high fare then less flight.

For example, if I say I won't take an umbrella unless it rains. That means if it doesn't rain then for sure I won't take an umbrella. However, if it does rain, I may or may not take an umbrella.

So if no higher fair, then no less flight. However, if they can charge a higher fair, there may or may not be less flight.
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Re: If the majority of the residents of the apartment complex [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2016, 21:37
anandnk wrote:
the structure of the argument is
if A then B
Since not A therefore not B

I guess (D) is the most parallel.

a neat explaination thx a lot~
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Re: If the majority of the residents of the apartment complex   [#permalink] 02 Dec 2016, 21:37
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