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# In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the

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In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the  [#permalink]

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04 Nov 2017, 08:15
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In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the Golden Fleece, demanding from the 24 knights nominated to join it uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East.

A) it uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East

B) him uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and defense of Christianity, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East

C) it to be uncompromisingly loyal, to devote themselves to the glory of God, and to defense the Christian faith, if need be, on an Eastern crusade

D)it uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and a commitment to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East

E) him uncompromising fealty, devoting themselves to the glory of God, and defending the Christian faith by going on a crusade to the East, if necessary

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In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the  [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2019, 16:43
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Helium wrote:
chetan2u wrote:
saswata4s wrote:
In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the Golden Fleece, demanding from the 24 knights nominated to join it uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East.

A) it uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East

B) him uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and defense of Christianity, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East

C) it to be uncompromisingly loyal, to devote themselves to the glory of God, and to defense the Christian faith, if need be, on an Eastern crusade

D) it uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and a commitment to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East

E) him uncompromising fealty, devoting themselves to the glory of God, and defending the Christian faith by going on a crusade to the East, if necessary

Hi..

look at the 3-2 split first

1) IT vs HIM
the knights were to join " the order of golden fleece", so pronoun should be IT and not him
B and D eliminated

I have a doubt -

If I read the sentence as below :

Original sentence - In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the Golden Fleece, demanding from the 24 knights nominated to join it uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East.

To be read as - In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the Golden Fleece, demanding uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East, from the 24 knights nominated to join him/it.

Can you help me understand selection between him/it ?

souvik101990, pushpitkc, abhimahna, Skywalker18

generis

Helium , sorry for the delay, Catching up!

• Short answer - use 4 steps (I did not use this method)

1) what Philip demands is directly connected to founding the Order.
Demanding modifies the previous clause.
At minimum, we can say that "demanding X, Y, and Z" IS connected to joining the Order.

2) we cannot tell whether Philip was a member of the Order, so the knights might have been nominated to join him in a general or overall sense.
That interpretation, though, may not be as certain as the "at minimum" concept in (1). If you understand what fealty means, you probably should read about the approach that I used, which is below.

3) nominated to join usually connotes nominated to join a prestigious organization such as the Order. Choose D and confirm by checking parallelism.

4) Check parallelism. Fealty, devotion, and commitment are similar nouns. They describe character traits.
Fealty, devotion, and defense are not similar nouns. Defense does not describe a character trait.

Answer D

• My actual approach

I did not think that the IT/HIM decision was a straightforward choice.
I analyzed parallelism first and got rid of 3 choices; examined IT/HIM but was not convinced; returned to parallelism and chose D; and made sure that D was not nonsensical.

• Split #1 - demands are not parallel in A, C, and E

A) uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and to defend the Christian faith

C) uncompromisingly loyal, to devote themselves to the glory of God, and to defense the Christian faith
In addition to lacking parallelism, there is no such thing as "demanding ... to defense." To defend is correct.

E) uncompromising fealty, devoting themselves to the glory of God, and defending the Christian faith
-- the ___ING words seem to control (there are two), but they are very awkward and have noun forms (devotion and defense). GMAC usually prefers noun forms.
Awkward: demanding ... devoting themselves to the glory of God...demanding . . . defending is also awkward

Eliminate A, C, and E

Eliminating B on the basis of parallelism was harder. I turned momentarily to HIM/IT, but found issues.

• Split #2: IT or HIM?T

Issue: FEALTY complicates the IT/HIM choice

I could not choose immediately between HIM in B and IT in D.

-- tension exists between fealty (to HIM) and nominated (probably for membership in an order, IT)
Fealty is a particular kind of loyalty.
Fealty refers to a feudal underling's sworn loyalty or allegiance TO a lord [TO an aristocrat].

Philip was demanding fealty, which suggests that he was demanding that the knights join HIM with an oath of allegiance.

So it's possible, maybe even likely, that the knights were nominated to join HIM as members in the order.
Just one problem.
We do not know whether Philip was a member of the order. If he was not a member, perhaps we must say that the knights were not really nominated to join Philip directly.

We do know that the knights were nominated to join the order, because the demands are connected to the setup of the order.
(demanding modifies the previous clause about setting up the order)

Maybe, I thought to myself, I am importing my own knowledge about fealty and defining it too narrowly. (Then again, it's a vocabulary word.)

I could not decide. I returned to parallelism.

• The parallelism in B is not as good as that in D.
( abhi2707 , the analysis of parallelism above and this analysis may address your sense that parallelism is off. Not sure. In a separate post I addressed, X, Y, and a Z.)

I really wish I had caught this issue in the first round of parallelism analysis.
I would have simply checked to make sure that D was grammatical and made sense.

Parallelism in B
(B) fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and defense of Christianity

defense is an action noun.
defense is the action of defending from or resisting attack. HERE

fealty and devotion are not action nouns. They are "abstract" nouns.
fealty and devotion are nouns that refer to human qualities.
They involve character, emotions, and will.
They do describe the character trait itself (a person is loyal and devoted.)
But fealty and devotion also suggest commitment, which in turn suggests an ongoing promise in word and deed to possess and display a character trait.

defense does not describe a character trait or suggest commitment.

Parallelism in D
(D) fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and a commitment to defend the Christian faith

a commitment to defend is an abstract noun.
More importantly, a commitment to defend describes a character trait.
a commitment to defend is similar to fealty and devotion

In a list whose first two items are fealty and devotion, a commitment to defend (D) is better than defense is (B).
That is, parallelism in Option D is better than option B.

Eliminate B, but check.

• CONFIRM? Check nominated [to join] in context

I decided that I could defend the IT in (D) based on nominated in overall context coupled with logic based on what I knew for sure.

Nominated to join the Order (thus IT) may be stronger than nominated to join Philip (HIM) in part because we don't know whether Philip was a member of the order and in part because of syntax. (Fealty, though, still complicates matters, and ultimately parallelism decided the issue.)

demanding tells us what happened along with the setup of the order.
-- [COMMA + present participle] = [COMMA + verbING] refers to the previous clause in which Philip set up the Order.
demanding is connected to the setup of the order.

We know that the knights were invited to join the Order.

We do not know whether PHILIP was a member of the order.
If he was not a member, then perhaps in a strict sense the knights were not nominated to join HIM.
That is, if Philip was not a member of the Order, perhaps the knights were not nominated to join Philip (him) as a co-member. Still, the order was Philip's. He was deeply committed to the whole sordid enterprise of the crusades.

NOMINATED?

Nominate typically connotes a formal proposal that someone be a candidate for an award such as joining an elite order.
I was not willing to depend on that definition alone at the outset.
Fealty complicated matters.
Plus, I could make the case for both IT and HIM.

Both of these sentences are defensible.

Duke: Knight, become my vassal. Because you are a knight of demonstrated character, I nominate you to join me in a general sense and to join this Order in a particular sense—and I demand X, Y, and Z.

Duke: Knight, I nominate you to join this Order, and I demand X, Y, and Z.

But parallelism analysis had led me to pick D.

In the end:
I did not know whether Philip was a member of the order.
I did know that the knights had been invited to join the order.
Nominated usually connotes becoming a candidate for an honor such as joining an elite order. At the least, "nominated" for the order is not outlandish.

Having just decided that the parallelism in D was better than that in B, I simply had to confirm that the choice of D was okay: Did D make sense?

Philip set up the Order, demanding fealty, devotion, and a commitment to defend . . . FROM the knights [who had been] nominated to join the Order.

That construction (mostly) makes sense. Fealty is a little weird, but parallelism trumps that weirdness. (D) is confirmed.

This logical analysis was not easy to describe.
Thinking about issues this subtle is a lot easier than describing those thoughts.

The answer is D.

I hope that analysis helps.
If it does not, please ask another question. I'll be happy to try to help.
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Re: In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the  [#permalink]

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04 Nov 2017, 08:30
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saswata4s wrote:
In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the Golden Fleece, demanding from the 24 knights nominated to join it uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East.

A) it uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East

B) him uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and defense of Christianity, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East

C) it to be uncompromisingly loyal, to devote themselves to the glory of God, and to defense the Christian faith, if need be, on an Eastern crusade

D)it uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and a commitment to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East

E) him uncompromising fealty, devoting themselves to the glory of God, and defending the Christian faith by going on a crusade to the East, if necessary

Hi..

look at the 3-2 split first

1) IT vs HIM
the knights were to join " the order of golden fleece", so pronoun should be IT and not him
B and D eliminated

2) a crusade to east vs eastern crusade..
as per meaning a crusade to the east is correct
C eliminated

3) parallelism
the three items are noun..
uncompromising fealty, devotion and a commitment

Only D left
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In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 23 Jun 2019, 12:20
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chetan2u wrote:
saswata4s wrote:
In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the Golden Fleece, demanding from the 24 knights nominated to join it uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East.

A) it uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East

B) him uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and defense of Christianity, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East

C) it to be uncompromisingly loyal, to devote themselves to the glory of God, and to defense the Christian faith, if need be, on an Eastern crusade

D)it uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and a commitment to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East

E) him uncompromising fealty, devoting themselves to the glory of God, and defending the Christian faith by going on a crusade to the East, if necessary

Hi..

look at the 3-2 split first

1) IT vs HIM
the knights were to join " the order of golden fleece", so pronoun should be IT and not him
B and D eliminated

I have a doubt -

If I read the sentence as below :

Original sentence - In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the Golden Fleece, demanding from the 24 knights nominated to join it uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East.

To be read as - In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the Golden Fleece, demanding uncompromising fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and to defend the Christian faith, if need be, by going on a crusade to the East, from the 24 knights nominated to join him/it.

Can you help me understand selection between him/it ?

souvik101990, pushpitkc, abhimahna, Skywalker18

generis
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Originally posted by Helium on 12 Aug 2018, 04:51.
Last edited by Helium on 23 Jun 2019, 12:20, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the  [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2019, 03:04
By POE the best possible option is D. But the parallelism seems odd because of X,Y, and a Z
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In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the  [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2019, 17:00
abhi2707 wrote:
By POE the best possible option is D. But the parallelism seems odd because of X,Y, and a Z

abhi2707 , I can see how the "a Z" might appear odd.

Please see my analysis of parallelism above.

fealty, devotion to the glory of God, and A commitment to defend
are parallel nouns [the last one is a phrasal noun].
These three are called abstract nouns. The jargon does not matter.
Do understand the content, though: they are NOT action nouns. They are not like defense.
These three nouns describe character traits.

A commitment to defend is a very good way to mimic the other nouns, fealty and devotion.
The person has a character trait: a commitment to defend something.
He is protective.

The "a" before commitment is just a quirk; some nouns don't work too well without an article.
If we did not have the word "a," we would probably say,
. . . and commitment to defending Christianity.

The trait is now not as purposeful.
A commitment explicitly suggests A promise—a choice to possess and demonstrate a certain kind of character.

In any event, defense in B (action noun not describing a character trait) is not parallel with fealty and devotion.
Option B is not as good as D is on that front.

Hope that helps.
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Re: In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the  [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2019, 18:13
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Thank you for the detailed reply generis.

I will summerise the takeaways from your analysis :

a) IT/HIM is not the decision point in above question.

Both could have been correct depending on context as you analyzed.

b) Parallelism helps to zero down on choice D.

Posted from my mobile device
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Never doubt, But Work on
improving yourself,
Keep the faith and
Stay ready. When it’s
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It will all make sense.
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In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the  [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2019, 09:28
Helium wrote:
Thank you for the detailed reply generis.

I will summerise the takeaways from your analysis :

a) IT/HIM is not the decision point in above question. [As I see the matter, that statement is correct. IT/HIM did not work for me as a primary decision point.]

Both could have been correct depending on context as you analyzed.

b) Parallelism helps to zero down on choice D.

Posted from my mobile device

Helium , yes, and almost. (I think you assumed that this next step is implied . . . just don't want to confuse others.)

After (b), then
(c) confirm that D is the right choice by ascertaining that (D) makes sense (or is not nonsensical).
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In 1430, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy founded the Order of the   [#permalink] 26 Jun 2019, 09:28
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